© All Rights Reserved

8 visualizações

© All Rights Reserved

- INVERTER
- Comparison 3Level Inverter Multi LevelTM
- PSpice Examples
- Power Electronics by M H Rashid
- EE2301 - Power Electronics.docx
- Variable Frequency Drive
- Applications of Line Model of Emtp
- Inverter Project Titles
- IEEE 2014 Power Electronics and Power System
- 4
- 1
- 9A02504 Power Electronics
- Lecture5_pwm Inverter1 2014
- Diodes and Rectification Amy Rapa – 29895G
- 3 Phase Induction Motor Ed.doc
- 384132841841
- 01518300.pdf
- Hart Full Toc
- mathematical model for LCL filter with AFE converter
- Space Veactor

Você está na página 1de 470

sources] [Efficient and Intelligent] loads]

DC-DC conversion

AC-DC rectification

DC-AC inversion

AC-AC cyclo conversion

Power processing is controlled

Input [Various Switching Converters Output[various

sources] [Efficient and Intelligent] loads]

Control input

Reference

Few words about Power

Electronics

Power electronics refers to electronic circuits whose

primary function is to process energy

Signal level circuits process information

Power electronic systems comprise a combination of

these two circuit classes interposed between sources

and sinks of electric energy

The increasing penetration of power electronics into

commercial, industrial, and military applications are

driven by three forces:

Few words..

1. Decreasing cost making solid-state power

technology more economically attractive

2. new semiconductor materials allowing the control

of higher voltages and operation at higher

temperatures and frequencies

3. the need for more sophisticated and energy efficient

control process

Applications

Applications……….

A most unusual application of power electronics is

gaining interest recently- the extraction of energy

from very low power sources

These range from mechanical vibrations to

electrochemical potentials within the body

This is an extreme power electronics challenge,

requiring conversion at very low voltages (10s of

millivolts), with an efficiency that produces usable

energy, and a size that is biologically implantable

Power processing is efficient

Efficiency (η) = Pout/Pin

Ploss = Pin – Pout = Pout[(1/η) -1]

Efficient and intelligent controller

Recent trend is to design converters of small in size,

lighter in weight which can process substantial power

at high efficiency

For certain class of converters (resonant, soft-

switched) efficiency is as high as 97%

Advancement in VLSI field and signal processing has

created interest in intelligent control of these

converters

Elements/devices for design

Elements/devices for design

Elements/devices for design

Course coverage

Text book:

T1. N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland, and W. P. Robbins,

Power Electronics: Converters, Applications, and

Design, John Wiley & Sons Inc. 2003, third edition.

References:

R1. Robert W. Erickson and Dragon Maksimovic,

Fundamentals of Power Electronics, Kluwer Academic

Publishers, second edition, 2001

R2. Class notes and other references

Course coverage

Introduction of power electronics

Introduction to power processing, application of power

electronics, elements of power electronics

Switch realization

Switch applications, a brief survey of power

semiconductor switches (diodes, MOSFETs, BJTs,

IGBTs, thyristors), switching loss

Course coverage

DC-DC converters

Principles of steady state analysis, inductor volt-

second balance, capacitor charge balance, small-ripple

approximation, steady-state equivalent circuit

modeling, losses and efficiency

Operation and design issues of buck, boost, and buck-

boost converters in continuous and discontinuous

conduction mode

Cuk converter, isolated converters

Course coverage

AC to DC converters.

Line frequency diode rectifiers: line frequency AC-

uncontrolled DC

Line frequency phase controlled rectifiers and

inverters: line-frequency ac-controlled dc

The nature of harmonic corruption and power factor

problems.

Course coverage

DC to AC converters.

The switch mode voltage source inverter (VSI): design

and operational issues.

Square wave and quasi-square wave inverter; PWM

control strategies.

Harmonic corruption and power factor problems.

Course coverage

Converter dynamics and control

AC equivalent circuit modeling: Basic AC modeling

approach, state-space averaging, circuit averaging and

averaged switch modeling, canonical circuit model

Converter transfer function and controller design

Course coverage

Resonant and soft-switching converters

Series resonant DC-DC converter, Parallel resonant

DC-DC converter, zero voltage and zero current

switching topologies

Course coverage

AC-AC converters

The AC power controller: modes of operation, power

factor and harmonic problems, applications.

Practical issues

Gate and base drive circuits, snubber circuits,

magnetics and heat sink design

Power loss in an ideal switch

Switch closed v(t) = 0

Switch open i(t) = 0

i(t)

Power loss in either case

p(t) = v(t) i(t) =0 v(t)

Simple DC-DC converter

How to meet the load requirement of 50V, 10A

with an available source of 100V

Dissipative realization

Resistive voltage divider (efficiency = ?)

Dissipative realization

Series pass regulator: transistor operates in active region

(Efficiency = ?)

Switch realization

Single pole double throw switch (SPDT) is used

(efficiency = ?)

