Você está na página 1de 40

LATEST TECHNOLOGIES

Supercritical (SC)
and
Ultra-supercritical (USC)
Background

- Conventional coal fired power plants in developing countries


have efficiency of about 32% (on LHV basis). Supercritical (SC)
and ultra -supercritical (USC) power plants operate at
temperatures and pressures above the critical point. This
results in higher efficiencies – above 45%. Hence, there is gain
in efficiency by 13 points (when compared to present older
power plants efficiency of 32%).
- Supercritical (SC) and ultra -supercritical (USC) power plants
operate at higher temperatures and greater steam pressures
than conventional systems. They require less coal per
megawatt-hour, leading to lower emissions per megawatt
(including carbon dioxide and mercury), and lower fuel costs
per megawatt, leading to higher efficiency and lower fuel
Benefits of Advanced Supercritical Power
Plants

Reduced fuel costs due to improved plant efficiency


 Significant reduction in CO2 emissions
 Excellent availability, comparable with that of an existing sub-
critical plant
 Plant costs comparable with sub-critical technology and less than
other clean coal technologies
 Much reduced NOx, SOx and particulate emissions
 Compatible with biomass co-firing
 Can be fully integrated with appropriate CO2 capture technology
Typical Schematic Diagram of Supercritical Plant
Classification of Boilers

Type Main steam Main steam Reheat steam


pressure, temperature temperature,
bar , oC
oC

Base sub critical 166 538 538

Super critical 247 535 565


Ultra super 270 585 600
critical
ultra super 295 595 600
critical
Present
Status
- At present, there are more than 500 supercritical power plants in
operation across the World supplying 300 GW of electricity. Most of these
plants are concentrated in USA, Russia, and former Eastern block
countries. China is proposing to add 100,000 MW of supercritical power
plant to the present installed capacity of 30000 MW (year 2006).
- Early experience with supercritical plants in the US indicated that they had
poor availability i.e. forced outages were greater than with subcritical
plants. However, experience that takes account of plant performance in
Japan and Europe as well as in China and South Africa (where these once
through boilers plants are common) shows that these plants are just a
reliable as subcritical plants. This improvement is due to usage of superior
materials and better welding technology. Worldwide, more than 500
supercritical plants are in operation.
- At present, in India super critical technology plants are planned in a big
way. Several ofthem are under execution and pipeline.
Design Coal RPP NRW PLANT
Fuel Range

Heating Value MJ/kg 25.0 21.0 – 29.0


H2O % 7.5 7.0 – 18.0
Ashes % 14.0 5.0 – 22.0
Volatiles (waf) % 30.0 23.0 – 47.0
Nitrogen % 1.5 <2
Sulfur % 0.6 < 1.5
Chlorine % < 0.01 < 0.3
Softening temperature °C 1270 > 1150
Fusion temperature °C 1410 > 1300

|
Assessment Factors for Power Plant
Design

Efficiency of power plant


(15.5 Euro/kW. Euro per percentage point of efficiency
improvement)
Reduction of power plant own consumption
(17.4 Euro/kW. Euro per percentage point of own
consumption)
Plant availability
(13.1 Euro/kW. Euro per percentage point of power
availability improvement)
Reduction of delivery time
2.7 Euro/kW. Euro for 1 month of delivery time
reduction
|
Efficiency vs Assessment Factor
Efficiency vs. Evaluation Factor*

47,5%
All variants are based on inland locations 47,3%
47,3%
47,1%
Net-efficiency

46,9%
46,7%
46,5%
46,5%
46,2%
46,3%
Preferred Variant*** 46,1%
46,1%
45,9%
45,9%
45,7%
45,5%
Variant A Variant B Variant C Variant D

appr. 20 EUR/kW gro s s per %-pt.**

appr. 25 EUR/kW gro s s per %-pt.

