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WATER SUPPLY

SERVICE SYSTEM

MADE BY
KAVERI NARANG
(B.Sc. 2nd Year)

SUMBITTED TO
Mr. SANDEEP KUMAR
Water supply is the provision
of water by public utilities,
commercial organisations,
community endeavours or by
individuals, usually via a system of
pumps and pipes. Irrigation is
covered separately.
THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF
WATER SUPPLY

 PLUMBING (INLET)
 DRAINAGE (OUTLET)
PLUMBING
PLUMBING IS THE SYSTEM OF PIPES, DRAINS FITTINGS, VALVES,
VALVE ASSEMBLIES, AND DEVICES INSTALLED IN A BUILDING FOR
THE DISTRIBUTION OF WATER FOR DRINKING, HEATING AND
WASHING, AND THE REMOVAL OF WATERBORNE WASTES, AND
THE SKILLED TRADE OF WORKING WITH PIPES, TUBING AND
PLUMBING FIXTURES IN SUCH SYSTEMS. A PLUMBER IS SOMEONE
WHO INSTALLS OR REPAIRS PIPING SYSTEMS, PLUMBING
FIXTURES AND EQUIPMENT SUCH AS WATER HEATERS AND
BACKFLOW PREVENTERS. THE PLUMBING INDUSTRY IS A BASIC
AND SUBSTANTIAL PART OF EVERY DEVELOPED ECONOMY DUE
TO THE NEED FOR CLEAN WATER, AND SANITARY COLLECTION
AND TRANSPORT OF WASTES. THE WORD "PLUMBING" COMES
FROM THE LATIN PLUMBUM FOR LEAD, AS PIPES WERE ONCE
MADE FROM LEAD.
PLUMBING IS USUALLY DISTINGUISHED FROM WATER SUPPLY AND
SEWAGE SYSTEMS, IN THAT A PLUMBING SYSTEM SERVES ONE
BUILDING, WHILE WATER AND SEWAGE SYSTEMS SERVE A GROUP
OF BUILDINGS.
TECHNICAL TERMS USED
IN PLUMBING
SOIL PIPE(SOIL LINE)
A PIPE WHICH CONVEYS THE DISCHARGE OF WATER CLOSETS OR FIXTURES
HAVING SIMILAR FUNCTIONS, WITH OR WITHOUT THE DISCHARGES FROM
OTHER FIXTURES.
WASTE APPLIANCES
IT INCLUDES WASH-BASINS, SINKS, BATH-TUBS WASHING TROUGH DRINKING
WATER FOUNTAIN ETC.
WASTE PIPE
A PIPE THAT CARRIES OFF LIQUID WASTE.
RAIN WATER PIPE
THIS IS A PIPE PROVIDED TO CARRY RAINWATER.
VENTILATION PIPE(VENT PIPE)
VENTILATES DRAINAGE PIPE IS OPEN AT THE TOP AND IT IS CONNECTED TO A
SOIL PIPE OR WASTE PIPE AT ITS BOTTOM. THIS PIPE IS EXTENDED ABOVE
THE ROOF OF THE BUILDING TO PERMIT EXIT OF FOUL GASES INTO THE
ATMOSPHERE. THIS PIPE ONLY VENTILATES THE SYSTEM AND DOESN’T
CARRY ANY DISCHARGE FROM SOIL, WASTE OR RAIN-WATER PIPE.
TWO TYPES
GUTTERS(GT.)

GUTTER(GT.) MAIN HOLE(MH.)


A narrow trough or duct A depression which runs
which collects rainwater alongside a city street,
from the roof of a usually at the curb and
building and diverts it diverts rain and street-
away from the structure, cleaning water away
typically into a drain. from the street and into
a storm drain.
The waste water of kitchen, wash-basins,
bathing area etc. of any place in a building
goes in gutter(gt.) except the waste water of
urinal goes in main hole(mh.).
Size of gt. remains 100mm-4” and
mh.remains-100mm(4”)/150mm(6”). The mh.
pipe depends according to the rainfall in any
area.
STACK
Term used for any vertical pipeline of a drainage system.
DRAIN
A plumbing fixture that provides an exit-point for waste water or
water that is to be re-circulated. The natural or artificial
removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area.
SEWAGE
Combination of discharge from soil pipe, waste pipe, vent
pipes, sewers, septic tanks. System of storm water including
collection and carrying of rain water to a public storm water
drain or to a pond or river etc.
Factors to be
considered while
selection of a pipe

