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CCNA 1 Module 11

TCP/IP Transport and Application


Layers
TCP/IP Transport Layer
 The Transport Layer reliably and
accurately transports and regulates the
flow of information between source and
destination.
– sliding windows
– sequencing numbers
– acknowledgments

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TCP/IP Transport Layer
 The two primary duties of the transport layer are
to provide flow control and reliability. Services
include:
– Segmentation of upper-layer application data
– Establishment of end-to-end operations
– Transportation of segments from one end host to
another
– Flow control provided by sliding windows
– Reliability provided by sequence numbers and
acknowledgments
 Segments reassembled at destination

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Transport Layer – Flow Control
 Flow control ensures that a source host does not
overflow the buffers in a destination host.
– Too much data means lost data
– With flow control, the two hosts establish a data
transfer rate.

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Session Establishment,
Maintenance, and Termination
 Layer 4 allows different conversations to
occur simultaneously over one connection.
 This is called multiplexing.
– different types of conversations are labelled
with software port numbers
 Before data is transferred:
– Synchronization occurs
– The connection is established
– Data is transferred

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A typical connection
 The first handshake
requests synchronization.
 The second handshake
acknowledges the initial
request, and requests
synchronization in the
opposite direction.
 The third handshake is an
acknowledgment
informing the destination
that a connection has
been established.
 After the connection has
been established, data
transfer begins
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Flow Control
 Congestion occurs for one of two reasons:
– A PC transmits data faster than the network
can transmit it.
– Many devices transmit data to the same
destination.
 If data arrives too quickly it is stored in
memory.
 If it continues to arrive too quickly, data
will be discarded.

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Flow Control
 Instead of allowing data to be lost, the
destination sends a “not ready” indicator to the
sender.
 When it can handle mroe data, it sends a
“ready” transport indicator to the sender.
 At the end of data transfer, the source host
sends a signal that indicates the end of the
transmission.
 The destination acknowledges this and the
connections is terminated.

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Three-way Handshake
 TCP is connection-oriented
 The connection is established before data
transfer begins.
 Synchronization requires each side to send
its own initial sequence number and to
receive a confirmation of exchange in an
acknowledgment (ACK) from the other
side.

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Three-way Handshake
 The sending host (A) initiates a
connection by sending a SYN packet
to the receiving host (B) indicating
its INS = X:
– A - > B SYN, seq of A = X
 B receives the packet, records that
the seq of A = X, replies with an ACK
of X + 1, and indicates that its INS =
Y. The ACK of X + 1 means that host
B has received all octets up to and
including X and is expecting X + 1
next:
– B - > A ACK, seq of A = X, SYN seq of B
= Y, ACK = X + 1
 A receives the packet from B, it
knows that the seq of B = Y, and
responds with an ACK of Y + 1,
which finalizes the connection
process:
– A - > B ACK, seq of B = Y, ACK = Y + 1 10
Windowing
 Reliable data transfer is achieved by
acknowledgments (ACK).
 If ACKs were sent after every packet,
throughput would be low, so multiple
packets are sent.
 The number of packets a sender can
transmit before it receives an ACK is
known as the window size, or window.

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Windowing – Flow Control
 Expectational ACKs:
the ACK number
refers to the next
packet that is
expected
 The window size is
negotiated
dynamically.

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Windowing – Flow Control

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Windowing – Flow Control

The ACK sent by the destination determines whether the sender


retransmits, or continues to send as before. 14
Acknowledgments

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TCP Segment Format
Number of the Number of the called port
calling port
Used to ensure correct
sequencing of the
arriving data

Next expected
TCP octet
Number of 32-bit words
in the header

set to zero
Control setup and
termination of session
Number of octets sender is
willing to accept
Indicates the end of the urgent data

Upper layer protocol data 16


TCP/UDP Protocols
 TCP  UDP
– FTP – TFTP
– HTTP – SNMP
– SMTP – DHCP
– Telnet – DNS

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UDP
 Connectionless
 No guaranteed delivery
– Reliability is provided by application layer protocols
 Applications that do not need sequencing
 UDP Fields:
– Source port – Number of the port that sends data
– Destination port – Port number that receives data
– Length – Number of bytes in header and data
– Checksum – Calculated checksum of the header and
data fields
– Data – Upper-layer protocol data
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TCP and UDP Port Numbers
 Port numbers are used to keep track of different
conversations.
 Numbers below 1024 are well-known ports numbers.
 Numbers above 1024 are dynamically-assigned ports
numbers.
 Registered port numbers for vendor-specific applications
are > 1024

Memorise these
port numbers!
(Journal)

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TCP/IP Application Layer
 The Session, Presentation, and Application
layers of the OSI model make up the TCP/
IP Application layer.
 Therefore, representation, encoding, and
dialog control are all dealt with by this
layer.

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TCP/IP Application Layer
 Applications:
– DNS
– FTP
– HTTP
– SMTP
– SNMP
– Telnet

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Domain Name System - DNS
 It is difficult to associate an IP address
with a particular site, let alone lots of
them.
 DNS is a system used for translating
domain names and their network nodes
into IP addresses.
 A domain is a group of computers that are
associated by their geographical location
or their business type.

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Domain Name System - DNS
 .edu – educational sites
 .com – commercial sites
 .gov – government sites
 .org – non-profit sites
 .net – network service
 .au – Australia
 .nz – New Zealand

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FTP and TFTP
 FTP  TFTP
– Connection-oriented – Connectionless
– Reliable – Unreliable
– FTP protocol – UDP protocol
– Data transfer can – No authentication
occur in ASCII mode – Faster than TCP
or in binary mode
– After the file transfer,
the data connection
terminates
automatically.

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HTTP
 HyperText Transfer Protocol
 Requires a web browser
– a client server application
– Multimedia format
– HTML (HyperText Markup Language)
 Determines the content and layout of web pages
 URL – Uniform Resource Locator
– http://www.cisco.com/edu/
protocol Hostname and IP Folder location
address on the server 25
HTTP

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Simple Mail Transfer Protocol - SMTP
 Transports email messages in ASCII
format using TCP
 Mail servers store mail until the client
collects it.
 SMTP usually used to send mail
 POP3 and IMAP4 are mail client protocols
used to receive mail
 SMTP has little security and no
authentication.
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Simple Network Management
Protocol (SNMP)
 Application Layer protocol used to
remotely learn about other devices.
 Uses UDP
 Allows administrators to:
– Manage network performance
– Find and plan network problems
– Plan for network growth

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SNMP – Three Main Components
1. Network management system (NMS) – NMS
executes applications that monitor and control managed
devices. One or more NMSs must exist on any managed
network.
2. Managed devices – Managed devices are nodes that
contain an SNMP agent. They collect and store
management information and make it available to NMSs
using SNMP. Can be routers, access servers, switches,
and bridges, hubs, computer hosts, or printers.
3. Agents – Agents are network-management software
modules in managed devices. An agent translates
management information into a form compatible with
SNMP.
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Telnet
 Telnet is a TCP/IP Application protocol.
– OSI Application layer = commands
– OSI Presentation layer = formatting (ASCII)
– OSI Session layer = transmission
 A telnet client can log into a remote host
(telnet server) and execute commands.
 A telnet client is called a local host
 A telnet is a remote host
– Runs software called a daemon.
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HAVE FUN ON THE
EXAM!!!