Voltage level is changed by duty cycle variation

D = switch duty cycle [ 0 ≤ D ≤ 1 ]

Ts = switching period; fs = switching frequency

DC value of Vs = D* Vg

Efficiency = ?

Filter for switching harmonics

Low pass filter using L and C is introduced

Filter cut-off frequency fo is much smaller than switching frequency fs

This is a buck converter

Controller for regulated output

The boost converter

Voltage level is boosted by changing the position

of switch and circuit elements

A single phase inverter

Duty cycle variation is sinusoidal leading to desired sinusoidal output

[ important advantage of switch mode circuits]

Application of power electronics

1. At various power levels

Tens, hundreds, and thousands watt power supplies for

computers or office equipments

kW and MW in variable speed motor drives

1000MW in rectifiers and inverters for utility DC

transmission line

A laptop computer power supply system

Electric vehicle power and drive system

Component weights SiC and Si

based converter

Power system of an earth orbiting

spacecraft

Elements of power electronics

Analog circuits

Electronic devices

Control systems

Power systems

Electric machines

Magnetics

Signal processing

VLSI

Looking ahead

Converter dynamics and control

model

Looking ahead

Converter transfer function

Controller design

Input filter design

Modeling of discontinuous conduction mode

Current program control

Latest in the field of converter design

Various applications

Looking ahead

Power devices with ratings

Switch realization

Semiconductor power devices behave as a SPST switch

(SPST) Polarity of the voltage that device must block in the OFF state,

Switch ON i>0 and on the polarity of the current that devices must conduct

Switch OFF v>0 in the ON state

Switch realization

A single quadrant switch is capable

of conducting currents of single

polarity, and of blocking

Voltage of a single polarity

[Quadrant of operation] switches can be

realized with Combination of transistors

and diodes

Switch realization

Single quadrant Current bidirectional

switch Two quadrant switch

Voltage bidirectional

Two quadrant switch Four quadrant

switch

Single-quadrant switch

Active switch: switch state is controlled by a third

control terminal

applied current and/or Voltage at terminals 1 and 2

Single quadrant switch: ON state i(t) and OFF state v(t) are unipolar

The diode

A passive switch

BJT & IGBT

BJT IGBT

ON state current and can block positive OFF state voltage

MOSFET

negative current in some cases

Realization of switch using

transistor and diode

Current bidirectional two quadrant

switches

diode realization

An active switch controlled by terminal C

Can conduct positive or negative ON-state current

Two quadrant switches

MOSFET body diode

characteristics Integral body diode To prevent conduction

Of body diode

A simple inverter

Bidirectional battery

charger/discharger

Alternatively Conduct, when battery is being discharged,

iL is negative, and Q2 and D1 Alternatively conduct

Switching waveforms

Switching transition

Switching loss

Turn-on crossover interval

tc(on) = tri + tfv

Energy dissipated during turn-on

Wc(on) = ½ Vd* Io* tc(on)

Turn-off interval

Tc(off) = trv + tfi

Energy dissipated during turn-off

Wc(off) = ½ Vd*Io*tc(off)

Switching power loss

Ps = ½ *Vd*Io*fs(tc(on)+tc(off))

Switching trajectory

Safe operating area

Linear transition

Switching trajectory

Transition with ideal

diode(rectangular)

Switching trajectory

Actual turn-off and trajectory

Turn-on and trajectory

Type of Commutation and Energy Loss

1. Linear

VoffIontswitch/6

2.Rectangular (clamped inductive)

VoffIontswitch/2

3. Inductive

VoffIontswitch/1.5

Efficiency vs. switching frequency

Switching losses are equal to other

Converter losses at critical frequency

With frequency

A brief survey of power semiconductor devices

Power diodes

Power MOSFETs

Challenges for power

semiconductor design

To obtain high breakdown voltage keeping on-state

resistance and forward voltage low

This forces a longer switching time (lower switching

frequency)

To achieve high breakdown voltage, doping

concentration is low, leading to high resistivity

(dominant contributor to on-resistance of the device)

Wide band gap semiconductor

devices

Power diodes turn-on transient

(i) charge to increase voltage across depletion region

(ii) Charge needed to support the on-state current

(iii) Charge to reduce on-state resistance of n-region

Turn-off transients

ta is the time required for the diode

Reverse current to increase from zero

to its peak IRRM

peak value to zero

Actual diode waveforms

Important parameters from data

sheet

Switching loss in transistor due to

diode transients

Transistor during transistor turn-on transition,

Including switching loss

Qr depends on diode on-state forward current, and

On the rate-of-change of diode current during diode

turn-off transition

waveforms

Switching loss = Wd * fs

Wd = Vg * iL * tr + Vg Qr

Principles of steady state analysis

SPDT switch changes

DC component

Vs(t) = D*Vg

D = duty cycle

0≤ D ≤1

DC component of switch output

voltage

Low pass filter to remove switching

harmonics and pass only DC value

V = D*Vg

Basic DC-DC converter, Buck

converter

Boost Converter

Buck-Boost converter

Inductor volt-second balance, capacitor charge

balance, small ripple (linear ripple) approximation

Practical low pass filter

v(t) = V + vripple(t)

