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# PETE 411

Well Drilling

Lesson 15
Surge and Swab Pressures

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Lesson 15 - Surge and Swab Pressures

##  Surge and Swab Pressures

- Closed Pipe
- Fully Open Pipe
- Pipe with Bit
 Example
 General Case (complex geometry, etc.)
 Example

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APPLIED DRILLING ENGINEERING
Chapter 4 (all)

HW #8
due 10 –14 – 02

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v ae  v a  K c v p

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Surge Pressure - Closed Pipe
Newtonian

## The velocity profile developed for the slot

approximation is valid for the flow
conditions in the annulus; but the
boundary conditions are different,
because the pipe is moving:
V=0
2
y dp f y
V   c1  c2 V = -Vp
2 dL 
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y 2 dp f y At Drillpipe
v  c1  c 2 Wall
2μ dL μ

When y = 0, v = - vp ,  c2  vp
h 2 dp f h
When y = h, v = 0,  0   c1  v p
2μ dL μ
h dp f v pμ
 c1  
2 dL h
Substituting
for c1 and c2: v
1 dp f
hy  y   v p 1  
2  y
2μ dL  h
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Velocity profile in the slot

v
1 dp f
hy  y   v p 1  
2  y
2μ dL  h h
0
W
q   dq   vdA   vWdy
h

y
 v p W (1  )dy
h
0

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Wh dp f v p Wh
q  
12μ dL 2
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Changing from SLOT to ANNULAR
notation

A = Wh = π r  r
2
2 1
2

h  r2  r1
q
v
( r2
2
 2
r1 )
3
Wh dp f v p Wh
Substitute in: q 
12μ dL 2
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 vp 
12μ  v  
Results in:
dp f
  2 
dL r2  r1 2

## Or, in field units

 v p 
or, in field units:
  v  

dp f
  2 
dL 1000 d 2  d1 2

## Same as for pure slot flow if vp = o (Kp = 0.5)

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How do we evaluate v ?
For closed pipe,
flow rate in annulus = pipe displacement rate:
qa  qp
 π d1 
 
 2 2 
2
vp
v a  d 2  d1   v p  
4   4 
 
vp
v  2
 d2  d1
   1
 d1  d2
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Open
Pipe

Pulling out
of Hole

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Surge Pressure - Open Pipe

## Pressure at top and bottom is the

same inside and outside the pipe.
i.e.,
 dp f   dp f 
   
 dL  pipe  dL annulus
From Equations  Vp 
(4.88) and

μ vi  v p

 μ v a 
 2 


1000d 2  d1 
(4.90d): 2
1500 d i 2

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Surge Pressure - Open Pipe

Also, q t  qi  qa
i.e.,
Vp d1  d i   v i  d i   v a  d 2  d1 
π 2 2 π 2 π 2 2 

4 4  4 

 3d  4d d 2  d1  
4 2 2
 va   i 1
 vp
4 2

  6d i  4d 2  d1  d 2  d1
2 2
 
Valid for laminar flow, constant geometry, Newtonian
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Example

## Calculate the surge pressures that

result when 4,000 ft of 10 3/4 inch OD
(10 inch ID) casing is lowered inside a
12 inch hole at 1 ft/s if the hole is filled
with 9.0 lbm/gal brine with a viscosity
of 2.0 cp. Assume laminar flow.
1. Closed pipe
2. Open ended

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vp
 va 
1. For Closed Pipe  d2 

2

  1
 d1 
2 2
d vp 10.75 (1)
va  2  2  4.064 ft/s
1

(d 2  d1 ) 12  10.75
2 2

 vp   1 

μ v a    2 4.064  
dp f
  2
  2
dL 1000(d 2  d1 ) 100012  10.752
dp f psi
 0.00577
dL ft
ΔΡ f  0.00577  4,000  23.1 psi
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2. For Open Pipe,

 3d  4d1 d 2  d1 
4 2 2 
Va   4 2 2

  6d  4d 2  d1  d 2  d1
2

 Vp

 3(10)  4(10.75) (12  10.75)
4 2 2

Va   2 
(1.0)
  6(10)  4(12  10.75) (12  10.75 ) 
4 2 2

ft
  0.4865
sec

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2. For Open Pipe,
 Vp   1 

μ Va    2  0.4865  
dp f
  2 
  2
dL 1000(d 2  d1 ) 1000(12  10.75) 2
2

psi
 0.00001728
ft

ΔΡ f  0.00001728 * 4,000
 0.07 psi (negligibl e)
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Derivation of Equation (4.94)

## From Equation (4.92):

 vp 
μ v a  
μ(v i  v p )  2

1500d 2
1000(d 2  d1 ) 2

 vp  2
3 v a  d
 vi  v p   2
2(d 2  d1 ) 2

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Derivation of Eq. (4.94) cont’d

