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Categories of Tissues

Animal Tissues

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Categories of Tissues
Epithelium (wrapper)
Connective (cement glue)
Muscle (moving strings)
Nervous (wires)

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Epithelium (wrapper tissue)


Lines, wraps, covers, and protects other
tissues and organs.
Characterized by:
Cells tightly junked together
The presence of a cell secretion called the
basement membrane.
Named by:
Cell shape
Other characteristics of the cells.
Squamous, Cuboidal, and Columnar
Jenna Hellack Jan 2001
Categories of Tissues

Squamous Epithelium
Cells very thin, much wider than they are
thick.
Simple Squamous Epithelium
 Air sacs of respiratory
 Lining of blood vessels, heart and lymphatic tubes
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
 Skin
 Vagina
 Esophagus
 Mouth

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Simple Epithelium

 Simple squamous
 Single layer of flat
cells (very thin
and very soft)
 Lines lungs
(allows
diffusion of
gases b/w air
and blood)
Figure 3.17a

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Categories of Tissues

Examples of Simple Squamous


Epithelium

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Stratified Epithelium
 Stratified squamous
 Cells at the free
surface are flat
 A protective
covering where
friction is common
 Locations
 Skin, Mouth

Figure 3.17e

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Categories of Tissues
Categories of Tissues

Nucleus

Transitional epithelial

Connective tissue

Basement membrane Stratified squamous cells


Categories of Tissues

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Transitional Epithelium
Type of stratified
epithelium in which
the surface cells
change shape from
round to squamous.
E.g----urinary bladder
(empty—round, fill
flat)
Categories of Tissues

Cuboidal Epithelium
 Cells cube shaped- secretion and
absorption.
Kidney tubules
Duct and small glands
Surface of ovary

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Simple Epithelium
 Simple cuboidal
 Single layer of cube-
like cells
 Thyroid gland ---
secretion of thyroxin
 Salivary---secretion
of saliva
 Walls of kidney
tubules---have
microvilli;
reabsorption of
useful materials
back to the blood Figure 3.17b

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Categories of Tissues
Categories of Tissues

Simple cuboidal
Categories of Tissues

Columnar Epithelium
Elongated cells, much longer than they are
wide.
Simple Columnar Epithelium
 A single layer of cells that line the digestive tract,
gallbladder and excretory ducts of some glands. Has
microvilli at surface for absorption.
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
 Lines the bronchi, trachea, uterine tubes and some of
the uterus. Propels mucus or reproductive cells by
ciliary action.

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Simple Epithelium

 Simple columnar
 Single layer of tall
cells
 goblet cells
(lining of
intestines/respirat
ory tract) produce
mucus
 Lines digestive Figure 3.17c

tract
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Categories of Tissues
Categories of Tissues

Goblet cells
Simple columnar
Nucleus
Categories of Tissues
Categories of Tissues

Simple Columnar epithelium

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Simple Epithelium
 Pseudostratified(cil
iated epithelium)
 Single layer, but
some cells are
short, some tall.
 Often has
cilia(sweep
mucus).
 Respiratory tract
Figure 3.17d

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Categories of Tissues

Pseudostratified Ciliated
Columnar Epithelium

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Connective Tissue

(Biological Cement Mixture)

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Connective Tissue Characteristics


 most abundant tissue type in body
 All derived from embryonic mesenchyme cells
 3 basic parts –
cells,  gravel
matrix ground substance,  cement and H2O
Fibers  sand
 does not occur on free surfaces
 has a nerve supply - except for cartilage
 highly vascular - except for cartilage, tendons and
ligaments
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Categories of Tissues

 Ground substance – matrix = water, adhesion proteins &


polysaccahrides; acts as a glue. Absorbs water which affects
consistency form fluid to semisolid to rockhard
 Cells – embedded themselves in the matrix
 Fiber proteins – collagen and elastin
 Function – protects organs by serving as a packing material around
them; bears weight, withstands stretching and abrasions.
Categories of Tissues

Connective Tissue
 Characterized by the cells widely separated from
each other in a matrix that is produced by the
cells.
 All derived from embryonic mesenchyme cells
 Tissue protects and supports.
 Cell Matrix composed of two regions
Ground
 Liquid (sol), Gel, Gum or solid
Fibers
 Non-elastic (= white or Collagen)
 Elastic (= yellow fibers)

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Types of Connective Tissue


Loose (Areolar) Connective Tissue
Dense Connective Tissue
Adipose
Cartilage
Bone
Blood