Small ripple approximation

v(t) = V + vripple(t)

Buck converter analysis

Inductor current and voltage at

switch position 1

Small signal approximation gives, vL = Vg – V

constant slope

Inductor current and voltage at

switch position 2

Small signal approximation gives; vL = – V

Inductor voltage and current

waveforms

Inductor current ripple

Inductor current at starting

Principle of inductor volt-second

balance

The requirement that, in equilibrium, the net change in

inductor current over one switching period be zero gives

us the steady state condition in any switching converter:

the principle of inductor volt-second balance

Principle of inductor volt-second

balance

Inductor relation

The right hand side has the units of volt-seconds ,

which states that the net area or the net volt-seconds,

under the v (t) waveform must be zero

L

dc component

Inductor volt-second balance: buck

converter example

Average voltage is

Principle of capacitor charge

balance

Capacitor defining relation

In periodic steady state, net change in capacitor

voltage is zero

Hence the total area (or charge) under capacitor current waveform

is zero under steady State condition, leading to zero average

capacitor current

Boost converter analysis

Boost converter analysis

Subinterval1: switch in position1

Inductor voltage and capacitor current

Subinterval2:switch in position2

Inductor voltage and capacitor current

Inductor voltage and capacitor

current waveforms

Inductor voltage balance

Net volt-second applied to inductor

over one switching period

Equating to zero

Solving for V

Conversion ratio M(D) of boost

converter

DC component of inductor current

Capacitor charge balance

Equating to zero

Solving for I

Eliminating V

Inductor current ripple

Subinterval 1:

Inductor current slope during

Subinterval 2:

Peak ripple

Capacitor voltage ripple

Interval 1

Capacitor voltage slope during

interval 2

Peak ripple

Discontinuous conduction mode

Minimum diode current

= (I – Δi )L

DC component of current

= V/R

Current ripple is

Reduction of load current

Increase R until

I = ΔiL

At this condition inductor

current iL(t) and Diode current

iD(t) are both zero at the end of

Switching period. Load current

is still positive and non zero

Further reduction of load current

I < ΔiL

hence, Diode becomes reverse

biased before Ts

D1Ts: transistor conducts

D2Ts: diode conducts

D3Ts: neither diode nor transistor

Conducts, converter operates in

Discontinuous Conduction mode

Mode boundary

Boundary condition

Leads to

Variation of K and Kcrit with D

and in CCM at high duty cycle

converter operates in CCM for

all duty cycle K > 1

Critical load resistance

Lab Experiment: Feb 6, 2014

Analysis of conversion ratio

Inductor volt-second balance

Subintervals of operations

Sub-interval 2,3

Subinterval 1

Subinterval 2

Subinterval 3

Inductor volt-second balance

Solving for V

Capacitor charge balance

Node equation

hence

Inductor current waveform

Inductor current

Peak current

Average current

Triangle formula

Equating to DC component of

DC load current

Solution for V

Inductor volt-second balance

Solving for V

Buck converter M(D,K)

Boost converter example(DCM)

Mode boundary

Mode boundary

K and Kcrit(D)

[Kcrit(D) vs. D]

Mode boundary(comparison of K

and Kcrit(D)

Subintervals of operations

Sub-intervals 2,3

Subinterval 1

Subinterval 2

Subinterval 3

Inductor volt-second valance

Capacitor charge balance

Inductor and diode current

waveforms

Equating diode current to load

current

Solution

Solving for V

Boost converter characteristics

Summary of converters

Characteristics comparison in DCM

Key points

The discontinuous conduction mode occurs in converters containing

current- or voltage- unidirectional switches, when the inductor

current or capacitor voltage ripple is large enough to cause the

switch current or voltage to reverse polarity

be found by determining when the inductor current or capacitor

voltage ripples and DC components cause the switch on-state

current or off-state voltage to reverse polarity

discontinuous conduction mode can be found by application of the

principles of inductor volt-second and capacitor charge balance

Key points

Extra care is required when applying the small-ripple

approximation. Some waveforms, such as the output

voltage, should have small ripple which can be neglected.

