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PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N.

Magaji

PHY8301
Mathematical Methods of Physics

SYLLABUS
Chapter 1 Transforms of coordinates: curvilinear coordinates. Transformation of
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

volumes. Jacobians. Vector differential operator. The delta-distribution and

transformation of coordinates.
Chapter 2
Matrices, Groups and Representations: Vector spaces. Linear operator. Elementary
properties and definitions. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Jordan canonical form.
Applications – functions of matrices; linear differential equations, difference equations.
Chapter 3
Complex Analysis: Review of complex numbers. Geometry of the complex plane.
Complex functions. Cauchy-Goursat theorem and complex potential. Mean value
theorem. Lioville’s theorem. Power series. Laurent expansion. Applications. Residue
theorem and applications.

Considering that the students are expected to register only one Maths method, think
the following need be included:
Chapter 4
Founer and Laplace transforms: Inverse transforms. Convolution theorem. Solution of
ordinary and partial D.E by transform methods.
Chapter 5
Green’s function for ordinary and partial D.E of mathematical Physics integral
equations.
Chapter 1(Lecture 1)
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

Transforms of coordinates: curvilinear coordinates.

Transformation of volumes. Jacobians. Vector differential
operator. The delta-distribution and transformation of
coordinates

1.1 CARTESIAN COORDINATES ( x, y , z )

1.2 CIRCULAR CYLINDRICAL (  ,  , z)
COORDINATES
1.3 SPHERICAL COORDINATES (r ,  ,  )
1.4 TRANSFORMATION BETWEEN
COORDINATE SYSTEMS
1.1 CARTESIAN COORDINATES
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

• Consists of three mutually orthogonal

axes ( x, y, z ) and a point in space is
denoted as P( x, y, z )

Figure 1.
Converting Between Polar and Rectangular
Coordinates
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

It is fairly easy to see that if (x,y) y

and (r, ) represent the same
point in the plane:
 r, 
x  r cos() x
y  r sin()
Figure 2.
r x y
2 2 2

These relationships allow us to

x
tan()  convert back and forth between
rectangular and polar coordinates
y
Cylindrical Coordinates
•In the cylindrical coordinate system, a point
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

P in three-dimensional space is represented

by the ordered triple (r, , z) where r and  are
polar coordinates of the projection of P onto
the xy-plane and z is the directed distance
from the xy-plane to P. (See Figure 3.)
To convert from cylindrical to rectangular
coordinates, we use the equations

x  r cos(); y  r sin() and z  z 

y  (1)
r  x  y and tan() 
2 2

The cylindrical coordinates of a point
x 
Figure 3
Example 1
• (a) Plot the point with cylindrical coordinates
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

(2, 2 /3, 1) and find its rectangular

coordinates.
• (b) Find cylindrical coordinates of the point
with rectangular coordinates (3, –3, –7).
• Solution:
• (a) The point with cylindrical coordinates (2,
2 /3, 1) is plotted in Figure 3.

Figure 4
Example 1 – Solution
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

•From Equations 1, its rectangular coordinates are

Thus the point is (–1, , 1) in rectangular coordinates.
Example 1 – Solution cont’d
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

•Therefore one set of cylindrical coordinates is

( , 7 /4, –7). Another is ( , – /4, –7).

•As with polar coordinates, there are infinitely many choices.

Spherical Coordinates
• The spherical coordinates (, , ) of a point P
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

in space are shown in Figure 5, where  = |OP

| is the distance from the origin to P,  is the
same angle as in cylindrical coordinates, and 
is the angle between the positive z-axis and
the line segment OP.

Figure 5

The spherical coordinates of a point

Spherical Coordinates
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

• The relationship between rectangular and

spherical coordinates can be seen from Figure 6.
• From triangles OPQ and OPP we have
z =  cos  r =  sin 

r   sin ; z   cos  

 x   sin  cos ; y   sin  sin  and z   cos   (2)
 x y z
2 2 2 2 

Figure 6
Example 2
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

• The point (2,  /4,  /3) is given in spherical

coordinates. Plot the point and find its
rectangular coordinates.

• Solution:
We plot the point in Figure 6.

Figure 7
Example 2 – Solution cont’d
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

• Thus the point (2,  /4,  /3) is in

rectangular coordinates.
Changing Coordinates:
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

• Curvilinear coordinates are those coordinates that use a coordinate

system where the coordinate lines or axes can be made in form of
curves. This is very useful because some complex problems take a
difficult method to solve in Cartesian (x, y, z) coordinates, and hence,
the method of curvilinear coordinates is used.
The Jacobian gives a general method for transforming the
coordinates of any multiple integral.

