Você está na página 1de 59

Chemical Awareness/

Chemical HSE Management


Majnoon Oil Field Development

Chemical Product Handling| 10 april 2013


Learning Objectives
Describe the health, safety and environment (HSE) risks associated with chemical
management, and explain the mechanisms to control and mitigate the risks
Where do chemical hazards occur in the field?
In a producing oil & gas field there are many chemicals in use, and
they can be very dangerous:
• wells: drilling/completion fluid, stimulation fluid (HCl & HF)
• Pipeline/Process Facility: demulsifier, defoamer, scaline inhibitor,
corrosion inhibitor, aromatic solvents, biocides, O2 and H2S
scavengers. Chemical injections: slide 4.
• Mechanical: engine oil & lubricant
• Laboratory: solvents/reagents/crude & gas samples
• Warehouse: chemicals, paint, solvents

But chemical risks are also present in less obvious locations:


• Utility water plant: chlorine, oxygen scavenger, biocide
• Offices/kitchens: bleach
Different types of incidents arise from
chemical hazards chemical waste

• Burns
• Inhalation / Ingestion
wrong gloves: HF burn Wrong shoes: biocide burn
• Fire
• Explosion
• directly or via
corrosion
• Environmental damage

fire Chemie-Pack, Netherlands


fish killed by chemical waste disposal
2010
Employers' Responsibilities
• Assess risks
• Prevent or control exposure
• Decide on precautions
• Ensure controls are used and maintained
• Monitor exposure, and conduct health
surveillance, where necessary
• Provide adequate supervision
• Provide information, instruction and training
Employees' Responsibilities

• Follow the rules and safe systems of work


• Use the controls provided, properly
• Co-operate with monitoring and health
surveillance
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE
Occupational Exposure
Inhalation - nearly all materials that are airborne
can be inhaled
Skin Absorption - skin contact with a substance
can result in a possible reaction
Ingestion - most workers do not deliberately
swallow materials they handle
Injection – normally associated with bloodborne
pathogens
Ocular - absorbed through the eyes

PPT-016-04 22
PHYSICAL HAZARDS

Physical hazards are exhibited by certain


chemicals because of their physical properties
(e.g. flammability, reactivity, etc.)

These chemicals fall into the following classes:


 Combustible liquids
 Flammable liquids or solids
 Compressed gases
 Explosives PPT-01-04 24
PHYSICAL HAZARDS
 Organic peroxide: May react explosively to
temperature/pressure changes

 Oxidizers: Chemicals that initiate or


promote
combustion in other materials

 Pyrophoric materials: May ignite


spontaneously in air temperatures of 130ºF
or below

 Unstable materials

 Water reactive materials


PPT-016-04 25
HEALTH HAZARDS
Health hazard - Occurs when a chemical
produces an acute or chronic health effect on
exposed employees

PPT-016-04 26
Acute Health Effects
HEALTH HAZARDS

Acute Health effects :

 Happen quickly

 High, brief exposure

• Examples:
o Carbon monoxide
poisoning
o Cyanide inhalation
o Hydrogen sulfide
inhalation
PPT-016-04 27
HEALTH HAZARDS

Chronic Health effects :

 May be caused by chemical exposures that do


not cause immediate, obvious harm or make
you feel sick right away

 May not see, feel, or smell the danger

 Effects are long, continuous and follow


repeated long-term exposure; e.g.:
o Lung cancer from cigarette smoking
o Black lung from coal mine dust
PPT-016-04 28
HEALTH HAZARDS

Hazardous Substances :
 Solvent
• De-fat the skin
• Skin disease and dermatitis
 Acids
• Burn body tissue
Gases
• Affect the respiratory system
• Lung damage
Recognizing chemical hazards

Harmful & Irritant


Corrosive
Toxic
Flammable
Explosive
Chemical Labels
Recognizing chemical hazards

•Chemical Labels
•Each container must be
labeled, tagged or marked

• Warning can be a message,


words, pictures or symbols

• Labels must be written in


English and prominently
displayed

PPT-016-04 31
Recognizing chemical hazards
Reading chemical Label
Warning labels provide important information about
the chemical:
 DANGER
 WARNING
Always read the label before you begin a job using
a potentially hazardous chemical

PPT-016-04 33
Recognizing chemical hazards

Hazard Warning Labels


All commercially supplied substances are
labelled in a standardised way :
To enable easy identification
Identify type of hazard posed
Provide some information
Recognizing chemical hazards
Hazard Warning Labels

