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BASICS OF HVAC

SYSTEM
HVAC SYSTEM
• A HVAC System consists of a chain of
components designed to heat,ventilate or
cool a specific area while maintaining a
defined environmental cleanliness level.

PURPOSE OF AIRCONDITIONING
 To Control/Maintain Temperature - Heating
 To Purify the Air - Ventilation
 To Control/Maintain Humidity - Air Conditioning
AIRCHANGES
• The air change rate refers to the number
of times in a 1-hr period that the volume of
air in a space is renewed.
Design Consideration
The factors affecting air change rate are:
• The presence of air pockets or dead space
in the Controlled area.
• The relative positioning of Supply and
Return air grills.
• Type of Machine and Equipments placed
inside the area.
GENERAL LAYOUT OF HVAC SYSTEM
EXHAUST
VENT

legend
CHILLED WATER

CHILLED BRINE

HOT WATER

10µ FILTER

CV
5µ FILTER

HEPA FILTER

MANOMETER
CV

CV CONTROL VALVE

CV

T
H
T

CONTROLLED ROOM
FRESH
AIR Defumigation Outlet

MACHINE
COMPONENTS OF THE HVAC SYSTEM
• AIR MOVING EQUIPMENT
The blowers / fans and their design characteristics govern the
Amount of air flowing through the system and delivers the
Static pressure required to overcome resistance offered by
Filters,Coils and ducting layouts.
Centrifugal blowers driven by electric motors are widely used
SELECTION CRITERIA:
• Volume of controlled space.
• Desired air changes.
• Desired environmental conditions.
• Static pressure requirements based on specific layout.
COMPONENTS OF THE HVAC SYSTEM
• AIR COOLING AND HEATING SYSTEMS
Central systems normally employ air-to-water cooling
systems using finned copper coils and air heaters for
heating systems.For humidity control upto 50% chilled
water is used as cooling media while for lower humidity
levels chilled brine at -1°C and or regenerative desiccant
driers are used.
SELECTION CRITERIA:
• Desired Environment Conditions.
• Ambient Environment Conditions.
• Heat load and Volume of space to be Conditioned.
COMPONENTS OF THE HVAC SYSTEM
• AIR DISTRIBUTION NETWORK
 It is the structural assembly whose primary function
is to convey air between specific points.Galvanized Iron
or Anodized Aluminum is used to fabricate the ducting.
 Based on air volumes and total pressures handled air
ducts are classified as:
 High Pressure : 3” water gauge and upwards.
 Low Pressure : 0 – 2” water gauge.
 Components of air distribution network includes
ducting,insulation,diffusers,louvers and grilles.
COMPONENTS OF THE HVAC SYSTEM
SELECTION CRITERIA:
• Dimensional stability.
• Integrity at specified air volumes and pressures.
• Vibration.
• Noise.(Transmission and Generation)
• Exposure to damage.
• Support.
• Compatibility with insulating,sealing or adhesive agents.
• Resistance to air flow.
• Air flow patterns inside the Controlled space.
• Nature and type of sanitizing procedures.
CLASSIFICATION OF FILTERS

• Air filters retain particles by various


collection methods largely characterized
by particle and aerosol behavior.
• Filters can be broadly classified as:
• SIEVING FILTERS
• DYNAMIC FILTERS
FILTERATION MECHANISM OF DYNAMIC FILTERS

• INERTIAL IMPACTION
Particles are trapped by randomly oriented obstrucles.
Retention is due to the three dimensional array of
filter matrix.Efficiency varies directly with particle
diameter.

• DIRECT IMPACTION
Particles are trapped by the porosity of the filter.
Retention is mainly due to collision of the particle
with the filter fiber.Efficiency varies directly with
particle dimensions.
FILTERATION MECHANISM OF DYNAMIC FILTERS
• DIFFUSION
Retention by diffusion takes place with very small
particles owing to Brownian motion and the
efficiency is a function of Avagadro’s number,air
velocity and particle diameter.
Particle size Dominant Retentive Action
≥ 1.0µm INERTIAL IMPACTION
0.5-1.0µm DIRECT IMPACTION
0.2-0.3µm DIFFUSION
EVALUATION OF AIR FILTERS

CRITERIA METHOD
• Airflow resistance • Measuring Dp across filter
• Collection efficiency • DOP test
• Service life • Measuring Dp across filter
• Arrestance • Area of filter media
CONSTRUTION OF HEPA FILTER

• FRAME
Frame selection is based on chemical or fire resistance.
Generally Stainless Steel or Anodized Aluminum is used.
• FILTER MEDIUM
Most common media in use today is glass microfibres.It can
sustain air velocities upto 12 ft/sec and temperatures from
4°C to 450 °C .
• SEPERATORS
Used for supporting the media.Corrugated separators of
Aluminum alloy,Kraft paper are widely used.
CONSTRUTION OF HEPA FILTER

• ADHESIVES
Used to bond the frame to the glass medium.Polyurethane
foams are used for low temperature applications while
silicate adhesives are used in high temperature applications.
• GASKETS
Used to seal the frame of the filter against the filter plenum.
Closed cell neoprene foam is used for low temperature
applications while Teflon is used for higher temperatures.