798 EUR/ kW gross appr. 30 EUR/kW gro s s per %-pt.

Power output for all variants: 600MW at generator terminals >35 EUR/kW gro s s per %-pt.
* Increase of efficiency in EUR/kW g ro s s /%-pt.
** The increase of efficiency in Variant A considers also a reduced auxiliary power consumption, which requires an additional capital
investment with an amount of appr. 8 EUR/kW g ro s s .
*** In the concept study the Preferred Variant was investigated in detail; the Variants A-D have been derived .

|
Efficiency of Hard Coal fired Power Plants vs Site

48.50%
non-market orientated
technological optimized plant
(costal side)
48.00%
Net Efficiency

47.50%
market orientated
optimised plant
(costal side)
47.00%

46.50%
market orientated
optimised plant
(non-costal side)
46.00%

45.50%

|
Comparison of Different Boiler Concepts

Floor space: 2 975 m² Floor space: 4 164 m² Floor space: 4 600 m²


Volume: 166 000 m3 Volume: 197 000 m3 Volume : 209 000 m3
Efficiency: 95% Efficiency: 95% Efficiency: 95%

|
Number of burner and pulverizes

VGB
Coal mill Horizontal boiler
with hydraulic system Burner: 24
and Coal pulverizer Coal pulverizer: 4

|
Design Data Turboset

|
Design Criteria HP-Turbine

|
HP Turbine Materials
9-1 0 % C-Sr te e l
1 % C-Sr te e l

1 0 % C-Sr te e l

|
Design Criteria IP-Turbine

|
IP Turbine Materials
GGG40.3

9-10%Cr-Steel

10%Cr-Steel

|
Design Criteria LP-Turbine

|
LP Turbine Materials

O u t e r c a:s in g
G u i dbela d e c a:r r i e r R S T -2
3 7N
R S T -2
3 7N

I n n ecra s i n: g
S t a t i o n a r y rbi nl agdse: R S T -23 7N
R S T -2 3 7N

|
LP Turbine Features

2
Design features 16 m - last stage blade

• Rotor diameter ~ 1900 mm


• Blade length 1400 mm (55´´)
• Velocity at blade end 750 m/s (~ Ma = 2.0)
• Mach -number Supersonic at blade end
• Blade connection Shroud & snubber
• Exit losses 3D effects

|
Turbine Layout

|
Turbogenerator

|
Layout - Overview

|
Layout – Detailed View

|
Detailed View – Turbine Building

|
Main Flows

|
Market - Orientated Optimized Power Plant Design

Reference Power Plant North Rhine-Westphalia


• Plant capacity: 600.0 MW
• Net capacity: 555.5 MW
• Net efficiency: 45.9 %
• Costs of plant: 478.5 Mio. Euro
• Specific costs: 798 Euro/kWbrutto
• Cost of electricity: 3.3 - 3.5 ct/kWh
• Type of boiler: Benson
• Live steam condition: 285bar/600°C/620°C
• Condenser pressure: 45 mbar
• Preheater: 8 preheater + external cooler

|
|
Comparison of profitability RPP/CCPP Plant without
Costs for CO2

0.60,60 c t/kW h
ct/kWh

0.50,50 c t/kW h
ct/kWh

0.40,40 c t/kW h
ct/kWh
RPP NRW more profitable

0.30,30 c t/kW h
ct/kWh
in relation to CCPP

0.20,20 c t/kW h
ct/kWh

0.10,10 c t/kW h
ct/kWh
1.0%
0.00,00 c t/kW h
ct/kWh
-0.5%
-0,5% 0.0%0,0% 0.5% 0,5% 1,0%
-0.1-0,10 c t/kW h
ct/kWh

-0.2-0,20 c t/kW h
ct/kWh

-0.3-0,30 c t/kW h
ct/kWh
Escalation of coal price

| 0,5%
0.5% Esgas
escal. c al. Gas
price pric e 1,0%
1.0% Esgas
escal. c al. gas
price pric e 1.5%1,5% Es cprice
escal. gas al. gas pric2.0%
e escal.
2,0% gasEs c al. gas pric e
price
Comparison of profitability RPP/CCPP
with Costs of 10 € t/CO2
RPP NRW more profitable
in relation to CCPP

