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Lecture by: Amanuel Gebisa


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• The diesel engine is a compression ignition (CI) engine.
• The working of a diesel engine depends on the introduction of
finely atomized fuel into the air compressed in the cylinder during
the piston’s compression stroke. The equipment used for injecting
the fuel is the fuel injector fitted on the cylinder cover, which is
operated by hydraulic pressure of fuel.
• The fuel injection system makes an important contribution to
mixture formation in diesel engine (CI).
• The Functions of Fuel Injection System
– To enhance the engine performance and fuel economy
– Initiating and controlling the combustion process
– Preparation of the combustible charge (Just like carburetor)

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Stages Of Combustion In CI Engines
• The combustion in a CI engine is considered to be taking place in
four stages:
A. Ignition delay period
B. Flame propagation or Rapid combustion
C. Direct combustion or Controlled combustion and
D. After-burning.

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A. First stage: Ignition Delay Period
• This is the phase preparatory to combustion in which the fine
particles of the injected fuel evaporate and mix with the air in the
cylinder to form an ignitable mixture.
• This period is counted from the start of injection to the point
where the pressure time curve separates from the motoring curve
indicated as start of combustion.
• The delay period in the CI engine exerts a very great influence on
both engine design and performance.
• It is extremely important because of its effect on:
– the combustion rate - knocking
– engine starting ability - the presence of smoke in the exhaust.

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B. Second stage:
Flame propagation (Rapid Combustion)
• It is also called the uncontrolled combustion.
• It is counted from end of delay period or the beginning of the
combustion to the point of maximum pressure on the indicator
• By the end of the first stage, a combustible mixture has formed in
various parts of the cylinder, with ignition starting in several places.
• These flames propagate at extremely high speed so that the mixture
burns almost explosively, and causes the pressure within the
cylinder to rise rapidly. Thus, this is sometimes called the explosive
combustion stage.
• It may be allotted that the pressure reached during the period of
rapid combustion will depend on
– the duration of the delay period (the longer the delay the more
rapid and higher pressure rise since more fuel would have
accumulated in the cylinder
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C. Third stage:
Direct combustion Period of Controlled Combustion

• The temperature and pressure in the second stage is already quite

• Hence the fuel droplets injected during the second stage burn faster
with reduced ignition delay as soon as they find the necessary
oxygen and any further pressure rise is controlled by the injection
• During this stage due to immediate fuel ignition by the flame in the
cylinder. The combustion can be controlled by the amount of fuel
injected in this stage, so this is also described as the controlled
combustion period.

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D. Fourth stage: After burning

• The injection ends at end of 3rd stage, but the fuel not yet in the
combusted state continues to burn.
• The unburnt and partially burnt fuel particles left in the
combustion chamber start burning as soon as they come into
contact with the oxygen.
• This process continues for a certain duration called the after-
burning period.
• Usually this period starts from the point of maximum cycle
temperature and continues over a part of the expansion stroke.

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• If the ignition delay is prolonged, or if too much fuel vaporizes
during the ignition delay period, there will be an excessive amount
of mixture burning at one time during the second (flame
propagation) stage, causing too rapid a pressure rise in the cylinder
and thus, noticeable vibration and noise. This is known as diesel
• To prevent diesel knock, it is necessary to avoid this sudden
pressure rise by either making the mixture ignite easily at low
temperature, shortening the ignition delay time, or reducing the
amount of fuel injected during the ignition delay time.
• The following methods are employed:
a. Using fuel with a high cetane value,
b. Raising the air temperature and pressure at the start of injection,
c. Reducing the injection volume at the start of fuel injection,
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Raising the combustion chamber
Defence temperature
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Classification Of Injection Systems
• In a constant pressure cycle or diesel engine, only air is
compressed in the cylinder and then fuel is injected into the
cylinder by means of a fuel-injection system.
• For producing the required pressure for atomizing the fuel
either air or a mechanical means is used.
i. Air injection system
ii. Solid injection systems

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i. Air Injection System
• It is a method of fuel injection that uses air pressure to atomize the
fuel as it enters the cylinder of an internal combustion engine. Fuel
is forced into the cylinder by means of compressed air. This
system is little used nowadays, because it requires a bulky
multistage air compressor. This causes an increase in engine weight
and reduces the brake power output further.
• Advantages
– claimed for the air injection system is good mixing of fuel with
the air.
– the ability to utilize fuels of high viscosity which are less
expensive than those used by the engines with solid injection
• These advantages are off-set by the requirement of a multistage
compressor thereby making the air-injection system obsolete.
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ii. Solid Injection System
• In this method direct mechanical pressure is placed on the
fuel itself to force it into the combustion chamber.
• In this system the liquid fuel is injected directly into the
combustion chamber without the aid of compressed air.
• It is also called airless mechanical injection or solid
injection system.

