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Chapter :Nutrition
What is Nutrition?
Nutrition is the science of the nutrients in food and
how they are ingested, digested, absorbed,
transported, and utilized to build and maintain the

Nutrition is involved with nutrients , the nutritional

needs of the body, and bodily processes related to
the acquisition and use of nutrients
Why People Need Help with
Most people do not have the scientific knowledge
to make these decision.

People have learned other ways to select food.

Nutrition principles seem to keep changing.

Why Nutrition is Important ?
Because our body needs nutrients:

 Supply energy for body functions.

 Build and replace cells that make up body tissues

Regulate body process

What factors influence our choice of food?
Personal preference
Traditions and habits
Philosophical and moral beliefs
Health concerns
Income level
Parental influence
Nutritional “urban legends”
Social influence
A nutrient is a chemical that an organism needs to live and
grow or a substance used in an organism's metabolism which
must be taken in from its environment.[
Nutrients are responsible for the physiological roles of food to
give energy, build and repair tissues and regulate bodily

There are six categories of nutrients:

The calorie is a unit of measurement of energy. It is
defined as the amount of the heat needed to raise
the temperature of 1 liter of water by 1 ºC.

Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats can be used by the

body to supply energy.

1 gram carbohydrate supplies 4 calories

1 gram of protein supplies 4 calories
1 gram of fat supplies 9 calories
 Carbohydrates are compounds made up of types of sugars.
Carbohydrates are classified by their number of sugar
units: monosaccharides(such as glucose and fructose),
disaccharides(such as sucrose and lactose), oligosaccharides,
and polysaccharides(such as starch, glycogen, and cellulose).
 Are compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
atoms bound together in chain of varying lengths.

 Are class of nutrients that includes starches, sugar and dietary

 Found in such foods as grains, breads, peas and beans and many
vegetables and fruits.
 Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for carbohydrate
at 130 grams per day for adults.
Lipids (fats) belong to a big group of natural organic
compounds, insoluble in water but soluble in organic
dissolvent's such as: diethyl ether, petroleum benzine,
chloroform, benzene, acetone etc. To lipids (fats) also belong
derivatives of natural lipids and related with them compounds
which retain properties of lipids. Lipids (fats) occur in all live
organisms. In plants they are present first of all in seeds and
flesh of fruit, and in animal organisms in different organs or as
separated adipose tissue.
Fats supply energy to the body in highly concentrated form.
Some fatty acids are necessary for regulating certain body
Fats act as carriers of fat-soluble vitamins ( vitamins A, D, E and
Fats maybe classified as saturated, monosaturated or
Fats should provide 25-30% of energetic value of a daily
nutritious ration for an adult. They ought to be fats
unsaturated, not chemically hydrogenated, devoid of trans
Proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains
of amino acids. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living
organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, replicating
DNA, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location
to another.
Every cell in the human body contains protein. It is a major part of the skin,
muscles, organs, and glands. Protein is also found in all body fluids,
except bile and urine.
You need protein in your diet to help your body repair cells and make new
ones. Protein is also important for growth and development during
childhood, adolescence, and pregnancy.
Proteins are known as the building blocks of the body.
They are essentials for growth, for building body tissues, and for basic body
They can be also used for energy if the diet does not contain enough
carbohydrates and fats.
Protein consist of substances called amino acids.
A vitamin is an organic compound required by an organism
as a vital nutrient in limited amounts. An organic chemical
compound (or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin
when it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an
organism, and must be obtained from the diet. Thus, the term
is conditional both on the circumstances and on the particular
organism. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a vitamin
for humans, but not for most other animals, and biotin
and vitamin D are required in the human diet only in certain
Essentials for regulating body functions.
They supply no energy, but some of them must be present
in order for energy to be utilized in the body.
Lack of certain vitamins causes deficiency diseases.
Vitamins are classified as water soluble and fat soluble.
Water soluble vitamins are vitamins B and C
Fat soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E and K
Approximately 4% of the body's mass consists of Minerals. They are
classified as trace minerals (body requires less than 100 mg/day), and
major minerals (body requires more than 100 mg/day).
Minerals serve three roles :
 They provide structure in forming bones and teeth
 They help maintain normal heart rhythm, muscle contractility,
neural conductivity, and acid-base balance
 They help regulate cellular metabolism by becoming part of enzymes
and hormones that modulate cellular activity
Minerals , like vitamins , are consumed in very small quantities and
are essential for regulating certain body processes.
Minerals must be consumed in relatively large amounts – more than
100 milligrams daily – are called major minerals. These include
calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, sulphur, sodium and
Minerals that must be present in smaller amounts are called trace
minerals. These include chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine,
manganese, molybdenum, selenium and zinc.

- Water makes up 70-75% of the body weight of the average human being. A
person can survive for up to 4 weeks without food but no longer than 3 days
without water. Water performs many different functions inside the body.
The main functions of water inside the human body are given below:
-Water acts as medium in which various metabolic and a biochemical reactions
take place.
-Water helps in absorption of various nutrients present in the food in the
digestive system. By serving as medium, it facilitates the digestion of food at
various stages in the digestive tract.
-Water serves as medium for transport of chemicals to and from cells.
- Water helps in maintaining body temperature through perspiration.
-Water helps in removal of waste materials from the body through urine.
It forms the bulk of blood and tissue fluid and is therefore essential for
transporting nutrients, hormones and waste products around the body.
-Water helps control the delicate balances of concentrations within the cells
-Water had a role in all the body's functions, including metabolism and other
cell functions, digestion, delivery of nutrients, removal of waste, temperature
regulation and lubrication and cushioning of joints and tissues.
Suggested guidelines for maintaining a healthful diet:

Getting adequate nutrients within the calorie needs

Managing weight
Engaging in physical activity
Selecting from the right food groups
Manage consumption of fats
Manage consumption of carbohydrates
Manage consumption of sodium and potassium
Manage consumption of alcoholic beverages
Cooking foods in healthful several ways:
Using less fat in cooking
Using unsaturated fats
Emphasizing flavors
Using the freshest, highest-quality foods possible
Storing foods properly
Modifying portion sizes
Giving customers a healthful choices
Training the dining room staff
Using nutritional information