Other waveforms, such as one or more inductor currents,

may have large ripple that cannot be ignored

when the converter enters DCM. The output voltage

becomes load-dependent, resulting in an increase in the

converter output impedance

Inclusion of inductor copper loss

Dc transformer model can be extended, to include

Converter non idealities like inductor copper loss

copper loss

Analysis of non-ideal boost

converter

Pos 1 Pos 2

Circuit equations, switch in

position1

Circuit equation, switch in

position2

Inductor voltage and capacitor

current waveforms

Solution for output voltage

Efficiency for various values of RL

Inclusion of semiconductor

conduction losses

Boost converter example

Inductor voltage and capacitor

current

Converter efficiency

AC-DC rectification(line frequency

ac- uncontrolled dc)

As a filter

High distortion in input current

utility

of current distortion allowed into utility, and a simple

diode rectifiers may not be allowed

Basic rectifier concepts

waveforms

With inductive load

Load with a dc back emf

Single phase diode rectifier bridge

With Ls = 0 and resistive load

Dc side as constant current

Waveforms analysis

Simplified circuit

With resistive load

With constant load current

𝑇/2 Vs is the rms

1 2 Value of input

𝑉𝑑0 = 2 𝑉𝑠 sin 𝑤𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = 2 𝑉𝑠 = 0.9𝑉𝑠

𝑇/2 0 𝜋 voltage

Rectifier input current

Harmonic component of input

current

THD= 48.43%

With ac side inductance

Waveforms without Ls

Basic circuit to understand

commutation

Understanding commutation

Waveforms during commutation

Circuit after commutation

Reduction in output voltage due to

commutation

During commutation

Current commutation in bridge

rectifier

Circuit during commutation

Reduction in voltage

𝐴𝑢 = 2𝑤𝐿𝑠 𝐼𝑑

2𝑤𝐿𝑠 𝐼𝑑

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑢 = 1 −

2𝑉𝑠

2𝐿𝑠 𝑤𝐼𝑑

𝑉𝑑 = 0.9𝑉𝑠 −

2𝜋

Rectifier with dc side voltage

waveforms

Normalized Id versus Vd with

constant dc side voltage

Effect of dc side current on PF THD

and DPF

Power and harmonics in non-

sinusoidal systems

Energy transmitted to load per

cycle

Average power

Net energy is transmitted to load only when Fourier series of

v(t) and i(t) contains same frequency term

Examples

Examples

Examples

Examples

RMS value and power factor

Increase in losses due to harmonics

The presence of harmonics always increases its rms

value

In case where the voltage contains only fundamental

while current contains harmonics, then the harmonics

increase the rms value of current with average power

unchanged

The result is increased (Irms)^2 R losses in the system

Series resistances (R) always exists in the source, load,

transmission line etc.

Linear resistive load, non-

sinusoidal voltage

Non-linear dynamic load,

sinusoidal voltage

Distortion factor

Distortion factor vs THD

Example

Example

Diode bridge rectifier waveforms

Input line current distortion

Line voltage distortion

Line voltage distortion

L-C filtered output

Output voltage

Three phase rectifiers

Waveforms

Line frequency ac- controlled dc

Rectification and inversion

Resistive load

Inductive load

Load with dc side voltage

Gate trigger control circuit

Practical thyristor converters

Single phase with Ls = 0 and

constant Id

Waveforms α =0

With finite α

Dc-side voltage

ac-side quantities

Powers

Effect of Ls

Waveforms

Practical thyristor converters

waveforms

Discontinuous conduction

Inverter mode of operation

waveforms

With a dc voltage source

DC-AC inverters

DC-AC inverters

in ac motor drives

DC-AC inverters

Voltage source inverters (VSI)

Current source inverters (CSI)

Three categories of VSI

a) Pulse-width modulated inverters

b) square wave inverters

c) single phase inverters with voltage cancellation

PWM inverters

DC input voltage is constant in magnitude. Diode

rectifier is used to rectify the line voltage

Inverter must control the magnitude and the

frequency of the output voltage

This is achieved by PWM of the inverters switches and

hence such inverters are called PWM inverters

Various PWM schemes are available

Sinusoidal PWM scheme is discussed

Square wave inverters

DC input voltage is controlled in order to control the

magnitude of the output ac voltage, and therefore the

inverter has to control only the frequency of the output

voltage

The output ac voltage has a waveform similar to a

square wave, and hence these inverters are called

square wave inverters

Single phase inverters with voltage

cancellation

In case of inverters with single phase output, it is

possible to control the magnitude and the frequency of

the inverter output voltage, even though the input to

the inverter is a constant dc voltage and the inverter

switches are not pulse width modulated.

Single phase inverter

Quadrant of operation

Full bridge topology

Output voltage

The output voltage VAN, with respect to negative dc bus

N, is dictated by the switch states

When TA+ is ON the output current will flow through TA+

if io is positive or it will flow through DA+ if io is negative.

