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INDIVIDUAL ASPECTS OF CONSUMER

BEHAVIOUR
INDIVIDUAL ASPECTS OF CONSUMER
BEHAVIOUR
 Perception
 Learning
Motivation and Involvement
Personality
Attitudes
PERCEPTION

“Perception is the process of selecting,


organizing and interpreting or attaching meaning
to events or situations in the environment.”
It is mental process, whereby an individual
selects data/information from environment,
organizes it and then draws significance or
meaning from it.
Perception is basically a cognitive or thinking
process and individuals activities, emotions,
feelings etc. are based on his or her perceptions
PERCEPTION
Sensation

Sensation may be defined as an immediate


direct response of a physical sensory organ.
Sensation is related to a very elementary or
basic behavior which is based on physiological
functioning.
Perception is something more than sensation.
Perception is determined by both physiological
and psychological factors.
THRESHOLD

ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD: the point at


which an individual senses a difference
between ‘something’ and ‘nothing’ is
referred to as the absolute threshold for a
particular stimulus.
THRESHOLD

Differential Threshold: the minimal difference


that can be noticeable between two similar
stimuli is known as the differential threshold.
This concept was developed by German
Scientist, Ernst Weber in 19th Century.
EXTERNAL FACTORS INTERNAL FACTORS

Intensity & Size SelectiveAttention


Position Selective Exposure
Contrast Selective Retention
Novelty Expectation
Repetition Subliminal Perception
Movement

PERCEPTION
CONSUMER IMAGERY

Brand and Self Image:


Actual Self Image
Social Self Image
Ideal Self Image
Expected Self Image
LEARNING

Learning can be defined as a relatively


permanent change in behavior occurring as a
result of experience.
It involves change
Its continuous process
It is based on some form of experience
LEARNING
Elements of Learning

Motive

Cues

Response

Reinforcement

Retention
TYPES OF LEARNING PROCESSES

ROUTINES: Many of the consumer behavior


occurs without the involvement of extensive
consideration and reflection.
LEARNING PROCESS: There are different
learning processes, which influences purchase
behavior. One such type of learning is
CONDITIONING, here behavior becomes
dependent on certain stimuli or events in the
environment.
Motivation

Motivation:Motivation is the driving force


among individual consumers that impel them to
action.

Definition: Motivation may be defined as psychological


forces that determine the direction of person’s behaviour, a
person’s level of effort, and a person’s level of persistence in
the face of obstacles.

In another words, motivation is the process that account for


an individual intensity, direction, and persistence of effort
towards attaining a goal.

A motive is a construct representing an unobservable inner


force that stimulates and compels a behavioral response and
provides specific direction to that response.
MOTIVATION
INVOLVEMENT

Involvement: Involvement is a reflection of strong motivation


in the form of high perceived personal relevance of a product
or service in a particular context.

In other words, involvement consists of


differences in the intensity of interest with
which consumers approach their dealings
with the marketplace.

Involvement can vary in individuals depending on different


situations

Involvementis related to some form of arousal.


Involvement can be of 3 types
Personality

Personality can be described as the psychological


characteristics that both determines and reflect how a
person responds to his or her environment.
How Personality is help full in marketing: Because no two
people are exactly the same, marketers can look for certain
similar personality traits in different consumers. These
consumers can then be grouped together based on this
identified personality.
Product/Brand Personality includes: manly, adventurous,
sporting, stylish, mature, etc.
Colour can influence our emotions, our actions and how we
respond to various people, things and ideas.
Personality
Nature/characteristics of Personality.
Personality reflects individual differences: Because the inner
characteristics that constitutes an individuals personality are a
unique combination of factors, no two individuals are exactly alike
Example: Hero Honda- Splender and Hero Honda- Karizma

Personality is consistent and enduring: Personality is a set of


response tendencies that are consistent and endure over time.
Consistency means that the characteristics contributing to an
individual's personality tend to carry over to a variety of situations.
Examples: Raymonds, Maruti 800.

Personality is subject to change: Personality is,


however, subject to change over time, in response
to situations and events in life and, also, as part
of a gradual maturing process. Examples:
Godrej shaving creams, Mc Donald’s.
ATTITUDE

A learned orientation toward an object or


situation, which provides a tendency to respond
favorably or unfavorably to the object or situation.
It like , likes or dislike
Its an overall evaluation that allows one to
respond
THEORIES OF ATTITUDE

Affective Cognitive Consistency Theory: is about


the consistency between a person’s over all
attitude towards an object and on his beliefs
about its relationship to his more general values.
According to this theory Attitudes are related to
one aspect of cognitive structure between the
object and the goal.
THEORIES OF ATTITUDE

Cognitive Dissonance Theory: is motivating


state of affairs just as hunger impels us to eat, so
does dissonance impel a person to change his
opinions or his behavior.
In this theory, individual gets additional
information in three ways:
One information is overshadowing other
Both information’s are in opposite direction
Both information’s are not related to each other