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Motion in One

Dimension

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As a first step in studying classical mechanics, we describe motion in terms of space and time while ignoring the agents that caused that motion. This portion of classical mechanics is called kinematics.

As a first step in studying classical mechanics, we describe motion in terms of space and
As a first step in studying classical mechanics, we describe motion in terms of space and

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Position, Velocity, and Speed

The motion of a particle is completely known if the particle’s position in

space is known at all times. A particle’s position is the location of the

particle with respect to a chosen reference point that we can consider to be the origin of a coordinate system.

Position, Velocity, and Speed The motion of a particle is completely known if the particle’s position

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The displacement of a particle is defined as its change in position in some time interval. As it moves from an initial position x i to a final position x f , the displacement of the particle is given by x f - x i .

• The displacement of a particle is defined as its change in position in some time

Distance is the length of a path followed by a particle.

• The displacement of a particle is defined as its change in position in some time

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average velocity

The average velocity v x of a particle, a vector quantity, is defined as the particle’s displacement Δx divided by the time interval Δt during which that displacement occurs:

average velocity The average velocity v of a particle, a vector quantity, is defined as the
average velocity The average velocity v of a particle, a vector quantity, is defined as the

average speed

The average speed of a particle, a scalar quantity, is defined as the total distance traveled divided by the total time interval required to travel that distance:

average speed The average speed of a particle, a scalar quantity, is defined as the total
average speed The average speed of a particle, a scalar quantity, is defined as the total

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contoh

Find the displacement, average velocity, and average speed of the car in figure between positions A and F.

contoh • Find the displacement, average velocity, and average speed of the car in figure between

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Instantaneous Velocity and Speed

the instantaneous velocity v x equals the limiting value of the ratio Δx/Δt as Δt approaches zero:

Instantaneous Velocity and Speed the instantaneous velocity v equals the limiting value of the ratio Δ
Instantaneous Velocity and Speed the instantaneous velocity v equals the limiting value of the ratio Δ
Instantaneous Velocity and Speed the instantaneous velocity v equals the limiting value of the ratio Δ
Acceleration (a) A car, modeled as a particle, moving along the x axis from A to
Acceleration
Acceleration

(a) A car, modeled as a particle, moving along the x axis from A to B has velocity v xi at t = t i and velocity v xf at t = t f . (b) Velocitytime graph (rust) for the particle moving in a straight line. The slope of the

blue straight line connecting A and B is the average acceleration in the time interval Δt = t f - t i .

the instantaneous acceleration equals the derivative of the velocity with respect to time, 11
the instantaneous acceleration equals the derivative of the velocity with respect to time, 11

the instantaneous acceleration equals the derivative of the velocity with respect to time,

the instantaneous acceleration equals the derivative of the velocity with respect to time, 11

When the object’s velocity and

acceleration are in the same

direction, the object is

speeding up. On the other

hand, when the object’s

velocity and acceleration are

in opposite directions, the

object is slowing down.

When the object’s velocity and acceleration are in the same direction, the object is speeding up.
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One-Dimensional Motion with

Constant Acceleration

kinematic equations that may be used to solve any problem involving one-dimensional motion at constant acceleration.

One-Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration kinematic equations that may be used to solve any problem involving
Acceleration = 0 15

Acceleration = 0

Acceleration = 0 15

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constant acceleration 16

constant

acceleration

constant acceleration 16

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constant acceleration 17
constant acceleration 17

constant

acceleration

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example

A car traveling at a constant speed of 45.0 m/s passes a trooper hidden behind a billboard. One second after the speeding car

passes the billboard, the trooper sets out from the billboard to catch

it, accelerating at a constant rate of 3.00 m/s2. How long does it take her to overtake the car?

example A car traveling at a constant speed of 45.0 m/s passes a trooper hidden behind
example A car traveling at a constant speed of 45.0 m/s passes a trooper hidden behind

Freely Falling Objects

A freely falling object is any object moving freely under the influence of gravity alone, regardless of its initial motion. Objects thrown upward or downward and those released from rest are all falling freely

once they are released. Any freely falling

object experiences an acceleration directed downward, regardless of its initial motion.

Freely Falling Objects A freely falling object is any object moving freely under the influence of
quiz
quiz

A stone thrown from the top of a building is

given an initial velocity of 20.0 m/s straight

upward. The building is 50.0 m high, and the stone just misses the edge of the roof on its way down, as shown in figure. Using

t A

= 0 as the time the stone leaves the

thrower’s hand at position A, determine

the time at which the stone reaches its maximum height,

the maximum height,

the time at which the stone returns to the height from which it was thrown,

the velocity of the stone at this instant, and

the velocity and position of the stone at t = 5.00 s.

quiz A stone thrown from the top of a building is given an initial velocity of

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