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Components of Fuel Injection System
• Fuel tank
• Fuel filters
– to prevent dust and abrasive particles from entering the pump
and injectors thereby minimizing the wear and tear of the
• Fuel feed pump
– To supply fuel from the fuel tank to the injection system.
• Injection pump
– to meter and pressurize the fuel for injection
– To control injection timing.
• Governor
– to ensure that the amount of fuel injected is in accordance with
variation in load,
• Injector
– to take the fuel from the pump and distribute it in the
combustion chamber
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Defence atomizingCollege ofit into fine droplets.
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Fig. Components of diesel fuel injection system of inline injection pump

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Types of Injection system
• The combustion process in the diesel engine cylinder is initiated
by spontaneous ignition of the fuel, which is injected into an
agitated highly compressed air.
• To accomplish this demanding task, Solid injection systems can be
classified as follows:
1. Distributor system
2. Individual pump and nozzle system (In-line)
3. Common rail system
4. Unit injector system

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1. Distributor System
• In this system the pump which pressurizes the fuel also meters and
times it. Fuel pump after metering the required amount of fuel
supplies it to a rotating distributor at the correct time for supply to
each cylinder. The number of injection strokes per cycle for the pump
is equal to the number of cylinders. Since there is one metering
element in each pump, a uniform distribution is automatically

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2. Individual Pump and Nozzle System
– In this system, each cylinder is provided with one pump and one injector.
– It is also called in-line injection pump system.

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The BOSCH A –type inline injection pump
• Among the types of in-line injection pumps, this is the most widely
used and thus is the most representative of the in-line pumps.

fig. Construction of inline injection pump

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a. Pump Element Construction
• The pump element consists of a cylinder and a plunger. The
plunger is fitted into the cylinder. Through ultra-precision
machining, the clearance between the two portions is kept
extremely small to ensure a tight seal even under high injection
pressure and low speed conditions.
• There are control groove and vertical hole in the plunger through
which fuel flows.

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b. Construction of the Control Mechanism
• The plunger's driving vane engages with the cutout in the control
sleeve. The control pinion is fixed to the sleeve's upper edge.
• The teeth of the control rack mesh with the control pinion. Thus,
when the control rack moves side to side, this movement is
transferred to the control pinion. This causes the control sleeve to
rotate, then plunger also rotates at the same time

Fig. Injection volume control mechanism

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Operation of inline injection pump
a. Fuel Delivery
• The fuel sent by the feed pump to the injection pump body is
discharged under pressure from the pump element in accordance
with the camshaft movement as follows:
1) At plunger bottom dead center, the fuel flows into the cylinder
through the feed port from fuel chamber.
2) As the camshaft turns, the plunger moves upward. When the top
of the plunger reaches the upper edge of the feed port, it closes
the feed port, pressurizing the fuel.
3) As the plunger continues to move upward, the pressurized fuel in
the cylinder pushes up the delivery valve and flows out through
the injection pipe to the nozzle.
4) When the top edge of the control groove reaches the bottom
edge of the feed port, fuel-pumping ends.
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b. Control of injection volume
• After the fuel flows from the fuel chamber into the pressure
chamber (above the plunger head), the pump element pumps the
fuel to the nozzle. However, the volume of fuel that is injected
must be controlled according to the engine load.
• The injection volume is regulated by varying the length of the time
between the beginning and the ending of the fuel delivery process.
This is accomplished by enabling the control rack to rotate the
plunger, in order to vary the control groove position (plunger's
effective stroke), thus varying the volume of fuel.
• Also, because the control rack rotates all the plungers
simultaneously for the same amount, the injection volume to all
cylinders can be varied simultaneously. As indicated by the states
of the plunger during rotation shown in below, the longer the
effective stroke, the larger is the injection volume.
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Fig. zero delivery fig. partial delivery