In either case, TA+ being ON ensures that the point A is at

the same potential as the positive terminal of dc input

voltage, hence

VAN = Vd (TA+ is ON and TA- is OFF)

Similarly when TA- is ON, a negative io will flow through TA-

and positive io will flow through DA-, leading to VAN = 0 (if

TA- is ON and TA+ is OFF)

Output voltage

VAN depends on the switch status and is independent of

the direction of io. Therefore , the output voltage of

converter leg A, averaged over one time period depends

on the input voltage Vd and the duty ratio of TA+

VAN = (Vd ton + 0.toff)/Ts

= Vd . Duty ratio of TA+

Similarly for leg B

VBN = Vd. Duty ratio of TB+

Output voltage; Vo = VAN - VBN

PWM with bipolar switching

Switches (TA+ , TB-) and (TB+, TA-) are treated as switch pairs

Switching signal is generated by comparing a switching

frequency triangular waveform V tri with the control

voltage V control

when V control > V tri, TA+ and TB- are ON; Otherwise,

TA- and TB+ are ON

Output voltage is given by

Vo = (Vd/V tri). V control = k . V control

PWM with bipolar switching

PWM with unipolar switching

In full bridge converter, regardless of the direction of io, Vo = 0

if TA+ and TB+ are both ON

Similarly Vo = 0 if TA- and TB- are both ON

A triangular waveform is compared with control voltage

Vcontrol and -Vcontrol for determining the Switching signals

for leg A and leg B respectively

Comparison of Vcontrol with Vtri Controls leg A switches, whereas

Leg B switches are controlled by comparing –Vcontrol with Vtri

Unipolar switching

TA+ is ON if Vcontrol > Vtri

Vo = (Vd/Vtri)/Vcontrol

Same as in the bipolar

Switching scheme

One leg of DC-AC inverter

Sinusoidal PWM

A sinusoidal control signal at the desired frequency is

compared with a triangular waveform

fs (carrier frequency). The control Signal Vcontrol is used to

modulate the switch duty ratio and has a frequency f1,

which is the desired fundamental frequency of the inverter

voltage output

Amplitude and frequency

modulation ratio

Amplitude modulation ratio ma is defined as

ma = (Vcontrol/Vtri)

mf = (fs/f1)

comparison of Vcontrol and Vtri

Vcontrol < Vtri ; TA- is ON ; VAo = - ½ Vd

SPWM

Output voltage waveform

Output voltage magnitude

Output voltage

When Vcontrol = Vcontrol sin(ω1t) ; where Vcontrol ≤ Vtri

Sinusoidally and in phase with Vcontrol as function of time

= ma sin(ω1t) Vd/2

Which shows that in a SPWM, the amplitude of

the fundamental frequency component of the

output voltage varies linearly with ma for ma ≤ 1.0,

which is the linear range of ma

Harmonic spectrum of output

voltage

Output voltage harmonics

The harmonics appear as sidebands, centered around

the switching frequency and its multiples, that is,

around mf, 2mf, 3mf, and so on. This is true for all

values of ma in the range of 0-1

Theoretically the frequencies at which the voltage

harmonics occur can be indicated as

fh = (jmf±k)f1

The harmonic order h corresponds to the kth

sideband of j times the frequency modulation

ration mf

h= j(mf)±k

values of k. for even values of j, the harmonics exist

only for odd values of k

Selection of mf

The harmonic mf should be an odd integer. It results

in an odd symmetry [f(-t) = -f(t)] as well as half

symmetry [f(t) = -f(t+(1/2)T1)] with the time origin.

harmonics are absent in the output voltage waveform

Frequency modulation ratio

selection

Filtering higher frequency harmonics is easier, so

switching frequency is kept higher. This leads to

more switching losses

selected to be either less than 6kHz or greater than

20kHz to be above the audible range

Small and large mf

For small mf(mf ≤ 21), the triangular waveform signal

and the control signal should be synchronized to each

other

sub harmonics(of the fundamental frequency)

Generalized harmonics

Over modulation(ma>1.0)

Voltage control by ma

Assignment2(submission

date:April2,2014)

Simulate single phase rectifiers (both controlled and

uncontrolled) using SIMULINK and explain the waveforms

discussed in lecture class

Repeat the same for a single phase DC-AC inverter circuit

Full bridge inverter

Unipolar voltage switching

Vcontrol > Vtri ; TA+ is ON ; VAN = Vd

Vcontrol < Vtri ; TA- is ON ; VAN = 0

(-Vcontrol) < Vtri; TB- is ON; VBN = 0

Waveforms

Combination of switch ON-state

Four combinations:

1. TA+, TB- ON; VAN = Vd, VBN = 0, Vo= Vd

2. TA-, TB+ ON; VAN = 0, VBN = Vd, Vo = -Vd

3. TA+, TB+ ON; VAN = Vd, VBN = Vd, Vo = 0

4. TA-, TB- ON; VAN = 0, VBN= 0, Vo = 0

When both the upper switches are ON, the output

voltage is zero. The output current circulates in the

loop through TA+ and DB+ or DA+ and TB+, depending

on the direction of i0. During this interval, the input

current id is zero. Similar is the case when both bottom

switches are ON

Output voltage magnitude

The output voltage changes between zero and +Vd or

between zero and – Vd

This is known as unipolar switching

Vo1(peak) = ma Vd; (ma ≤1.0)