The Jacobian correctly describes how area elements change under

such a transformation. The required relationship is dxdy → |J(u, v)|
dudv that is, |J(u, v)| dudv plays the role of dxdy.
Jacobian in Two Variables(x = x(u, v) and y = y(u, v) the Jacobian is)
x x
u v
J(u, v) 
y y
u v
Volume of a Solid Region
In mathematics, a volume element provides a means
or integrating a function with respect to volume in various coordinate
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

systems
if f(x)  0, then the single integral represents the area
under the curve y = f(x) from a to b, and if
f(x, y)  0, then the double integral D f(x, y) dA
represents the volume under the surface z = f(x, y) and
above D.
Example 3
If R denotes the region y > 2(x–1), y < 2x + 1, y >1–x, y < 2–x, then
 xy dxdy  ? ( Hint: Change coordinates to u = y – 2x, v = x + y )
R
Solving for x and y, in terms of u and v, we get: x = (v-u)/3, y = (u+2v)/3. The
Jacobian determinant of this coordinate transformation is then
Volume of a Solid Region
1 1
| J |  3 3   2  1  1.
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

1 2 9 9 3
3 3
Thus, dx dy = 1/3 du dv, and the above integral becomes:
2 1 2 1
v  u  u  2v  1 dudv  1  2v2  u 2  uv  dudv
1 2 3 3 3 27 1 2 

2 1 2 1 2 1
 2  v2dv  du  1  dv  u 2du  1  vdv  udu
27 1 2
27 1 2 27 1 2
2 1 2 1
2 v3 1 u3 1 v2 u 2

27 3
1 (2)  27 3 
27 2 2
1 2 1 2

81 
  81 
 3
 108
 2

 2 23 13  3  1 13   2   1 22 12 12   2 

 14  1  1  53
27 9 12 108
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji
Volume of a Solid Region

Example 4
Evaluate the triple integral B xyz2 dV, where B is the rectangular
box given by B = {(x, y, z) | 0  x  1, –1  y  2, 0  z  3}
Solution: If we choose to integrate with respect to x, then y,
and then z, we obtain

3 2 2 2 3 2
  xyz dV   
2 x yz
dydz  
3z
dz 
27
0 1
2 0
4 4
Example 5
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

3
D ( x
2
 y ) dxdy  ?
2

Changing to polar coordinates, the integral becomes:

2 1 2 1 1

0 0  
3 8
r 2 r dr d  d r 7 dr  2 r  0 0 8
0
4
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

Chapter 1 (lecture 2)
Vector Analysis in Curved Coordinates

Review of Vector Calculus

Review of Vector Calculus
VECTOR CALCULUS
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

1.5 GRADIENT OF A SCALAR

1.6 DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR
1.7 DIVERGENCE THEOREM
1.8 CURL OF A VECTOR
1.9 STOKES’S THEOREM
1.10 LAPLACIAN OF A SCALAR

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1.5 GRADIENT OF A SCALAR
The gradient (or gradient vector field) of a scalar
function f(x,y,z) is denoted ∇f or ∇
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

Suppose T1  x, y, z  is the temperature at P1  x, y, z  ,

and T2  x  dx, y  dy , z  dz  is the temperature at P2
as shown.

21

However, from differential calculus, the differential temperature:

T T T
dT  T2  T1  dx  dy  dz
x y z
GRADIENT OF A SCALAR (Cont’d)
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

In Cartesian coordinate . This vector is called

Gradient of Scalar T.

For Cartesian coordinate: if dT=dV The gradient

is denoted ∇V or ∇T

V V V
V  ax  ay  az
x y z

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GRADIENT OF A SCALAR (Cont’d)
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

For Circular cylindrical coordinate:

V 1 V V
V  a  a  az
   z
For Spherical coordinate:
V 1 V 1 V
V  ar  a  a
r r  r sin  

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EXAMPLE 6
Find gradient of these scalars:
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

(a) z
V  e sin 2 x cosh y
(b)
U   z cos2
2
(c)
W  10r sin  cos
2
(a) Solution Use gradient for Cartesian
coordinate:
V V V
V  ax  ay  az
x y z
z z
 2e cos 2 x cosh ya x  e sin 2 x sinh ya y
 e z sin 2 x cosh ya z 24
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE 6 (Cont’d)
(b) Use gradient for Circular cylindrical coordinate:
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

U 1 U U
U  a  a  az
   z
 2 z cos 2a   2 z sin 2a
  2 cos 2a z
(c) Use gradient for Spherical coordinate:
W 1 W 1 W
W  ar  a  a
r r  r sin  
 10 sin  cosa r  10 sin 2 cosa
2

 10 sin  sin a

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1.6 DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR
Illustration of the divergence of a vector field at point P:
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

Positive Negative Zero

Divergence Divergence
The divergence of A at a given point P isDivergence
the
outward flux per unit volume:

 A  dS 26

div A    A  lim s

v 0 v
DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)
What is  A  dS ??
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

Vector field
s A at
closed surface S

And, v is volume
enclosed by
surface S

 
 A  dS              A  dS
s  front back left right top bottom
27
DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)
For Cartesian coordinate:
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

Ax Ay Az

A   
x y z
For Circular cylindrical coordinate:
1  1 A Az
A 
 
A  
 

z
For Spherical coordinate:

1  A sin  
1  2
A  2
r r

r Ar  
r sin  

1 A
r sin  
28
EXAMPLE 7
Find divergence of these vectors:
(a) P  x 2 yza  xza
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

x z
(b) W  1 cosa  r sin  cosa  cosa
2 r  
(c) Q  2 sin a  2 za  zcos a
r
  z
SOLUTION (a) Use divergence for Cartesian
coordinate:
Px Py Pz
P   
x y z

 2
x

x yz  

y

0   xz 
z
29

 2 xyz  x
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE 7 (Cont’d)
(b) Use divergence for Circular cylindrical coordinate:
1  1 Q Qz
Q  Q   
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

    z

1 
 

 2 sin   
1 
 
  
 2 z   z cos 
z
 2 sin   cos

(c) Use divergence for Spherical coordinate:

1  W sin  
W 
r r
2
 
1  2
r Wr 
r sin  
1 W

r sin  

 2
1 
r r

cos   1  r sin 2  cos
r sin  

1 
 cos 
r sin  
 2 cos cos
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1.7 DIVERGENCE THEOREM
It states that the total outward flux of a vector
field A at the closed surface S is the same as
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

volume integral of divergence of A.

 A  dS     AdV
V V 
EXAMPLE 8 A vector field D   3a  exists in the
region between two concentric cylindrical surfaces
defined by ρ = 1 and ρ = 2, with both cylinders
extending between z = 0 and z = 5. Verify the
divergence theorem by evaluating:

(a)  D  ds (b)    DdV

V
S
31
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE 8(cont.d)
2 5
Douter     3a   ddz(a  )
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

 2
 0 z 0
2 5
    4a   ddz(a  )  160
 2
 0 z 0
2 2
Dbottom     3a   dd (a z ) 0
z 0
 1  0
2 2
Dtop     3a   dd (a z ) 0
z 5
 1  0

  D  dS  10  160  0  0  150

S
32
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE 8(Cont’d)
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

(b) For the right side of Divergence Theorem,

evaluate divergence of D

D
1 
 
 
 3  4 2
5 2 2
     DdV     dddz
 2
So, 4
z  0   0  1

 2 
5 
 4 2   
     150
   r 1   0  z 0 
 
33
1.8 CURL OF A VECTOR

  A  dl 
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

Curl A    A   lim s
a n max
 s  0 s 
 

For Cartesian coordinate:

ax ay az
 Az Ay   Az Ax   Ay Ax 
     A    a x    a y    a z
A 
x y z  y z   x z   x y 
Ax Ay Az 34

34
CURL OF A VECTOR (Cont’d)
For Circular cylindrical coordinate:
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

a a az  1 Az A   Az A 

 A    a     a
A 
1       z    z 
   z 1  A  A 
A A Az    a z
    
For Spherical coordinate:
ar a a
1   
A  2
r sin  r  
Ar rA r sin  A
1   sin A  A  1  1 Ar  rA  
 A  
  a
 r  
 sin    
a
r sin     r  r 
1   ( rA )   Ar  
   a 35
r r  
EXAMPLE 9 Find curl of these vectors:

(a ) P  x yza x  xzaz (b) Q   sin  a   za  z cos  az

2 2
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

Solution (a) Use curl for Cartesian

coordinate:
 Pz Py   Pz Px   Py Px 
P     ax     ay     az
 y z   x z   x y 
   
 0  0a x  x 2 y  z a y  0  x 2 z a z
 
 x 2 y  z a y  x 2 za z

36
1.9 STOKE’S THEOREM
The circulation of a vector field A around a closed path L
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

is equal to the surface integral of the curl of A over the

open surface S bounded by L that A and curl of A are

 A  dl     A   dS
continuous on S.

L S

37
1.0 LAPLACIAN OF A SCALAR
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

V
2

Where, Laplacian V is:

 2V    V
     V V V 
  ax  a y  az    ax  ay  az 
 x y z   x y z 

38
LAPLACIAN OF A SCALAR (Cont’d)
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

For Cartesian coordinate:

V V V
2 2 2
V 2  2  2
2
x y z
For Circular cylindrical coordinate:

1   V  1  V 2
V
2
V
2
  2 
       z 2

39
LAPLACIAN OF A SCALAR (Cont’d)
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

For Spherical coordinate:

1   2 V  1   V 
 V  2 r  2  sin 
2

r r  r  r sin     
1 V 2
 2 2
r sin   2

40
EXAMPLE 10
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

Find Laplacian of these scalars:

z
(a) V  e sin 2 x cosh y
(b) U   z cos2
2

2

You should try this!!

41
SOLUTION TO EXAMPLE 12
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

z
(a)  V  2e sin 2 x cosh y
2

(b)  U 0
2

10 cos
(c) W
2
1  2 cos2 
r

42
PHY8301(chapter 1) Prof. N. Magaji

END
CHAPTER 1