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Loose Connective Tissue


(Areolar)
 Gel like ground with both elastic and non-elastic
fibers running though the ground in many
directions.
Wraps and cushions organs
Found under the skin

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Connective Tissue  Dense connective


Types tissue
 Nuclei and fibers are
arranged in parallel
 Fibers mostly made of
collagen
 White fiber = non-elastic
 Yellow fiber = elastic
 Fibroblast type of cells
 Examples
 Tendons – attach
muscle to bone
 Ligaments – attach
bone to bone
Categories of Tissues

Adipose (Fat)
 Function as storage cells for adipose (lipids)
 Adipose cells contain a large vacuole which in
the live cell contains lipids.
 Cell nucleus and cytoplasm are pushed out to
edge of cell membrane.

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Connective Tissue Types

 Adipose tissue
 Stores fat
 Functions
 Insulates body
 Protects organs
 Energy storage

Figure 3.18f

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Categories of Tissues

Cartilage
 Ground of matrix is gum like.
 Cells are found in Lacunae within the matrix.
 Fibers may be elastic or non-elastic, or a form of non-
elastic called reticular(where the non-elastic fibers of
very thin)
Hyaline Cartilage-example on the ends of bones
Elastic Cartilage- example ear cartilage
Non-elastic Cartilage- example nose cartilage.
Elastic cartilage  contains significant yellow fibers

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Connective Tissue Types


 Hyaline cartilage
(non-elastic)
 Most common
cartilage
 Rubbery Matrix
matrix(chondrocyte
s ---within the
cartilage.
 Found in
nose,tracheal rings,
b/w vertebrae of
spine ribs
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Categories of Tissues

Elastic Cartilage

 Contains significant
yellow fibers
 Presents in external
ears of mammals and
in the Eustachian
tubes

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Connective Tissue Types


 Bone (osseous tissue)
 Bone cells in lacunae
(cavities)
 Bone cell is called
osteocytes
 Hard matrix of calcium salts
 Blood vessels are in very
precise arrangements called
haversian system.
 Thin layers of ring around
are called lacunae
Harvesian
canal
Categories of Tissues

Vascular Tissue (Blood)


 Liquid matrix = plasma
90% water
10%Plasma proteins, electrolytes, hormones, oxygen, glucose
etc.
 Formed elements formed in the red marrow of bones
Erythrocytes (RBC) -48billion(female) to 54 billion (male) cell /
ml of blood in humans. Mammals are enucleated while rest of
the vertebrates have nuclei
Leukocytes (WBC) -about 7.5 million / ml of blood
 Neutrophils  active phagocytes
 Lymphocytes  involved in immune response
 Monocytes  phagocytes in tissues outside of circulatory system
 Eosinophils & basophils  functions poorly understood
Platelets -blood clotting

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Blood
 Blood cells
surrounded by fluid
matrix
 Transports materials

Figure 3.18h
Categories of Tissues

Muscle Tissue

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Muscle Tissue
 Tissue with cells having fibers specialized for contraction.
 Myofibrils  fibers in muscle cells capable of contraction
 Sarcolemma  the plasma membrane of muscle cell
Skeletal Muscle (Striated, voluntary)
 Parallel elongated muscle cells (also called muscle fibers)
 Has alternate dark (A-band) and light crossbands (I-band)
 multinucleated and each cell is the length of the muscle.
 Light meat, Dark meat—Slow twitch, fast twitch muscle
Smooth Muscle (Visceral, unstriated, involuntary)
 Cells are long and tapered. Each cell contains one nucleus
 Organized into sheets of muscle. Slow and prolonged contraction
 Found in walls of digestive tract, blood vessels, respiratory passage, urinary
Cardiac Muscle (Striated, involuntary)
 Intercalated disc
 branched
Jenna Hellack Jan 2001
Categories of Tissues

Smooth

Types of
Muscle
tissues
Skeletal

Cardiac

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Muscle tissues

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Nerve Tissue

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Nervous Tissue
Cells specialized to polarize and depolarize.
Neuron  Cell of nerve tissue
Has large cell body and extensions, dentrites (“hairs
of the cell body”) and axons (“tail of the cell body”)
Dentrites  carry impulses to the cell body
Axons  carry impulses away from the cell body
Either sheathed or not
Schwann cell  cell wrapped around nerve cell to
sheathe the nerve with thick lipid myelin substance
Neurolemma  plasma membrane of nerve cell
Jenna Hellack Jan 2001
Categories of Tissues

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

Nerve cell

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001


Categories of Tissues

End of Tissue presentation

Jenna Hellack Jan 2001