Vd< Vo1(peak) < (4/π) Vd; (ma>1.0)

Spectrum of output voltage

Output voltage harmonics

This scheme effectively doubles the switching

frequency from output harmonics point of view

The advantage of effectively doubling the switching

frequency appears in the harmonic spectrum of the

output voltage waveform, where the lowest harmonics

appears as sidebands of twice the switching frequency

For even mf, the harmonic component at switching

and the sidebands of the switching frequency

harmonics disappear

Square wave operation

Switches (TA+ , TB- ) and (TB+ , TA- ) are operated as

two pairs with a duty ratio of 0.5

Output voltage magnitude is regulated by input dc

voltage

V01(peak) = (4/π) Vd

Output control by voltage

cancellation

All the switches have a duty ratio of 0.5

Waveform overlap angle α can be controlled

Output voltage

Output voltage

During this overlap interval, the output voltage is zero

With α = 0, the output voltage is similar to the square

wave inverter with maximum possible fundamental

output magnitude

Fundamental and harmonic frequency components of

the output voltage is given by

(Vo)h, max = (4/πh)Vd sin(hβ)

β = (90⁰ - α/2); h is an odd integer

Fundamental and harmonic voltage

output

Ripple in single phase inverter

output

ripple

Fundamental frequency

component

Ripple in square wave switching

Ripple in PWM bipolar switching

Selection of inverter switching

frequency

The PWM inverter results in a substantially smaller

peak ripple current component compared to the

square wave inverter

Advantageous when switching harmonics are pushed

to as high frequency as possible which is achieved by

using higher switching frequency

Higher switching frequency causes higher switching

losses, reducing the overall energy efficiency

So, compromise must be made in selecting the inverter

switching frequency

Three phase inverter

PWM waveform

Line to line voltage and its

spectrum

Blanking time

Due to finite turn-off and turn-on times associated

with any type of switch, the turn-on of the other

switch in that inverter leg is delayed by a blanking

time tΔ which is chosen to avoid a shoot through or

cross conduction current through the leg

The blanking time is chosen in few microseconds or

even lesser for fast devices like MOSFETs

Effect of blanking time

Effect of blanking time

Both switches are off during the blanking time, VAN

depends on the direction iA

The difference between the ideal and actual output

voltage is

vε = (VAN)ideal – (VAN)actual

Averaging over one time period of the switching

frequency, change in output voltage due to tΔ

ΔVAN = +(tΔ/Ts) Vd; iA >0

ΔVAN = -(tΔ/Ts) Vd; iA <0

Output voltage change

Similarly for leg B

ΔVBN = -(tΔ/Ts) Vd; iA >0

ΔVBN = +(tΔ/Ts) Vd; iA <0

ΔVo = ΔVAN – ΔVBN = +(2tΔ/Ts) Vd; io >0

= -(2tΔ/Ts) Vd; io <0

Change in output voltage when

current reverses direction

Effect on sinusoidal output

Effect of output voltage distortion

The distortion in output voltage at zero crossings

results in low order harmonics such as third, fifth,

seventh, and so on of the fundamental frequency in

the inverter output

Steady state equivalent circuit

model

expressions

Pin = Pout ; Vg Ig = V I

V = M(D) Vg ; Ig = M(D) I

Transformer model representation

At secondary side

Construction of equivalent circuit

model

Inductor volt-second and capacitor

charge balance

Respective expressions

Corresponding circuits

Representation dc-transformer

Equivalent model

Transformer secondary

side/solution

Converter dynamics and control

What we look at to design these

systems?

1. Dynamic model of the switching converters

2.How do the variations in the power input voltage, the

load current, or the duty cycle affect the output

voltage?

3. what are the small signal transfer functions?

4. steady state models will be extended to include the

dynamics introduced by the inductors and capacitors

of the converters [what about diodes?]

Modeling

Representation of physical phenomena by

mathematical means

We model only the important dominant behavior of

the system, ignoring other insignificant phenomena

(complicated phenomena)!