- 4v p (d 2  d1 )  6v a d  3v p d
2 2 2

 vi 
4(d 2  d1 ) 2

## From Equation (4.93):

v p (d  d )  vi d  va (d  d )
2
1
2 2 2
2
2
1

## Substituting for vi:

 4v p d 2 (d 2  d1 ) 2  6v a d 4  3v p d 4
v p (d  d ) 
2 2

4(d 2  d1 )
1 2

 v a (d  d )
2
2
2
1
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So,

v p 4(d 2  d1 ) (d  d  d )  3d
2 2
1
2 2 4

 va 6d 4
 4(d  d )(d 2  d1 )
2
2
2
1
2

 4d (d 2  d1 )  3d
2
 2 4
 v a   4 1

2  p
v
 6d  4(d 2 - d1 ) (d 2  d1 ) 
2 2

 3d  4d (d 2  d1 )
4
 2 2
i.e., v a    1
v
  6d  4(d  d ) (d  d )  p
4 2 2 2
 2 1 2 1 

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Surge Pressure - General Case

## The slot approximation discussed

earlier is not appropriate if the pipe ID
or OD varies, if the fluid is non-
Newtonian, or if the flow is turbulent.

## In the general case - an iterative

solution technique may be used.

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Fig. 4.42
Simplified
hydraulic
representation
of the lower
part of a
drillstring

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General Solution Method

## 1. Start at the bottom of the drillstring and

determine the rate of fluid displacement.

qt 
π 2
4

d1  d v p
2

2. Assume a split of this flow stream with a
fraction, fa, going to the annulus, and
(1-fa) going through the inside of the pipe.
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General Solution Method

## 3. Calculate the resulting total frictional

pressure loss in the annulus, using the
established pressure loss calculation
procedures.

## 4. Calculate the total frictional pressure loss

inside the drill string.

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General Solution Method

## 5. Compare the results from 3 and 4, and if

they are unequal, repeat the above
steps with a different split between qa
and qp.

## i.e., repeat with different values of fa, until

the two pressure loss values agree
within a small margin. The average of
these two values is the surge pressure.
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NOTE:

## The flow rate along the annulus need not be

constant, it varies whenever the cross-
sectional area varies.
The same holds for the drill string.
An appropriate average fluid velocity must be
determined for each section. This velocity
is further modified to arrive at an
effective mean velocity.

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Fig. 4.42
Simplified
hydraulic
representation
of the lower
part of a
drillstring

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Burkhardt

## Has suggested using an effective mean

annular velocity given by:
v ae  v a  K c v p
Where v a is the average annular velocity
v

based on qa

## Kc is a constant called the mud clinging

constant; it depends on the annular
geometry. (Not related to Power-law K!)
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The value of Kp lies between 0.4 and 0.5
for most typical flow conditions, and is
often taken to be 0.45.

## Establishing the onset of turbulence under

these conditions is not easy.

## The usual procedure is to calculate surge

or swab pressures for both the laminar
and the turbulent flow patterns and then
to use the larger value.
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Kc

Kc

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Kc

## For very small values of a,

KK
c = 0.45 is not a good
approximation

Fig. 4.41 - Mud clinging constant, Kc, for computing surge-and-swab pressure.
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Table 4.8. Summary of Swab Pressure
Calculation for Example 4.35

Variable
fa=(qa/qt)1 0.5 0.75 0.70 0.692
(qp)1, cu ft/s 0.422 0.211 0.251 0.260
(qp)2, cu ft/s 0.265 0.054 0.093 0.103
(qp)3, cu ft/s 0.111 -0.101 -0.061 -0.052

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Table 4.8 Summary of Swab
Pressure Calculation Inside Pipe

Variable
fa=(qa/qt)1 ……… 0.5 0.75 0.70 0.692
DpBIT, psi ……… 442 115 160 171
DpDC, psi ……… 104 33 44 46
DpDP, psi ……… 449 273 293 297
Total Dpi, psi …… 995 421 497 514

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Table 4.8 Summary of Swab
Pressure Calculation in Annulus
Variable
fa=(qa/qt)1 0.5 0.75 0.70 0.692
( qa )1 , cu ft/s 0.422 0.633 0.594 0.585
( qa ) 2 , cu ft/s 0.012 0.223 0.183 0.174
Dpdca , psi 104 139 128 126
Dpdpa , psi 335 405 392 389
Total Dpa, psi 439 544 520 515

## Total Dpi, psi 995 421 497 514

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Table 4.8 Summary of Swab Pressure
Calculation for Example 4.35

## fa : 0.5 0.75 0.70 0.692

1
ΔΡ i  ΔΡ a 
2 : 1.39 0.94 0.99 1.00
514.5

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vp

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SURGE
PRESSURE

VELOCITY

ACCELERATION
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Inertial Effects
Example 4.36

## Compute the surge pressure due to

inertial effects caused by downward 0.5
ft/s2 acceleration of 10,000 ft of 10.75” csg.
with a closed end through a 12.25 borehole
containing 10 lbm/gal.

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Inertial Effects - Example 4.36
From Equation (4.99)
dp a 0.00162  a p d 2

1

dL d d
2
2
2
1

0.00162(10)(0.5)(10. 75) 2
 Δp a  (10,000)
12.25  10.75
2 2

 Δp a  271 psi
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END of
Lesson 15
Surge and Swab

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