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It does not take into account the price of either factors or the product The production function includes all the technically efficient methods of production. for a given state of technology. we can write the production function as X = f ( L. say labour (L) and capital (K) . Production function is purely a technical relationship . Then . . K ) The production function is always in relation to a period of time.suppose a firm is manufacturing a steel chairs with the help of Egtwo inputs . It has no reference to money price.WHAT IS PRODUCTION FUNCTION? The production function shows a technical or engineering relationship between the physical inputs and physical outputs of a firm . Eg.

then . Thirkettle if increasing quantities of one factor of production are used in conjuction with fixed quantity of other factors .LAWS RELATED WITH PRODUCTION Law of variable proportions According to G.L. will make a smaller and smaller addition to the total product . each successive unit of a variable factor .after a certain point .

Output is measured in physical units. It is based on the following assumptions only one input is variable. The law relates to a given period of time it assumes a short run the state of technology is given and remains unchanged. keeping the quantities of other factors fixed. variable factor are homogeneous.Law of variable proportions The law which studies the relationship between one variable factor of production (say labour) and output . other are held constant or fixed. Prices of factors of production do not change . .

shaped isoquants isoquants for perfect complementary factors are L SHAPED .PROPERTIES OF ISOQUANT Isoquants have a negative slope. b) L.the isoquant slopes slopedownward to the right Isoquants are convex to the origin Two isoquants never intersect each other An isoquant lying above and to the right of another isoquant represents a higher level of output.ie they take the shapes of right angles c) Kinked or linear programming isoquants - . Exceptions to the normal shape of the isoquant a) Linear isoquant isoquants for perfect subsitute factors are straight lines sloping downward to the right.

.MARGINAL RATE OF SUBSITUTION It indicates the rate at which one factor must be subsituted for another as onemoves down towards right along an isoquant The marginal rate of technical subsitution between labour and capital is defined as the number of units of capital . that aproducer is willing to sacrifice for an additional unit of labour so as to maintain the same level of output.

LAWS OF RETURN TO SCALE Studies the behaviour of output when the scale of operations is changed . II. The total output increases prportionately. The scale of production is said to be increased when all inputs are increased proportionately and simultaneously. The total output increases less than prportionately. When a firm increases all inputs proportionately and simultaneously . . III. The total output increases more than prportionately. but the factor proportion remains constant. there are three possibilties : I.

Constant return to scale .LAWS OF RETURN TO SCALE There are three stages to laws of return to scale ::I. Incresing return to scale II. Decreasing return to scale III.

output increases at a decreasing rate. although a firm facing a downward-sloped demand curve might find it most downwardprofitable to operate in Stage 1 . a price-taking pricefirm will always operate beyond this stage. Because the output per unit of the variable input is improving throughout stage 1. because output is rising while fixed input usage is constant. However the average product of fixed inputs (not shown) is still rising. In this stage. the employment of additional variable inputs increases the output per unit of fixed input but decreases the output per unit of the variable input.Law of variable proportions In Stage 1 (from the origin to point B) the variable input is being used with increasing output per unit. the latter reaching a maximum at point B (since the average physical product is at its maximum at that point). The optimum input/output combination for the pricepricetaking firm will be in stage 2. and the average and marginal physical product are declining. In Stage 2.

At the boundary between stage 2 and stage 3.STAGES OF PRODUCTION FUNCTION In Stage 3. . too much variable input is being used relative to the available fixed inputs: variable inputs are over-utilized in the sense that overtheir presence on the margin obstructs the production process rather than enhancing it. The output per unit of both the fixed and the variable input declines throughout this stage. the highest possible output is being obtained from the fixed input.

b. diminishing returns to scale . and if b + c < 1. Q=aLbCc If b + c = 1. it shows increasing returns to scale. the Cobb-Douglas model shows Cobbconstant returns to scale.The Cobb-Douglas Production CobbFunction The simplest production function is the CobbCobbDouglas model. The parameters a. It has the following form: where Q stands for output. L for labor. and C for capital. If b + c > 1. and c (the latter two being the exponents) are estimated from empirical data.

Types of Production Functions Linear Production Function: A production function that assumes a perfect linear relationship between inputs & total output Leontief Production Function: A production function that assumes that inputs are used in fixed proportions CobbCobb-Douglas Production Function: A production function that assumes some degree of substitutability between inputs .

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diminishing returns to scale.The Cobb-Douglas Production CobbFunction The simplest production function is the Cobb-Douglas Cobbmodel. L for labor. If b + c = 1. . and c (the latter two being the exponents) are estimated from empirical data. b. The parameters a. and if b + c < 1. the Cobb-Douglas model shows constant Cobbreturns to scale. and C for capital. If b + c > 1. it shows increasing returns to scale. It has the following form: Q=aLbCc where Q stands for output.

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