Approximation plays an important role in modeling

process

Once we understand the system behavior with

approximate model, models can be refined for more

complicated observations

Neglecting the switching ripple

Switching frequency ωs

Output voltage

Output voltage spectrum

and its side bands are neglected, and only

modulating frequency (low frequency ) harmonics remain

Objective of ac modeling

To predict how low frequency variation in duty cycle

induce low frequency variation in converter voltages

and currents

Ignore the switching ripple

Ignore complicated switching harmonics and its

sidebands

Approach will be to remove switching harmonics,

averaging all waveforms over one switching period

Averaging to remove switching

ripple

In steady state

Non-linear averaged equations

These averaged voltages and currents are non-linear

functions of converter duty cycle, voltages and

currents

Linearization is done by constructing small signal

model of the converter

Buck-boost converter model

Switch at position 1

Switch at position 2

Averaging the inductor waveforms

Low frequency average is found by

Leads to

Waveforms

Inductor current

Inductor current waveforms

Averaging capacitor waveforms

Waveforms , current

Capacitor voltage

The average input current

Perturbation and linearization

Linearization around quiescent

point

For steady-state value of

reaches quiescent values I, V and Vg, given by

Perturbation

Let small variation in

Small signal assumptions

If ac variations are much smaller than corresponding quiescent

value

Perturbation of inductor equation

The perturbed inductor equation

Neglecting the second order term

and equating dc and ac term from

both sides

the small signal ac variations

Capacitor equations

Linearized capacitor equation

Average input current

Equivalent circuit model equations

Inductor loop equation

Capacitor node equation

Input port node equation

Complete equivalent circuit

Dc transformer model

Converter transfer function

The ac output voltage variation in terms of superposition

of two inputs is given by

Control to output and line to

output transfer function

Line to output transfer function

Gvg(s)

Setting d sources to zero

After dc transformer

Transfer function

Using voltage division formula

Simplifying

Standard form

Salient feature

Control to output transfer function

Gvd (s)

After dc transformer

With voltage source

With current source

overall

Normalized form

Standard form

Salient feature

Example

Bode plot; control to output

transfer function

Bode plot; line to output transfer

function

Salient features

Effect of RHP zero

State space averaging

Example

Circuit equations

Matrix form

Output

Basic state space average model

For a converter operating in CCM, state equations are

formulated during both subintervals as follows

During sub-interval 1

During sub-interval 2

Equilibrium(dc) state space average

model

Solution for dc model

Small signal ac model

Non-ideal buck-boost converter

Input, state, output

Sub-interval 1

State space

Sub-interval 2

State space

Averaged matrices

Dc state equations

Dc solutions

Small signal ac model

Small signal ac state equations

Small signal ac model

Inductor equation

Input and capacitor

Overall model

Controller design

Functional block diagram

even if disturbances in vg(t) and iload(t) are there

With negative feedback

Functional block diagram with

feedback

Model representing variations in

vg, d and iload

Values for different topologies

Transfer function

Regulator small signal block

diagram

Block diagram solution

Simplified form

Line to output transfer function

Line to output transfer function without feedback loop

Reduction in transfer function

Feedback reduces the transfer function by a factor

variation v resulting from vg is highly attenuated

Closed loop output impedance

Open loop output impedance

Reduction in output impedance

With feedback output impedance reduces by a factor

on the output voltage is reduced

Transfer function from reference to

output

Bode plot; T(s)

Bode plot

Approximation fro T/(1+T) and

1/(1+T)

Plot of T/(T+1)

Example output to reference

Well below cross over frequency , T(s) is large

and output follows the reference with ideal gain 1/H(s)

Above cross over frequency

reference to output; the loop has no effect on the transfer

function from reference to output

Plot of 1/(T+1)

Disturbance rejection

factor 1/T(s);

disturbances

Stability

Addition of a feedback loop can cause an otherwise stable

system to become unstable

function

Phase margin test

Allows determination of closed loop stability directly

from the magnitude and phase of T(s)

A good design tool: observation shows how T(s)

should be shaped to obtain good performance in

transfer function containing 1/1 + T(s) term

Stability test

The crossover frequency fc is defined as the frequency where

T(s) at fc as

For one crossover frequency

If there is only one cross over frequency and T(s)

contains no RHP poles then,

The quantities 1/(1+ T(s)) and T(s)/(1+T(s)) contain no

RHP poles whenever the phase margin φm is positive

Example: stable closed loop system

Unstable closed loop system

Phase margin and closed loop

damping factor

A small positive phase margin leads to a stable closed

loop system having complex poles near the crossover

frequency with high Q. the transient response exhibits

overshoot and ringing

Increasing the phase margin reduces the Q. obtaining

real poles, with no overshoot and ringing, requires a

large phase margin

Closed loop response

Low Q case

High Q case

Q vs. φm

Plot

Transient response

Transient response

Regulator design; specifications

Effect of load current variations on output voltage

regulation [limit on the maximum allowable output

impedance]

Effect of input voltage variations on the output voltage

regulation [limits the maximum line-to-output

transfer function]

Transient response time [requires a sufficiently high

crossover frequency]

Overshoot and ringing [adequate phase margin must

be obtained]