Fig. Maximum delivery

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III. Delivery valve
• A delivery valve is fitted to the pump housing by a valve holder and
a spring.
• The delivery valve consists of a valve and a valve seat. The valve
slides vertically in the valve housing to perform the two functions
described below.
1. Reverse Flow Prevention Function
If the plunger chamber and the nozzle are constantly
open to each other, the time delay increases from the
time the pump element starts delivering fuel until the
nozzle starts injecting fuel, and affects the nozzle in
shutting off the fuel injection when fuel delivery is shut
2. Retraction Function
The valve moves further downward until the valve
cone contacts the valve housing. The volume of the
steel pipe increases in an amount that is equivalent to
the downward movement of the valve. This causes the
pressure in the steel pipe to decrease and improves
the nozzle in shutting off the injection of fuel, thus
preventing the nozzle from dripping fuel.University College of Engineering
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3. Common Rail System
• In the common rail injection fuel system the injection pressure
is generated independently of engine speed and injected fuel
quantity is permanently available in the rail.
• A high pressure pump supplies fuel, under high pressure, to a
common rail. High pressure in the rail forces the fuel to each
of the nozzles located in the cylinders.
• The instant of injection and the injected fuel quantity are
calculated in the ECU and implemented by the injector at each
cylinder by means of triggered solenoid valve.

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Advantages of common rail system
 Uniform fuel pressure in all cylinder

 Injection pressure can be selected within range

 High drivability

 Reduced combustion noise

 Low emissions

 High mechanical efficiency due to smooth cycle transition

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4. Unit Injector System (UIS)
– The highest injection pressures are achieved by the UIS.
– is one in which the pump and the Injector nozzle are combined
with one housing. Each cylinder is provided with one of these
unit injectors.
– UIS utilize time control via integrated solenoid
operated injectors. The instant at which the solenoid
valve is triggered is defines start of injection (delivery).
– The length of time that it is triggered is a measure of
injected fuel quantity.
– Triggering point and period are determined by the ECU
in accordance with signal from various sensors and
programmed maps.
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• Pumping element and injector
nozzle are integrated in a
single unit
• No high pressure fuel line is
• Each cylinder has its own unit
• Driven by overhead camshaft
with rocker arm
• Can produce highest
pressure of up to 2,050 bar
• Injection quantity and timing
is controlled by solenoid

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• If the engine load lightened in some way, and if the control-rack position
were to remain unchanged, the engine speed will increase and the
quantity of fuel injected will increase as the engine speed climbs, until it
possibly reaches the point of self-destruction.
• Should the engine start to lose speed because of the load, it will continue
to lose speed because of the injection pump characteristics. This action
will cause the engine speed (and injection rate) to progressively fall until
the engine stalls due to lack of fuel.
• On the other hard if the rack is moved to the idle position, the engine
speed will slacken and the quantity of fuel injected will fall off with
engine speed. This action will cause the engine speed (and injection rate)
to progressively fall until the engine stops through lack of fuel.
• In certain applications, a constant speed is required from the engine.
Without a governor, but with the throttle set, the load will either be
heavy enough to cause the engine to lose speed or too light and the
engine will gain speed. Should the engine start to lose speed because of
the load, it will continue to lose speed because of the injection pump
characteristics. For the same reason if the engine speed increases due to
lack of load, it will continue to increases.
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• From the above it should be obvious that a governor is required on a
diesel engine to automatically control the volume of fuel in
proportion to these load fluctuations so that:
A. Engine speed never exceeds the maximum specified by the
B. Maintaining certain speed ranges, such as idle or speed range
between low idle and high idle (maximum) speed is possible.
C. Other control functions
• These include automatically starting and stopping the extra
fuel required for starting (start quantity), and changing the
full-load delivery quantity as a function of engine speed
(torque control).
• Governors are generally of two types,
I. Mechanical governor
II. Pneumatic governor
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I. Mechanical Governor
• It uses the centrifugal force that is created by the rotation of
a flyweight.
• The flyweights are rotated by the pump camshaft
Increase Decrease • If the engine speed exceeds a
prescribed maximum speed, the
centrifugal force that is generated in the
flyweight becomes greater than the
spring force pushing the control block.
Thus, point B moves to the right, and
together with this movement, the guide
lever fulcrum A also moves to the right.
This movement is transmitted via the
control lever to pull the control block
towards the "fuel decrease" direction,
Fig. Inline injection pump governor thus decreasing the injection volume.
As a result, the engine speed
decreases to prevent the engine from
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• Pneumatic governors, controlled by intake-manifold pressure.
• A pneumatic governor operates by the vacuum created at the venturi.
The venturi is provided in the intake manifold of the engine. Therefore, a
pneumatic governor system consists of a venturi and a governor.
• The governor portion is divided into two chambers: the atmospheric
chamber and the vacuum chamber. The atmospheric chamber is open to
atmosphere or connected to the air cleaner housing, and the vacuum
chamber is connected to the vacuum outlet port of the venturi. The
vacuum chamber contains the main spring, which pushes the control rack
toward the "fuel increase" direction, via a diaphragm.

