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ENDEMISM

D O N E B Y S A F A A , M I N N A Y O U N I S , N AY E R A ,
F AT I M A , M A R I A M .
WHAT IS ENDEMISM?

• Endemism is the state of a species being unique to a


defined geographic location, such as an island, nation,
country or other defined zone.
• It describes the situation where a species of organism is
found only within a particular area.
• The organism is said to be endemic to the area.
WHAT CAUSES ENDEMISM?

• Isolation of islands
• Geographical boundaries
HAWAIIAN ISLANDS

• Group of islands of the same country in the same continent that are very isolated from each
other., making them the most isolated islands on the planet Earth. Each islands is 1600 km away
from the other and is 4000 km away from its belonging continent.
• The Hawaiian populations live due their ability to adapt to a particular niche or role in the
community.
• The founder organisms have adapted and evolved to take advantage of the different ecological
niches that were available to them.
POPULATION IN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS

• 90% of population is endemic.


• The islands are described to be the most biologically diverse regions on the planet.
• Have a great deal of biodiversity when it comes to number of species. They have more than
25000 unique species which go as by 1000 species of native flowers, 10000 species of insects,
1000 species of land snails and around 100 species of birds.
• The number of species is very high compared to the low genetic diversity which reveals that
species are closely related to each other. This makes them vulnerable to diseases since they
cannot mutate often or cause a random mutation that can allow them to withstand any
changes.
HAWAIIAN SLIVERS WOOD
HUMAN ARRIVAL TO HAWAIIAN ISLANDS

• The first populations that arrived to the islands were the Polynesians and Europeans. They
introduced many indigenous species for agriculture. This was a huge disadvantage since those
species included invasive plants which modified the habitat driving many endemic species to
extinction.
• That was proven by fossil finds in caves, lava tubes, and sand dunes. Those places have
revealed that an avifauna once had an endemic eagle, 2 raven size crows, several bird -eating
owls, and giant ducks as moa nalos.
EXTINCT AND ENDANGERED SPECIES
ENDEMIC
SPECIES OF
MADAGASCAR
• Madagascar, a large island off
the coast of East Africa,
provides a good example of
endemism. Almost all of the
species found there are
endemic to the island.
• These range from the amazing giant
baobab trees to ring-tailed lemurs,
and from the bizarre elephants foot
plant to the small, prolifically breeding
mammal, the yellow streaked tenrec.
Also, there are many other endemic
species like the Comet moth and the
Panther Chameleon.
• There are endangered endemic
species in Madagascar, like the fossa
and tomato frog, as their habitat is
diminishing.
• The only species there that are not
endemic are the ones that have been
taken to the island by people in
relatively recent times.
ENDEMISM AND OTHER ISOLATING
MECHANISMS
• Endemism can also occur where there is plenty of food and animals don’t need to travel far to
find all they need to survive.
• Such conditions may be present in estuaries and rainforests.
• Here, isolating mechanisms can easily separate populations, and complex interactions can
develop between different species to produce new specialized niches.
• For example, in rainforests there are many plant species that can be pollinated by one kind of
insect, while in temperate forests such as in the UK, many species of bees act as general
pollinators because there is less food.
A VULNERABLE SOURCE?
• Of the animals that have become extinct in the last 400 years, 75% have been island species.
• In the pacific islands alone around 110 species of birds face possible extinction.
MOA-NALOS
• Research carried out by the Zoological Society of London
(ZSL) reveals that the last region on earth to be colonized by
humans was home to more than 1,000 species of birds that
went extinct soon after people reached their island homes.

Goose-like ducks. They were the


major herbivores on these islands
for 3 million years or so, until
they became extinct after human
settlement.
WHY ENDEMIC POPULATIONS OFTEN
HAVE LOW GENETIC DIVERSITY
• Genetic diversity has been identified as an important factor influencing a population's long-
term potential for survival.

Without genetic variation,


a population cannot evolve in
response to changing
environmental variables and,
as a result, may face an
increased risk of extinction.
INTRODUCING SPECIES INTO ISOLATED
ECOSYSTEMS SUCH AS ISLANDS
Threats to biodiversity
• Introduced species are considered a greater threat to native
biodiversity than pollution, harvest, and disease combined.

Lead to extinction of native species


• By causing disease, acting as predators or parasites, acting as
competitors, and altering habitats.

Hybridization
• They may hybridize so often that the invaders genes “flood”
the native species.
THE END
T H A N K YO U F O R L I S T E N I N G .