Lead PD compensator

Maximum phase lead

Phase lead design

For a phase lead of θ at crossover frequency, the pole and

zero frequency is selected as

Example

Quiescent operating point

Small signal model

Control to output transfer function

Bode plot

Line to output transfer function

Block diagram

Uncompensated loop gain

Obtain a crossover frequency at 5kHz with phase

margin of 52 degrees

Plot with compensator

1/[1+T(s)] with lead compensator

- INVERTEREnviado poryohanes.s
- Comparison 3Level Inverter Multi LevelTMEnviado porSri Krishna Kumar
- PSpice ExamplesEnviado porshatila
- Power Electronics by M H RashidEnviado porAditya Thanawala
- EE2301 - Power Electronics.docxEnviado porsivagamipalani
- Variable Frequency DriveEnviado porAaron Palomino Ramirez
- Applications of Line Model of EmtpEnviado porMarin Rivera Granados
- Inverter Project TitlesEnviado porAjith Kumar
- IEEE 2014 Power Electronics and Power SystemEnviado porSDPROSOLUTIONS
- 4Enviado porsreekantha2013
- 1Enviado pormutharasu29
- 9A02504 Power ElectronicsEnviado porsivabharathamurthy
- Lecture5_pwm Inverter1 2014Enviado porumm_rahman
- Diodes and Rectification Amy Rapa – 29895GEnviado porAmyRapa
- 3 Phase Induction Motor Ed.docEnviado pornagaraj253
- 384132841841Enviado porMAILMEUS
- 01518300.pdfEnviado porJai Kumar
- Hart Full TocEnviado porabdurrahman
- mathematical model for LCL filter with AFE converterEnviado porSubash Chandar Adikesavan
- Space VeactorEnviado porahmed
- 01_Introduction to Multilevel InvertersEnviado porp09el860
- 02 Uncontrolled AC to DC Converters3Enviado porsiegfred sicat
- Kumar 2014Enviado porHimanshu Vasudev
- AN122 Selecting a Boost Regulator and Its Inductor.pdfEnviado porAngeeEbreo
- EC302Enviado porapi-3853441
- [28]_Trends in Active Power Line ConditionersEnviado porrakeshee2007
- ELE 3305 Power Supply DesignEnviado porMuhammad Salis
- 1Enviado porMirza Shahzaib Shahid
- unit 1Enviado porIntekhab Alam
- U30D20A/U30D30A/U30D40A/U30D50A/U30D60AEnviado porAnonymous XQ97Fmj

- 519 33 Powerpoint-slides Ch02 Foundations of Electrical Engineering Asian EditionEnviado porAyushmaan
- Why should I use DC++ in ACTIVE mode [Last Updated 17th April 2018]Enviado porAyushmaan
- Microelectronic Circuits.pdfEnviado porAyushmaan
- PS-2 Sem2 Response sheet 2017-18.xlsxEnviado porAyushmaan
- PS-2 Sem1 Response sheet 2017-18.xlsxEnviado porAyushmaan
- Product Key For God Of War III.txtEnviado porAyushmaan

- Statcom_meeting the Grid CodeEnviado porVinod Dhanush
- C6200 Installation Manual UK PDFEnviado porDuy Phương
- Transformers and Tapchangers Version EEnviado pormartinez_josel
- Calculate Size of Capacitor Bank Annual Saving & Payback PeriodEnviado porAbdulyunus Amir
- Redistart Micro Manual 15-01-00.pdfEnviado porDhanasekar Pillai
- Unity Power FactorEnviado porReshmi Parikal Raghavan
- Leroy Somer - AlternatorsEnviado porRWBalmelo
- Plattsburgh Municipal Lighting Dept-NY-15145Enviado porGenability
- Var PlusEnviado porStroe George
- Lecture 03 - 3phase.pdfEnviado porSamuelMatthew
- Assignment-I.docxEnviado poramith gupta
- Lecture Notes on Electrical Machines IIEnviado porLidef Sellenrof
- 2CDC190022C0205Enviado porteguh_setiono
- Ec Technology BrochureEnviado porbookslover1
- RPV Medium Voltage Equipment & DevicesEnviado porNitsua Bayquen Suico
- Chauvin Arnoux 8350Enviado porMarc Petty
- d-40200621sq25mobuser090112en.pdfEnviado porGina Moron Moron
- Variable-Speed Wind Power Generation UsingEnviado porsrinu240000
- product_data_23XRV_en.pdfEnviado porMarianela MasyRubi
- Buyers Guide Hv Live Tank Circuit Breakers Ed5 EnEnviado porSNgqakayi
- GE HID Ballast Application GuideEnviado porJohn Swabey
- Energy Efficiency & ConservationEnviado porOm Prakash
- Watt MeterEnviado porHabib Antoury
- rr310203-power-systems-iiEnviado porSRINIVASA RAO GANTA
- Phaseo Catl en 200701Enviado porGustavo Surace
- Solid StateEnviado porTechnos_Inc
- Delta UPS–Ultron FamilyEnviado porDelta Electronics, Inc.
- Black-Hills-Electric-Coop,-Inc-Black-Hills-Electric-Cooperative,-Inc.-Rate-ScheduleEnviado porGenability
- 369Enviado porNaif Al
- Sub Engineer DetailsEnviado porMalhotraSonia