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INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMS

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN


OBJECTIVES

• Learn about the impact of information technology on business and how it can
help drive success
• Understand information systems and their uses
• Learn about systems development tools, methods and guidelines
• Understand the role of a systems analyst in an information systems
development
IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN A
GLOBAL ECONOMY
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

• Pertains to the combination of hardware, software and services that people


use to manage, communicate and share information
• Driver of new digital economy
• IT becoming a commodity
SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT

• Business information systems are developed by people who are:


• Technically qualified
• Business oriented
• Highly motivated
• Traits of successful developers
• Good communicators
• Strong analytical skills
• Critical thinking skills
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

• Systems Analysis and Design: Step-by-step process for developing high-


quality information systems
• Information System: combines information technology, people and data to
support business requirements
• Used for handling daily business transactions, improve company productivity and
efficiency and help managers in decision-making

• Information Technology (IT) Departments: include Systems Analysts who plan,


develop and maintain company information systems
WHO DEVELOPS INFORMATION SYSTEMS?

Enterprise-wide software strategies

Software packages

Risks In-house applications Benefits


Outsourcing

Custom solutions c/o IT consultants


Internet-based application services
INFORMATION HIERARCHY

Source: https://www.climate-eval.org/blog/answer-42-data-information-and-knowledge
INFORMATION SYSTEMS COMPONENTS

• System – set of related components that produce specific results


UNDERSTANDING THE BUSINESS
• Business profile: overview of company’s vision-mission,
functions, organization, products, services, customers,
suppliers, competitors, constraints and future direction
• Business process: specific set of transactions, events and
results that can be described and documented
• Business process model (BPM): graphical representation of one
or more business process/es
• Traditional vs New Kinds of Companies
• Traditional: product-oriented vs service-oriented (e.g. “brick-
and-mortar” companies)
• Now: Mix of products, services, support, value-added services
(e.g. internet companies)
IMPACT OF INTERNET

• E-Commerce (Electronic commerce): internet-based commerce; dot-com


companies
• Main sectors
• Business-to-consumer (B2C) – retail companies
• Business-to-business (B2B) – Supply Chain Management (SCM), Supplier Relationship
Management (SRM)
• Business-to-government (B2G)
INTERNET HIGLIGHTS
BUSINESS INFORMATION SYSTEMS

• Enterprise Computing – Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)


• Transaction Processing – for day-to-day business operations
• Business Support – Management of Information Systems (MIS)
• Knowledge Management – expert systems that simulate human reasoning
• User Productivity
• Information Systems Integration
INFORMATION USERS

• Top managers – strategic planning


• Middle managers and knowledge workers
• Supervisors and Team leaders
• Operational employees
SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT TOOLS

• Modeling – graphical representation of a concept or process that systems


developers can analyze, test and modify
• Prototyping
• Computer-Aided Systems Engineering (CASE) tools
SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT METHODS

• Structured analysis – uses a series of phases to plan, analyze, design,


implement and support information systems
• System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) - Systems Planning, Analysis, Design,
Implementation, Support

• Object-oriented analysis – combines data and processes that act on the data
into “objects”
• Agile/adaptive methods – incremental development with emphasis on
continuous feedback
SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT METHODS
Structured Analysis

Object-Oriented Analysis Agile Methods


INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT

• Application Development
• Systems Support and Security
• User Support
• Database Administrator
• Network Administrator
• Web Support
• Quality Assurance (QA)
• Systems Analysts
SYSTEMS ANALYST
• Investigates, analyzes, designs, develops, installs, evaluates and maintains company
information systems
• Responsibilities: help translate business requirements into IT projects
• Can be involved in documenting business profiles, design IT systems, select hardware and
software packages, train users, plan projects, develop schedules and estimating costs
• Important Skills
• Technical knowledge
• Communication skills (Interpersonal)
• Business skills
• Analytical and critical thinking skills
• Management skills
• Ethics
SYSTEMS ANALYST SPECIALIZATIONS
SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
LIFE CYCLE (SDLC)
Planning Analysis Design Implementation

Project initiation
Feasibility analysis
Project management
Analysis strategy
Requirements gathering
Modeling
System Proposal
Design strategy
Architecture design
Interface design
Database/file specifications
Program Design
System Specification
System construction
Installation
Support plan
NEXT: SYSTEMS PLANNING

Business Case
Project Selection and Management