Strength of pipe
Water carrying capacity
Life and Durability of pipe
VARIOUS TYPES OF PIPES USED
METALLIC PIPES-CI PIPES(CAST IRON
PIPES, STEEL PIPES, GI PIPES (GAL-
VANISHED PIPES
CEMENT PIPES-CEMENT PIPES,
ASBESTOS CEMENT PIPES (AC
PIPES)
PLASTIC PIPES- UN-PLASTICISED
PIPES PVC (UPVC) PIPES,
POLYTHENE PIPES(LOW DENSITY
PIPE)
VALVE

A valve is a device that regulates,


directs or controls the flow of a
fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized
solids, or slurries) by opening,
closing, or partially obstructing
various passageways. Valves are
technically valves fittings, but are
usually discussed as a separate
category. In an open valve, fluid
flows in a direction from higher
pressure to lower pressure. It is a
fitting commonly used to control
the flow.
Cross Sectional Valve
1. Body
2. Ports
3. Seats
4. Stem
5. Disc when valve is open
6. Handle or hand-wheel when
valve is open
7. Bonnet
8. Packing
9. Gland nut ,
10.Fluid flow when valve is open
11.Position of disc if valve were
shut
12.Position of handle or hand-
wheel if valve were shut
GATE VALVE
The gate valve, also
known as a sluice valve,
is a valve that opens by
lifting a round or
rectangular gate/wedge
out of the path of
the fluid. The distinct
feature of a gate valve is
the sealing surfaces
between the gate and
seats are planar, so gate
valves are often used
when a straight-line flow
of fluid and minimum
restriction is desired.
GLOBE VALVE
A globe valve different
from ball valve is a type
of valve used for
regulating flow in
a pipeline, consisting of a
movable disk-type
element and a stationary
ring seat in a
generally spherical body.
BALL COCK
VALVE

A ballcock (also ball-


tap or float valve) is
a mechanism or
machine for filling
water tanks, such as
those found in flush
toilets, while avoiding
overflow and (in the
event of low water
pressure) backflow.
A traditional gravity toilet tank

The handle is pressed and The flapper has closed, and the tank
the flush cycle begins. refills within seconds.

1. float, 2. fill valve, 3. lift arm, 4. tank fill tube, 5. bowl fill tube, 6. flush valve flapper,
7. overflow tube, 8. flush handle, 9. chain, 10. fill line, 11. fill valve shaft, 12. flush tube
DRAINAGE SYSTEM
(OUTLET)

It is a natural or artificial removal of


surface and sub-surface and drainage to
improve production or to manage water
supply.
It consists of 3 systems

• COMBINED SYSTEM
• SEPARATE SYSTEM
• PARTIALLY COMBINED SYSTEM
TRAP
In plumbing, a trap is a U-, S-Q-, or J-
shaped pipe located below or within a plumbing
fixture. An S-shaped trap is also known as the S-
bend. The bend is used to prevent sewer gases from
entering buildings. In refinery applications, it also
prevents hydrocarbons and other dangerous gases
from escaping outside through drains.
Another shape is X-shaped trap. The most common of
these traps in houses is referred to as a P-trap.
NAHANI TRAP/FLOOR TRAP

This trap is provided in


the floor to collect
waste water from
washbasin, shower,
sink and bathroom etc.
These are available in
cast iron or UPVC
material and have
removable grating
(JALI) on the top of the
trap. The minimum
depth of water seal
should be 50 mm.
GULLY TRAP
These traps are constructed
outside the building to carry
waste water discharge from
washbasin, sinks, bathroom
etc. and are connected to the
nearest building drain/sewer so
that foul gases from sewer do
not come to the house. These
are deep seal traps, the depth
of water seal should be 50 mm
minimum. It also prevents the
entry of cockroach and other
insects from sewer line to
waste pipes carrying waste
water.
INTERCEPTING
TRAPS
This trap is provided at
the last main hole of
building sewerage to
prevent entry of foul
gases from public
sewer to building
sewer. It has a deep-
water seal of 100 mm.
GREASE
TRAPS
This trap is a device to
collect the grease
contents of waste and
can be cleaned from
the surface. This is
generally used in food
processing unit.
Generally used in
restaurants to avoid
blockage of drain.
SILT TRAPS
A silt trap is a designated
area where water that is
contaminated with
suspended sediment as a
result of construction
activity or water runoff is
contained. While the
water is in a silt trap, the
sediment can settle to the
bottom of the trap until it
can be removed.
SANITARY FITTINGS
WASH-BASIN KITCHEN SINK
TYPES OF
W.C.
BATH-TUB ENCLOSURE