 The label should state


– The name of the product
– Hazard symbol(s)
– An indication of danger
– Warning (risk phrase)
– Safety advice (safety phrase)
– Manufacturers or suppliers details
Recognizing chemical hazards

Hazard Warning Labels


 Do not assume
– Labels may be missing
– Substances may have been decanted
– May not be hazardous in the form supplied
– May become hazardous when mixed
– If in doubt, seek advice
Recognizing chemical hazards
Hazard Symbols
• Irritant – Xi
– Non-corrosive
– May cause painful inflammation
• Harmful or – Could lead to dermatitis

• Harmful – Xn
– May cause limited health effects
Recognizing chemical hazards
Hazard Symbols
Health hazards
Used to describe:
o Carcinogen
o Mutagenicity
o Reproductive toxicity
o Respiratory sensitizer
o Target organ toxicity
o Aspiration toxicity
o Germ cell mutagens
PPT-016-04 38
Recognizing chemical hazards
Hazard Symbols
Flame
Describes:
o Flammables
o Pyrophorics
o Self-heating
o Emits flammable gas
o Self-reactives
o Organic peroxides

PPT-016-04 39
RecognizingExclamation Mark
chemical hazards
Hazard Symbols
Exclamation Mark
Exclamation mark
Describes:
o Irritant (skin and eye)
o Skin sensitizer
o Acute toxicity (harmful)
o Narcotic effects
o Respiratory tract irritant
o Hazardous to ozone layer
(non-mandatory)

PPT-016-04 40
Gas Cylinder
Recognizing chemical hazards
Hazard Symbols

o Gases under pressure

PPT-016-04 41
Recognizing chemical hazards
Hazard Symbols
Corrosive
May cause:
o Skin corrosion/burns
o Eye damage
o Corrosive to metals

PPT-016-04 42
Exploding
Recognizing Bomb
chemical hazards
Hazard Symbols
Exploding Bomb
Describes:
o Explosives
o Self-reactives
o Organic peroxide

PPT-016-04 43
Flame Over Circle
Recognizing chemical hazards
Hazard Symbols
Flam over circle
o Oxidizers

May cause spontaneous


combustion In contact with
other substances

PPT-016-04 44
Skull
Recognizing and Crossbones
chemical hazards

Hazard Symbols

Skull and Crossbone


Very toxic
Extremely serious acute or
chronic health effects or
even death
Toxic
Serious acute or chronic
health effects or even death
PPT-016-04 45
Recognizing chemical hazards
Hazard Symbols

Environmental Hazard
Recognizing chemical hazards
Hazard Symbols

Radiation Hazard
Recognizing chemical hazards
Hazard Symbols

Infectious Substance
In case of damage or leakage
Immediately notify Public health
Authority
Recognizing chemical hazards
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
MSDS is the most important source of
information of your chemical!

Each MSDS is structured in the exact same


way. It lists the properties of the product
and explains the risks and control.

MSDS gives details for:


• PPE requirements
• Exposure & Explosive levels
• Treatment information.
• Emergency Response Details
Recognizing chemical hazards

Information on an MSDS
 Product and Company Identification

 Composition/Information on Ingredients

 Hazards Identification Including Emergency


Overview

 First Aid Measures


Information on an MSDS

 Fire Fighting Measures

 Accidental Release Measures

 Handling and Storage

 Exposure Controls & Personal


Protection
Information on an MSDS

 Physical & Chemical Properties

 Stability & Reactivity Data

 Toxicological Information

 Ecological Information
Information on an MSDS

 Disposal Considerations

 MSDS Transport Information

 Regulatory Information

 Section for other Information


MSDS Example - toluene
SHOC cards
• SHOC – Safe Handling Of Chemicals
• SHOC is a 1-page summary of the
MSDS sheet, containing all critical
information
• SHOC cards will be on display at
the location where the chemicals
are stored, used, and disposed.
• READ THEM
Where are your SDSs?

MSDS:

• Must be readily accessible


to employees during their
work shift

• Are typically kept in a


centralized location

• Must be updated as new


information becomes
available

PPT-016-04 64
BOWTIE ANALYSIS
Prevention to reduce chemical hazard

If the hazardous chemical is flammable or combustible: no open


flame, sparks or other ignition sources.

Respiratory protection required, e.g. dust mask, full face-piece


respirator.

Hand protection required, e.g. rubber gloves and chemical-resistant


gloves. Always wash hands after use!

Body protection required, e.g. overalls, aprons, and chemical suit.

Eye protection required, e.g. safety glasses, goggles, full face-shield.

