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INSTITUTO POLITÉCNICO NACIONAL.

ESCUELA SUPERIOR DE INGENIERÍA QUÍMICA E INDUSTRIAS EXTRACTIVAS.

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
IN GAS PHASE.
Castro Juárez Alejandra Angélique
DETERMINATION OF THE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT IN A HOMOGENEOUS
López Hernández Sandro Manuel. REACTION IN THE GAS PHASE.
Miramontes Vilchis rebeca.
2IM46

In this practice the study of the dimerization of concentrated acetic acid will be carried out, going
from liquid phase to gas phase, taking the pressure of a closed system when the temperature varies.
OBJECTIVES.
 Study the reaction in homogeneous phase in the gas phase of the
dissociation of the acetic acid dimer.
 Determine the enthalpy and entropy from the thermodynamic data.
 Determine the thermodynamic equilibrium constant of a homogeneous
reaction in the gas phase.
INTRODUCTION
GIBBS FREE ENERGY.

• The free energy or free enthalpy of Gibbs is used in chemistry to explain whether a
reaction will happen spontaneously or not.

• This energy is represented by the capital letter G. The pioneer of the energy of Gibbs
was the American physicist Josiah Willard Gibbs who contributed with the theoretical
foundation of thermodynamics.

The meaning of the values of ΔG in chemical reactions:


• When ΔG <0, the process is exergonic and will occur spontaneously in the direct
direction to form more products.
• When ΔG> 0 the process is endergónico and is not spontaneous in the direct sense. On
the contrary, it will occur spontaneously in the reverse direction to produce more
reagents.
• When ΔG = 0 the system is in equilibrium and the concentrations of products and
reagents will remain constant.
EXPERIMENTAL
DEVELOPMENT
EXPERIMENTATION.

Drain and add cold


water (wait 5 -10
connect the minutes)
differential manometer Inyect the acid and
(the system has to be warm till 30, 40, 50 and
closed) 60 grades (measure
10 milliliters of glacial warm till 30, 40, 50 y the pressure)
acetic acid (insert it in 60 grades (measure
the system [Kitasato]) the pressure)
CALCULATIONS
2.- Calculation of the
1.- Calculation of pressure pressure of non-dissociation
 Obtain the pressure (P) by subtracting the  Applying the law of ideal gases:
value of the pressure registered with
𝑊𝑎𝑅𝑇
CH3COOH the value of the pressure in  𝑃𝑖 =
𝑉
the thermal expansion of the air
contained in the system.  Wa: acetic acid mass

 𝑃 = 𝑃𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑑 − 𝑃𝑎𝑖𝑟  R: gas constant


 T: temperatura [K]
 V: system volume
3.- Calculation of the constant Ka 4.- Calculate and graph InKa vs 1/T

 Tyler (1951) showed that the pressures


of the manometer and the diameter are
proportional to the registered readings
and to the pressure of the dissociation Pi
obtaining the equation:
4 2∗𝑃𝑖−𝑃 2 2
 𝐾𝑎 = = 4 2 ∗ 𝑃𝑖 − 𝑃
2∗𝑃𝑖−𝑃
5.- Calculation of the ΔH𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

 From the theory it is known that ΔH° it is equivalent to 2 times the


dissociation energy of an H2 bond.
ΔH
 ΔH𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 =
2
 Calculate ΔH° y ΔS° of the reaction for the conditions established
SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE.
ESI-MS measurements for the equilibrium
constants of
copper(II)-insulin complexes
What is the article about?
In this study, the effect of pH on the complexes of
Cu (II) -Insulin and the formation of the highest
complex, and to obtain the equilibrium constants
of formation and dissociation in water, was
analyzed.
How was the experiment
performed?
 Insulin solutions are prepared at different pH (2-8)
 Cu (II) was admitted
 They are adjusted using CH3COOH and NH3
 Special buffer solution was prepared
 The special spectrophotometer with quadrupole ion
trap is used
Conclusions
 Insulin is a natural hormone that is produced in the pancreas which helps
us to take advantage of the energy co
 Micronutrients are elements that the body needs in less quantity and
constitute a minimum part of living tissues.

 There are 2 types of diabetes:


 Type1 the body does not produce insulin
 Type 2 the body does not produce the necessary or has difficulty using it