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• Injector nozzle sprays the highly pressurized fuel from the
injection pump into the cylinder at an appropriate pressure to help
atomize the fuel evenly.
• The injection nozzle is a kind of valve and is precision machined to
a tolerance of 1/1000 mm. For this reason, when the nozzle needs to
be replaced, both the nozzle body and the needle must be replaced
as a unit.
• The nozzle should fulfill the following functions
– Atomization of fuel
– Distribution of fuel and Mixing within the combustion chamber.
– Prevention of impingement on walls:
• This is necessary because fuel striking the walls, decomposes
and produces carbon deposits. This causes smoky exhaust as
well as increase in fuel consumption.
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1 Nozzle holder, 2 Nozzle nut, 3 Spindle, 4 Spring,
5 Upper spring plate, 6 Spring cap nut, 7 Cap nut,
8 Joint washer, 9 Joint washer, 10 Joint washer,
11 Inlet adaptor 12 Leak-off connection,
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Defence Universityscrew,
College of 14 Nozzle, 15 Needle valve
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Operation of injector nozzle
1. Before Injection
• The highly pressurized fuel flows from the injection
pump through the oil passage in the nozzle holder to
the oil pool at the bottom of the nozzle body.
2. Fuel Injection
• As the pressure of the fuel in the oil pool increases, it
pushes on the end surface of the nozzle needle with
increasing force. When this force becomes greater
than the force of the pressure spring, the nozzle
needle is pushed up by the fuel pressure and the
needle separates from the nozzle body seat. This
allows the nozzle to spray the fuel into the
combustion chamber.
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Fig. Before injection Fig. Fuel injection

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3. End of Injection
• When the injection pump stops
supplying fuel, the fuel pressure
drops and the pressure spring
returns the nozzle needle to its
initial position. The needle is now
tightly pressed against the nozzle
body seat and blocks the fuel
passage, thus ending fuel injection.
• A part of the fuel exits between the
nozzle needle and the nozzle body,
between the pressure pin and the
nozzle holder, etc., lubricating all
components, and finally returns to
the overflow pipe.
• As shown above, the nozzle needle
and the nozzle body form a kind of
valve to control the beginning and
ending of fuel injection by the fuel
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• The design phases of the nozzle must be:
– The liquid fuel forced through the nozzle will be broken up into
fine droplets, or atomized, as it passes into the combustion
– The fuel must then be properly distributed, or dispersed, in the
desired areas of the chamber. In this phase, the injection
pressure, the density of the air in the cylinder and the physical
qualities of the fuel in use, as well as the nozzle design, become
important factors.
– The nozzle must spray the fuel into the chamber in such a
manner as to minimize the quantity of fuel reaching the
surrounding walls.
– The design of the nozzle is closely interrelated to the type of
combustion chamber used.
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• The most common types of nozzles are:
1. PintIe nozzle,
2. Single hole nozzle
3. Multi-hole nozzle,
4. Pintaux nozzle
1. Pintle Nozzle
• The stem of the nozzle valve is extended to form a pin or
pintIe which protrudes through the mouth of the nozzle.
• Is mainly used for pre-combustion chamber and swirl
chamber type engines.
• It provides a spray operating at low injection pressures of
8-10 Mpa.
• The spray cone angle is generally 600.
• Advantage of this nozzle is that
– it avoids weak injection and dribbling (flow in drops).
– It prevents the carbon deposition on the nozzle hole.
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2. Single Hole Nozzle
• At the centre of the nozzle body there is a
single hole which is closed by the nozzle
• The size of the hole is usually about 0.2 mm.
• Injection pressure is 8-10 MPa and spray cone
angle is about 150.
• Major disadvantage with such nozzle is that
they tend to dribble. Besides, their spray
angle is too narrow to facilitate good mixing
unless higher velocities are used.

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3. Multi-hole Nozzle
• It consists of a number of holes bored in the tip of the
• The number of holes varies from 4 to 18 and the size from
35 to 200μm.
• These nozzles operate at high injection pressures of the
order of 18 MPa.
• Their advantage lies in the ability to
distribute the fuel properly even with
lower air motion available in open
combustion chambers.

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4. Pintaux Nozzle
• It is a type of pintIe nozzle which has an auxiliary
hole drilled in the nozzle body.
• It injects a small amount of fuel through this
additional hole (pilot injection) in the upstream
direction slightly before the main injection.
• The needle valve does not lift fully at low speeds
and most of the fuel is injected through the
auxiliary hole.
• Main advantage of this nozzle is better cold
starting performance. (20 to 25°C lower than
multi hole design).
• A major drawback of this nozzle is that its
injection characteristics are poorer than the multi
hole nozzle.
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