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Chapter 1 Structure and Bonding Lecture 3

I. Molecular Orbitals and Covalent Bonding


A. H2 Molecule
1) Bonds are made by the in-phase overlap of atomic orbitals

2) H2 and He2 Bonding


a) 2 A.O.’s lead to 2 M.O.’s
b) Bonding Molecular Orbital is energy stabilized (-DE)
c) Antibonding M.O. is energy destabilized (+DE)
d) Electrons fill lowest energy M.O.’s first
B. Sigma and Pi Molecular Orbitals
1) Sigma Bond (s): atomic orbitals parallel with nuclear axis
2) Pi Bond (p): atomic orbitals perpendicular with nuclear axis

II. Hybrid Orbitals


A. sp Hybridization: BeH2
1) Need unpaired electrons to form bonds
2) Promotion of electron from
2s to 2p orbital
3) BeH2 is linear not bent

4) Orbital Hybridization: mixing of A.O.’s to form an equal number of new


hybrid orbitals with new geometries and energies
a) Linear
b) Symmetric
c) Be has 2 empty
p orbitals left

B. sp2 Hybrids: BH3


1) Trigonal
2) Symmetric
3) 1 p-orbital left
C. sp3 Hybrids: CH4
1) Tetrahedral
2) No p-orbitals left

D. Ethane: sp3 hybridization


in a C-C sigma bond

E. Ammonia and Water: sp3


hybridization and lone pairs

F. Ethene and Ethyne:


p-bonding with p-orbitals
III. Structures of Organic Molecules
A. Structural or Constitutional Isomers = molecules with the same molecular
formula, but different connectivities
1) Completely different compounds: ethanol and dimethyl ether
2) Completely different chemical and physical properties
Ethanol Dimethyl Ether
H H H H
H C C OH H C O C H
H H H H

B. Drawing molecular structures

Lewis/Kekule Condensed Bond-Line Dashed-Wedged Line

H H O H
H H O H O O
C C C H
H C C C C CH3CH2CCH CH2
H C C
H H C H
H H H
H