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Communication via

What is Satellite?

 In context of spaceflight, a satellite is an

artificial object which has been
intentionally placed into orbit. Such
objects are sometimes called artificial
satellites to distinguish them from natural
satellites such as Earth's Moon.
Types of Satellite

 Astronomical satellites: are satellites used for observation of distant planets,

galaxies, and other outer space objects.
 Biosatellites satellites: are designed to carry living organisms, generally for
scientific experimentation.
 Communications satellites: are satellites stationed in space for the purpose of
telecommunications. Modern communications satellites typically use
geosynchronous orbits, Molniya orbits or Low Earth orbits.
 Navigational satellites: are satellites which use radio time signals transmitted to
enable mobile receivers on the ground to determine their exact location. The
relatively clear line of sight between the satellites and receivers on the ground,
combined with ever-improving electronics, allows satellite navigation systems to
measure location to accuracies on the order of a few meters in real time.
 Weather satellites: are primarily used to monitor Earth's weather and climate.
Types of Orbits

 Low Earth Orbit (LEO)

 Medium Earth Orbit (MEO)
 Geostationary Orbit (GEO)
Low Earth Orbit (LEO)
 Low Earth Orbit is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of 2,000 kilometers or
less. Objects at this altitude also have an orbital period (i.e. the time it will take
them to orbit the Earth once) of between 88 and 127 minutes. Objects below
approximately 160 kilometers will experience very rapid orbital decay and
altitude loss due to atmospheric drag.
Advantages of Low Earth Orbit
 1. The antennas can have low transmission power of about 1 watt.
 2. The delay of packets is relatively low.
 3. Useful for smaller foot prints.
Disadvantages of Low Earth Orbit
 1. If global coverage is required, it requires at least 50-200 satellites in this orbit.
 2. Special handover mechanisms are required.
 3. These satellites involve complex design.
 4. Very short life: Time of 5-8 years. Assuming 48 satellites with a life-time of 8
years each, a new satellite is needed every 2 months.
 5. Data packets should be routed from satellite to satellite.
Medium Earth Orbit (MEO)
 Medium Earth Orbit sometimes called intermediate circular orbit (ICO), is
the region of space around the Earth above low Earth orbit (altitude of
2,000 km) and below geostationary orbit (altitude of 35,786 km).

Advantages of Medium Earth Orbit

 1. Compared to LEO system, MEO requires only a dozen satellites.
 2. Simple in design.
 3. Requires very few handovers.
Disadvantages of Medium Earth Orbit
 1. Satellites require higher transmission power.
 2. Special antennas are required.
Geostationary Orbit (GEO)
 Geostationary Earth orbit or geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO) is a circular
orbit 35,786 kilometers (22,236 mi) above the Earth's equator and following the
direction of the Earth's rotation.
 A geostationary orbit is useful for communications because ground antennas
can be aimed at the satellite without their having to track the satellite's motion.
Advantages of Geo-Stationary Earth Orbit
 1. It is possible to cover almost all parts of the earth with just 3 geo satellites.
 2. Antennas need not be adjusted every now and then but can be fixed
 3. The life-time of a GEO satellite is quite high usually around 15 years.
Disadvantages of Geo-Stationary Earth Orbit
 1. Larger antennas are required for northern/southern regions of the earth
 3. High transmission power is required.
 4. These satellites cannot be used for small mobile phones.
 5. Fixing a satellite at Geo stationary orbit is very expensive.
Communication via Satellite

 A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies

radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a
communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at
different locations on Earth. Communications satellites are used for
television, telephone, radio, internet, and military applications. There are
over 2,000 communications satellites in Earth’s orbit, used by both private
and government organizations.
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