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ME09 L14: Design of Jigs &

Nikhil N.S.
• To ensure precision in any machining operation, the W/P must
be properly positioned with respect to the cutting tool. The
position of the locator is analyzed with respect to degree of
freedom , space and surface.
• Locating- refers to the dimensional and positional relationship
b/w the w/p and the cutting tool.
• Locator- it is a device to establish and maintain the position of
a part in a jig or fixture to ensure the repeatability of the
Principles of location
It is one of the factor to be considered for Design of Jigs and
• Locating surface should be small as possible and the location
must be done from the machined surface.
• Sharp corners in the locating surfaces must be avoided.
Locating pin should be easily accessible and visible to the
• Adjustable locators should be provided for rough surfaces.
• The locating device should be designed such that each
successive w/p when loaded and clamped will occupy the
same position in the jig or fixture.
• The selection of work holding device mainly depend on nature
of w/p and requirement of the machining operation.
• DOF-To locate a w/p accurately it is necessary to restrict it
against movements in any of the six DOF with the help of
suitable locating pins.
Basic rules for locating.
• Positioning the locators
• Accuracy and tolerance
• Fool proofing
• Duplicate location
• Motion economy
• Six point location principle or 3-2-1 principle of location.
• Principle of least points.
• Principle of Extreme positions.
• Principle of mutually perpendicular planes.
• Principle of fool proofing.
3-2-1 principle
• According to this principle a w/p can be completely restrained
by providing three points in one plane, two location points in
the second plane and one location point in the third plane.
Types of location
• There are different methods used for location of a work. The
locating arrangement should be decided after studying the
type of work, type of operation, degree of accuracy required.
• Volume of mass production to be done also mattes a lot.
Plane surface
• Flat Locator
Flat locators are used for location of flat machined surfaces of
the component.
• In first case an undercut is provided at the bottom where two
perpendicular surfaces intersect each other. This is made for
swarf clearance.
• The middle figure shows flat headed button type locator.
There is no need to made undercut for swarf clearance. The
button can be adjusted to decide very fine location of the
• There can be a vertical button support as shown in third figure,
which is a better arrangement due to its capacity to bear end
load and there is a provision for swarf clearance automatically.
Six point
Cylindrical location
• It is used for locating components having drilled holes.
• The cylindrical component to be located is gripped by a
cylindrical locator fitted to the jig’s body and inserted in the
drilled hole of the component.
• The face of the jig’s body around the locator is undercut to
provide space for swarf clearance.
Conical location
• This is used for locating the workpieces having cylindrical hole
in the workpiece.
• The workpiece is found located by supporting it over the
conical locator inserted into the drilled hole of the workpiece.
• A conical locator is considered as superior as it has a capacity
to accommodate a slight variation in the hole diameter of the
component without affecting the accuracy of location.
• Degree of freedom along z-axis can also be restrained by
putting a template over the workpiece with the help of screws.
Vee location
• This is quick and effective method of locating the workpiece
with desired level of accuracy.
• This is used for locating the circular and semi-circular type of
• The main part of locating device is Vee shaped block which is
normally fixed to the jig.
• This locator can be of two types fixed Vee locator and adjustable
Vee locator.
• The fixed type locator is normally fixed on the jig and adjustable
locator can be moved axially to provide proper grip of Vee band
to the workpiece.
Radial location
• Radial locators restrict the movement of a workpiece around
a concentric locator.
Profile location
• The work piece can be positioned on the sighting plate in such
a way that, there is equal margin on all the sides.
• The profile of the workpiece can be located by confining the
profile with cylindrical locating pins.
• When there is considerable variation in work piece
dimensions from batch to batch, an eccentric locator can be
• The eccentricity of the locator can be varied by rotating it to
suit the workpieces in the batch.
Nest location
• The inside profile of the nest matches with the outside of the
work piece.
• The height of the work piece should be lesser than the work
piece to permit grip over the workpiece for unloading.
• For thin sheet metal work pieces figure slots or ejection
arrangements should be provided for unloading work piece.
Redundant location
Extreme locations
• The locating points should be placed as far away from one
another as possible, to achieve the greatest accuracy in
• This is essential to keep the workpiece under stable
• This principle would ensure min. misalignment for a certain
displacement of any point with respect to another if the
distance between the points is increased.
• Once a work is located, it is necessary to press it against the
locating surfaces and hold it there against the force acting
upon it. The tool designer refers to this action as clamping and
the mechanism used for this action are known as clamps.
• Clamps should be positioned above the points supporting the
component in order to minimize distortion and they should be
strong enough to resist bending. Quick acting clamps by hand
if the job can be done by fitting a spring to lift it.
Clamping principles
1.The clamp should press against a strong portion of the
workpiece without distorting the workpiece.
2.It should hold the work firmly and transmit the clamping force
through the work, directly over a fixed support beam.
3.It should be capable of overcoming the maximum possible
force excerted on it by the work piece. If possible ,the
minimum clamping force applied by the clamp should be able
to accomplish this.
4. A fixed locator or support should oppose the force of cutting.
The clamp should not be designed or required to resist the
force of cutting.
5. Simple clamps are always preferred than complicated clamps.
6. Clamp should be easy to operate, to be positioned or loosened.
They should never interfere with the positioning or removal of
the workpiece.
7.Clamp should be designed so that they retract enough to clear
the workpiece.
8.Whenever possible clamp should be designed so that they can
be operated from the front or the operator’s side of the
9.When side clamps are used, they should be designed so that
they press down and in and tend to seat the work.
10.When cams or wedges are used,they should be designed so
that louds or vibrations will tend to tighten rather than
loosen them.
11. The clamp should not damage the work piece
12.When estimating the cutting force, that a clamp is to
overcome, it should be remembered that these forces can
be increase because of uneven depth of cut, the dulling of
cutters, vibrations in cutting rates or stock removal, or
changes in the material hardness. It is best to over design
the clamp if there is some doubt has to be accumulated
forces that will be present.
Types of clamps
1. Screw Clamp
• Screw Clamps are threaded devices with knurled collar, Hand
knob or spanner flats for rotating and tightening the screw.
• The clamping area of a screw clamp can be increased by a
provision for a pad.
2.Strap or Plate Clamps
• These are made of rectangular plates and act like levers.
• In its simplest form clamp is tightened by rotating a hexagonal
nut on a clamping screw.one end of the cam presses against
the work piece and the other on the heel pin, thus loading the
clamp like a simply supported beam.
• The clamping face of the clamp is curved and the pressure face
of the heel pin is made spherical to take care of any deviation
in work piece.
• Spherical washer-helps to operate the clamp satisfactorily
even if there is considerable variation in work piece height.
3.Swing Clamp
• This is a special type of clamp which provides a means of
entry for loading and unloading the workpiece without
removing the strap fully.
• For this purpose the strap can be swung in or out.
4.Wedge Clamp
5.Multiple Clamp
6.Latch Clamp
7.Toggle Clamp
Hinged Two Way Clamp
8.Self Locking Clamp
10.Hydraulic and Power Clamping
Fluid Power Clamping
Magnetic Clamp
Vacuum clamping
Electrostatic Clamping