0.20,20
ct/kWh
c t/kWh
0.1 ct/kWh
0,10 c t/kWh -0.5%
0.0 ct/kWh
0,00 c t/kWh 0.0% 0.5% 1.0%
-0.1 ct/kWh -0,5% 0,0% 0,5% 1,0%
-0,10 c t/kWh
-0.2 ct/kWh
-0,20
-0.3 c t/kWh
ct/kWh
-0,30
-0.4 c t/kWh
ct/kWh
-0.5 ct/kWh
-0,40 c t/kWh

-0.6 ct/kWh
-0,50 c t/kWh
-0.7 ct/kWh
-0,60 c t/kWh

-0,70 c t/kWh Escalation of coal price

0.5% escal. gas 1.0% escal. gas 1.5% escal. gas 2.0% escal. gas
price price price price
|
Pathway to USC 700°C Power
Plant

USC
Laboratory (material development, 700°C
creep data) Power

on
i g s, Plant

ti
e s tR

rec
t s (T
p lan gn

,e
e r i
pow es

er
d
st s in 700) a il
e S

pli
T
M TE det
CO d 0)

up
n
a 70
c

,s
a si PP
B RW

e
Sit
(N

European and German


199 projects 200 201
8 7 4
Pahtway to USC 700°C Power Plant

Status 700 °C Technology

 AD 700 phase I and II (FP5) 1998


 strategy study (VGB member) Start in 2002
 COMTES 700 (RFCS) 2004
 PP 700 Pre-Engineering (EU Reg. Fund) 2006
 Demo Plant > 400 MWel 2008
 “Commerciality” 2014+
Pathway to USC 700°C Power Plant

…targeting the 50% threshold by achieving 700 °C steam parameter

 Scholven, Block Power Plant.


EU-funded Project and Industry.

Testrigs in Esbjerg u. Weisweiler,


KOMET650 in Westfalen
own financial contribution

Technology Path towards


near Zero Emission Power Plants based on fossil Fuels
 a permanent challenge of all participants in close co-operation
Challenges of 700°C Life Steam
Temp.

Tubes and
Big
Pipes
Designed by
Valves
Siemens

Superheate
r and
Reheater

Designed by
Siemens

Efficiency 600°C Technology:


Designed by Hitachi Power
45-46%
Efficiency 700°C
Technology: 50%
Europe
COMTES700 – Implementation into Boiler

Host Plant - Scholven F,


E.ON

 Net output
- 676 MW

 Live-steam Superheater
- 220 bar (design pressure)
- 540 °C Evaporator
- 625 kg/s (2,250 t/h)

 Reheater-steam
- 44 bar
- 540 °C
- 568 kg/s (2,044 t/h)

 Fuel
- Hard coal
COMTES700 – Material Concept
Evaporator Alloy 617 P 92
Outlet

HCM 12

7 CrMoVTiB 10 10/T 24

2,046 mm
43 x 48 =
44 parallel tubes
Inlet
8,800 mm

VGB Power Tech 13 CrMo44


700 °C Steam
Pipe
Boiler Design - NRWPP700Boundary
Design Conditions

• 500 MW (gross) BMCR


• Single Reheat (365 bar / 705 °C / 720 °C)
• Tower Type Boiler / Tangential Firing
Design coal Hu = 25 MJ/kg
Reheater temperature control Tilting burners
Average flue gas velocity < 13 m/s
Tube pitch 110 – 440 mm
Furnace outlet temperature 1250 °C
Flue gas temperature before APH Approx. 380 °C
Exhaust gas temperature 115 °C
Temperature of the air (ambient) 25 °C
NRWPP700 Boiler Rated Design Data

ECO

RH 1
Steam flow superheater outlet 325
kg/s (1170 t/h)
SH 3
Steam pressure superheater outlet 365 bar
RH 2
Steam temperature superheater outlet 705 °C
Feedwater temperature 330 °C
SH 4 Reheater inlet steam flow 252,5 kg/s (909
SH 2 PL t/h)
Reheater inlet steam pressure 73 bar
Reheater outlet steam temperature 720 °C
Reheater inlet steam temperature 425 °C
Reheater spray mass flow 0 kg/s
Thermal output 909 MW
Design coal Bituminous coal 25
MJ/kg
Excess air furnace exit 17 %
Firing capacity 953 MW
Furnace exit temperature 1250 °C
Flue gas temperature downstream economizer 380