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PETE 411

Well Drilling

Lesson 15
Surge and Swab Pressures

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Lesson 15 - Surge and Swab Pressures

 Surge and Swab Pressures


- Closed Pipe
- Fully Open Pipe
- Pipe with Bit
 Example
 General Case (complex geometry, etc.)
 Example

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READ:
APPLIED DRILLING ENGINEERING
Chapter 4 (all)

HW #8
ADE #4.46, 4.47
due 10 –14 – 02

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v ae  v a  K c v p

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Surge Pressure - Closed Pipe
Newtonian

The velocity profile developed for the slot


approximation is valid for the flow
conditions in the annulus; but the
boundary conditions are different,
because the pipe is moving:
V=0
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y dp f y
V   c1  c2 V = -Vp
2 dL 
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y 2 dp f y At Drillpipe
v  c1  c 2 Wall
2μ dL μ

When y = 0, v = - vp ,  c2  vp
h 2 dp f h
When y = h, v = 0,  0   c1  v p
2μ dL μ
h dp f v pμ
 c1  
2 dL h
Substituting
for c1 and c2: v
1 dp f
hy  y   v p 1  
2  y
2μ dL  h
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Velocity profile in the slot

v
1 dp f
hy  y   v p 1  
2  y
2μ dL  h h
0
W
q   dq   vdA   vWdy
h


y
 v p W (1  )dy
h
0

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Wh dp f v p Wh
q  
12μ dL 2
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Changing from SLOT to ANNULAR
notation


A = Wh = π r  r
2
2 1
2

h  r2  r1
q
v
( r2
2
 2
r1 )
3
Wh dp f v p Wh
Substitute in: q 
12μ dL 2
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Frictional Pressure Gradient
 vp 
12μ  v  
Results in:
dp f
  2 
dL r2  r1 2

Or, in field units


 v p 
or, in field units:
  v  

dp f
  2 
dL 1000 d 2  d1 2

Same as for pure slot flow if vp = o (Kp = 0.5)


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How do we evaluate v ?
For closed pipe,
flow rate in annulus = pipe displacement rate:
qa  qp
 π d1 
 
 2 2 
2
vp
v a  d 2  d1   v p  
4   4 
 
vp
v  2
 d2  d1
   1
 d1  d2
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Open
Pipe

Pulling out
of Hole

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Surge Pressure - Open Pipe

Pressure at top and bottom is the


same inside and outside the pipe.
i.e.,
 dp f   dp f 
   
 dL  pipe  dL annulus
From Equations  Vp 
(4.88) and


μ vi  v p

 μ v a 
 2 


1000d 2  d1 
(4.90d): 2
1500 d i 2

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Surge Pressure - Open Pipe

Also, q t  qi  qa
i.e.,
Vp d1  d i   v i  d i   v a  d 2  d1 
π 2 2 π 2 π 2 2 

4 4  4 

 3d  4d d 2  d1  
4 2 2
 va   i 1
 vp
4 2

  6d i  4d 2  d1  d 2  d1
2 2
 
Valid for laminar flow, constant geometry, Newtonian
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Example

Calculate the surge pressures that


result when 4,000 ft of 10 3/4 inch OD
(10 inch ID) casing is lowered inside a
12 inch hole at 1 ft/s if the hole is filled
with 9.0 lbm/gal brine with a viscosity
of 2.0 cp. Assume laminar flow.
1. Closed pipe
2. Open ended

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vp
 va 
1. For Closed Pipe  d2 

2

  1
 d1 
2 2
d vp 10.75 (1)
va  2  2  4.064 ft/s
1

(d 2  d1 ) 12  10.75
2 2

 vp   1 

μ v a    2 4.064  
dp f
  2
  2
dL 1000(d 2  d1 ) 100012  10.752
dp f psi
 0.00577
dL ft
ΔΡ f  0.00577  4,000  23.1 psi
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2. For Open Pipe,

 3d  4d1 d 2  d1 
4 2 2 
Va   4 2 2

  6d  4d 2  d1  d 2  d1
2

 Vp

 3(10)  4(10.75) (12  10.75)
4 2 2

Va   2 
(1.0)
  6(10)  4(12  10.75) (12  10.75 ) 
4 2 2

ft
  0.4865
sec

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2. For Open Pipe,
 Vp   1 

μ Va    2  0.4865  
dp f
  2 
  2
dL 1000(d 2  d1 ) 1000(12  10.75) 2
2

psi
 0.00001728
ft

ΔΡ f  0.00001728 * 4,000
 0.07 psi (negligibl e)
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Derivation of Equation (4.94)

From Equation (4.92):


 vp 
μ v a  
μ(v i  v p )  2

1500d 2
1000(d 2  d1 ) 2

 vp  2
3 v a  d
 vi  v p   2
2(d 2  d1 ) 2

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Derivation of Eq. (4.94) cont’d

- 4v p (d 2  d1 )  6v a d  3v p d
2 2 2

 vi 
4(d 2  d1 ) 2

From Equation (4.93):

v p (d  d )  vi d  va (d  d )
2
1
2 2 2
2
2
1

Substituting for vi:


 4v p d 2 (d 2  d1 ) 2  6v a d 4  3v p d 4
v p (d  d ) 
2 2

4(d 2  d1 )
1 2

 v a (d  d )
2
2
2
1
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So,

v p 4(d 2  d1 ) (d  d  d )  3d
2 2
1
2 2 4

 va 6d 4
 4(d  d )(d 2  d1 )
2
2
2
1
2

 4d (d 2  d1 )  3d
2
 2 4
 v a   4 1

2  p
v
 6d  4(d 2 - d1 ) (d 2  d1 ) 
2 2

 3d  4d (d 2  d1 )
4
 2 2
i.e., v a    1
v
  6d  4(d  d ) (d  d )  p
4 2 2 2
 2 1 2 1 

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Surge Pressure - General Case

The slot approximation discussed


earlier is not appropriate if the pipe ID
or OD varies, if the fluid is non-
Newtonian, or if the flow is turbulent.

In the general case - an iterative


solution technique may be used.

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Fig. 4.42
Simplified
hydraulic
representation
of the lower
part of a
drillstring

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General Solution Method

1. Start at the bottom of the drillstring and


determine the rate of fluid displacement.

qt 
π 2
4

d1  d v p
2

2. Assume a split of this flow stream with a
fraction, fa, going to the annulus, and
(1-fa) going through the inside of the pipe.
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General Solution Method

3. Calculate the resulting total frictional


pressure loss in the annulus, using the
established pressure loss calculation
procedures.

4. Calculate the total frictional pressure loss


inside the drill string.

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General Solution Method

5. Compare the results from 3 and 4, and if


they are unequal, repeat the above
steps with a different split between qa
and qp.

i.e., repeat with different values of fa, until


the two pressure loss values agree
within a small margin. The average of
these two values is the surge pressure.
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NOTE:

The flow rate along the annulus need not be


constant, it varies whenever the cross-
sectional area varies.
The same holds for the drill string.
An appropriate average fluid velocity must be
determined for each section. This velocity
is further modified to arrive at an
effective mean velocity.

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Fig. 4.42
Simplified
hydraulic
representation
of the lower
part of a
drillstring

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Burkhardt

Has suggested using an effective mean


annular velocity given by:
v ae  v a  K c v p
Where v a is the average annular velocity
v

based on qa

Kc is a constant called the mud clinging


constant; it depends on the annular
geometry. (Not related to Power-law K!)
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The value of Kp lies between 0.4 and 0.5
for most typical flow conditions, and is
often taken to be 0.45.

Establishing the onset of turbulence under


these conditions is not easy.

The usual procedure is to calculate surge


or swab pressures for both the laminar
and the turbulent flow patterns and then
to use the larger value.
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Kc

Kc

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Kc

For very small values of a,


KK
c = 0.45 is not a good
approximation

Fig. 4.41 - Mud clinging constant, Kc, for computing surge-and-swab pressure.
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Table 4.8. Summary of Swab Pressure
Calculation for Example 4.35

Variable
fa=(qa/qt)1 0.5 0.75 0.70 0.692
(qp)1, cu ft/s 0.422 0.211 0.251 0.260
(qp)2, cu ft/s 0.265 0.054 0.093 0.103
(qp)3, cu ft/s 0.111 -0.101 -0.061 -0.052

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Table 4.8 Summary of Swab
Pressure Calculation Inside Pipe

Variable
fa=(qa/qt)1 ……… 0.5 0.75 0.70 0.692
DpBIT, psi ……… 442 115 160 171
DpDC, psi ……… 104 33 44 46
DpDP, psi ……… 449 273 293 297
Total Dpi, psi …… 995 421 497 514

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Table 4.8 Summary of Swab
Pressure Calculation in Annulus
Variable
fa=(qa/qt)1 0.5 0.75 0.70 0.692
( qa )1 , cu ft/s 0.422 0.633 0.594 0.585
( qa ) 2 , cu ft/s 0.012 0.223 0.183 0.174
Dpdca , psi 104 139 128 126
Dpdpa , psi 335 405 392 389
Total Dpa, psi 439 544 520 515

Total Dpi, psi 995 421 497 514


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Table 4.8 Summary of Swab Pressure
Calculation for Example 4.35

fa : 0.5 0.75 0.70 0.692


1
ΔΡ i  ΔΡ a 
2 : 1.39 0.94 0.99 1.00
514.5

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vp

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SURGE
PRESSURE

VELOCITY

ACCELERATION
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Inertial Effects
Example 4.36

Compute the surge pressure due to


inertial effects caused by downward 0.5
ft/s2 acceleration of 10,000 ft of 10.75” csg.
with a closed end through a 12.25 borehole
containing 10 lbm/gal.

Ref. ADE, pp. 171-172


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Inertial Effects - Example 4.36
From Equation (4.99)
dp a 0.00162  a p d 2


1

dL d d
2
2
2
1

0.00162(10)(0.5)(10. 75) 2
 Δp a  (10,000)
12.25  10.75
2 2

 Δp a  271 psi
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END of
Lesson 15
Surge and Swab

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