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Chikungunya In the

By: Karen Garcia, Wendy Barrera, Debora Esayas-Gotta,
and Lauren Kim
About The Bahamas
★ Location: Atlantic Ocean,North America
★ Islands: 700 islands and 2,400 vacant cays
★ Capital: Nassau
★ Population: 377,000.
★ Specific Biome: Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forest
★ History: The Arawak Indians were the first inhabitants of the Bahamas.The
British first built settlements on the islands in the 17th century. The Bahamas
were a Crown colony from 1717 until they were granted internal self-government
in 1964. The islands moved toward greater autonomy in 1968 after the
overwhelming victory in general elections of the Progressive Liberal Party.On
July 10, 1973, the Bahamas became an independent nation.
What is Chikungunya?
★ Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by the bite of
infected mosquitoes.
★ It was first discovered by an outbreak in 1952 in the southern
Tanzania region.
★ Chikungunya has been identified in over 60 countries in Asia,
Africa, Europe and the Americas.
How Emergent Diseases Spread into Human Populations
★ Chikungunya is transmitted to people through mosquito bites. Mosquitoes become infected when
they feed on a person already infected with the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the
virus to other people through bites.Chikungunya is most often spread to people by Aedes aegypti
and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. These are the same mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus. They
bite mostly during the daytime.

★ Transmitted from mother to child

Chikungunya is rarely transmitted from mother to newborn around the time of birth so far no infants
have been found to be infected with chikungunya through breastfeeding because of the benefits of
breastfeeding, mothers are encouraged to breastfeed even in areas where chikungunya is circulating.

★ Transmitted through infected blood

In theory, the virus could be spread through a blood transfusion. To date, there are no known reports of
this happening.
Symptoms Of Chikungunya
★ Symptoms usually begin 3–7 days after being bitten by an infected
★ The most common symptoms are fever and joint pain.Other symptoms
may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling, or rash.Chikungunya
disease does not often result in death, but the symptoms can be severe
and disabling.
★ Most patients feel better within a week. In some people, the joint pain
may persist for months.
★ People at risk for more severe disease include newborns infected around
the time of birth, older adults (≥65 years), and people with medical
conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, or heart disease.
How Does the molecular biology certain pathogens allow them to
infect target cells?

★ A virus particle attaches to a host cell.The particle releases its genetic

instructions into the host cell.The injected genetic material recruits the host
cell's enzymes.The enzymes make parts for more new virus particles. The new
particles assemble the parts into new viruses. The new particles break free
from the host cell.
The Prevention of New Pandemics
★ A pandemics is a global disease outbreak.

★ There are several ways of preventing the new disease.

Since it’s new, humans have little to no immunity against

★ There are vaccines that can help prevent the disease in its
early stages as well as other drugs. ( maybe herbal

The Bacterial Reproductive Cycle
Initial Stage of HIV INFECTION
● CHK enters the human body via the saliva glands of the mosquito. When an infected female Anophele
mosquito bites, it introduces the virus into the bloodstream of the host
● Soon after entering the bloodstream,the virus get combined with permissive cells, especially the one
of the nose,throat, and mouth.

★ Cellular and Infectious Stage

● In cellular stage, the chikungunya makes its way to the cytoplasm and then finally to the nucleus.
After entering the nucleus, HIV deposits genetic material and replicates genome in the nucleus.
● After passing the cellular stage, the virus enters into the surrounding tissues and begins infecting
the other cell as well. It proliferates in the blood stream and in the entire body causing a main
● It is only after two to twelve days of an infected mosquito bite that the symptoms of illness occur.

★ The Mosquito Stage

● When a mosquito bites the above stated viraemic host or the human who has been infected, the
virus is transmitted to it and it gets replicated in the midgut, ovary,neural tissues and fat of the
insect. Then the virus reproduces there and migrates to the salivary glands of the mosquito.
● As the infected mosquito bites someone the life cycle of CHK transfers onto another person making
another viraemic host.
the environmental factors in the transmission and the
understanding of disease.
★ Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are also known as the yellow fever mosquitos.
★ Their adaptation to harsh dry weathers has made it very difficult to eliminate mosquito
populations completely in many areas of the world, like the Bahamas.
★ In countries in the equatorial zone that experience tropical monsoon seasons are where
dengue epidemics is a serious public health problem.
★ These mosquitoes live near humans in tropical and subtropical regions of the world.
★ Infected mosquitoes continue to transmit dengue with each blood meal for the rest of
their lives.
Source: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/dengue-transmission-22399758
Scitable:Dengue Transmission
How do you cure this disease?

★ There is no cure or vaccines for this disease but

treatment is focused on relieving the systems or involves
reducing the risk of mosquito bites. Most patients recover
fully, but in some cases joint pain may persist for several
months, or even years.


Thanks for