Protection of the environment includes proper storage, careful


disposal, prevention of spills and clean-up of spills
Personal Protective Equipment

EYE & FACE PROTECTION:

SAFETY
GLASSES

FACE
SHIELD
CHEMICAL RESISTANT
SPLASH GOGGLES
Personal Protective Equipment
HAND PROTECTION:

PVC RUBBER
GLOVES GLOVES
Personal Protective Equipment
BODY AND FOOT PROTECTION:

CHEMICAL
RESISTANT
BOOTS

CHEMICAL
RESISTANT
APRON
What more can we do?
Wearing correct PPE is a must. But there is more:
• Comply to Shell GOLDEN RULES: Comply – Intervene – Respect
• Comply to LIFE SAVING RULES: If you choose not to follow the LSR you choose not to work for
SIPD
• READ your MSDS or SHOC
• Ensure sufficient ventilation in your working area
• Use buddy-buddy system in case of H2S (never go alone)
• Do never mix chemicals with each other, or with other waste. Chemical go in dedicated waste
containers and are stored separately.
• Proper concrete flooring to avoid spills/leakage into environment
• Bunded area around chemical waste storage (containment of spills)
Transporting

For transportation:
Use pictograms, referred
to as labels in transport
regulations, prescribed by
UN Model Regulations on
the Transport of
Dangerous Goods

PPT-016-04 55
Dangerous Good Label

UN regulations:
This symbol affixed to
packaging on a
background of
contrasting color

Only UN transport
markings and labels are
required for outer
packaging

PPT-016-04 56
Label Examples

On containers On shipping boxes

PPT-016-04 57
Intermodal Container Markings

“Hazard Identification
Numbers” may be used
with intermodal
containers
Highly flammable
Top panel: 2 or 3 digits liquid

coded to group of
hazards; Gasoline

Bottom panel: these


numbers can be searched
in the Emergency
Response Guidebook

PPT-016-04 58
Chemical Storage-cont:
Chemical Storage:
HOW TO STORE CHEMICALS?
 MSDS sheets must be available for all
chemicals.

 All chemicals must be properly labeled


and inventoried.

Keep incompatible chemicals separated.

 Flammables stored in
flammable storage cabinet
Chemical Storage-cont:

 Do not store chemicals above eye level.

 All cabinets containing chemicals


must be labeled.
Incompatible Chemicals

 Flammables and oxidizers

 Flammables and any ignition source

 Strong acids and strong alkalines


Incompatible Chemicals-cont.

 Concentrated acids and water

 Organic solvents and corrosives

 Corrosives and other reactive


materials
Chemical compatibility chart
Chemical Waste Philosophy
• Minimize the chemical waste generated, keep stock to a minimum
• Contact “Waste Management” for transport of chemical waste. Remember
Journey Management & Permit-to-Work
• Role of “Waste Management”
• All surplus, out of date chemicals will be considered for recycling or reuse.
• Return empty drums/cans/bottles and surplus chemicals to supplier if
possible
• Waste chemical will be segregated and stored in MJ-15 based on
compatibility.
• All waste chemicals shall be labeled with contents, quantity and
concentration and appropriate hazard identification.
• All empty chemical drums and containers shall be punctured, washed and
crushed prior to disposal to avoid its misuse.
• Denatured, unusable, out-of-date and surplus chemicals recognized as waste
shall be disposed as per MSDS guidance or acceptable disposal /utilization
routes.
Chemical Emergency Response

• Inform HSE dept.


• Refer to MSDS or SHOC
• In case of spill fill out a STOP card:
• Minor spill – treat as per MSDS
• Major spill – contact HSE & fire dept immediately
• Contact Production Chemist or Laboratory supervisor
• Leak containment:
• In first instance contain the leak as well as possible
• Contact HSE department
• In case of exposure:
• Contact the medic
Basic safety rules and practices
Be Aware: Know the hazards of your job and use the proper protective measures.
Follow Rules: Don’t cut corners or ignore Company regulations. Use equipment carefully and only as intended.
Don’t Take Chances: Take the time to do the job. Work steadily at a comfortable speed. Slow is Fast.
Concentrate on the Job: Inattention may lead to accidents.
Be Alert: Watch out for hidden hazards. Report any hazardous condition or near misses to your supervisor.
Be Considerate: Watch out for other people’s safety.
Practice Good Housekeeping: To avoid accidents, keep work area clean, tools in their proper places, aisles
clear, spills wiped, etc.—A Clean Area is a Safer Area.