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BIO103

Energy of Life
Metabolism
Metabolism is a word used to describe all the chemical changes within an
organism which are necessary for life.
The word metabolite refers to substances which undergo various changes
during the metabolism. For example, carbon dioxide and water are metabolites
used in the process of photosynthesis.
Metabolism is the term used to refer to the sum of all chemical reactions
within a living organism. Because chemical reactions either release or require
energy; metabolism can be viewed as an energy-balancing act.
Two types of chemical reactions occur in cells: synthetic and break down.
Synthetic reactions are those in which molecules are linked together to
form a more complex compound:
A+B AB
A and B are the reactants (metabolites) and AB represents the product.
Break down reactions are those in which a complex compound is split into
simpler molecules:
AB A+B
In this case, AB is the substrate and A and B are the products.
Therefore, there are two different types of metabolism:
a) Catabolism
b) Anabolism
Catabolism
 Catabolism is a process in which complex substances are broken down into
simpler ones, resulting in the release of energy.
During respiration for example, glucose sugar is broken down into
carbon dioxide gas and water, releasing energy for life.
Anabolism
 Anabolism is a process which uses energy released during catabolism to
build up (synthesize) complex substances from simpler ones.
Examples of anabolism are photosynthesis and all processes of
growth and repair in the bodies of organisms.
Catabolic reactions furnish the energy needed to drive anabolic

reactions. This coupling of energy requiring and energy releasing

reactions is made possible through the molecule adenosine tri

phosphate (ATP).

 ATP stores energy derived from catabolic reactions and perform other

cellular work. Thus, anabolic reactions are coupled to ATP breakdown

and catabolic reactions are coupled to ATP synthesis.


Respiration
What is cellular respiration
 All the living organisms require energy. They obtain this energy from
respiration.
 The word “Respiration” is derived from the Latin word “Respirare” which
means ‘to breathe’.
 Respiration is a chemical process which breaks down simple food
molecules such as glucose. Animals including humans digest food to
produce these molecules, which are absorbed into the blood and then
transported round the body.
 Multicellular organisms respire aerobically (using oxygen). This is
absorbed by lungs, gills or the body surface and is usually distributed
around the body by the circulatory system.
 Only when food molecules and oxygen are together inside the cells, the
complex process of aerobic cell respiration begin.
Some important Definitions (imp for mid)
# Respiration is the complex series of reactions occurring in all living cells,
which releases the energy in food and makes it available to the organisms.

# Breathing is the mechanical process that supplies oxygen to the body to


drive respiration and that removes the carbon dioxide produced.

# Aerobic respiration is the respiration that requires oxygen. Most


organisms respire aerobically: it releases a relatively large amount of energy.

# Anaerobic respiration is the respiration without oxygen. some organisms


mainly bacteria can only respire anaerobically. Yeast for example, can turn to
anaerobic respiration when there is no oxygen.

Some animal tissues (e.g. muscle during strenuous exercise) and plant
tissues (e.g. roots in water logged soil) are able to respire anaerobically, if
circumstances demand it.
The Biochemistry of Aerobic respiration
The aerobic respiration of glucose is summarized by the following chemical
equation:

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 2898 kJ of Energy


In words,
Glucose + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + 2898 kJ of Energy

 Aerobic respiration releases all the available energy within each glucose
molecule; that is, it produces the same amount of energy that is released when
glucose is burnt in oxygen gas.
 The whole process involves a sequence of 50 separate reactions each
catalyzed by a different enzyme. The result is a controlled release of energy
which is more useful to the organism than a sudden explosive burst of energy.
 All the hydrogen atoms contained within a glucose molecule combine with
oxygen atoms to form water.
 The bulk of respiratory energy becomes available to the organism as hydrogen
atoms are removed from glucose during respiration. This process is catalyzed by
“dehydrogenase enzymes”. In other words, the oxygen which an aerobic
organism has absorbed combines with hydrogen atoms from glucose or other
foods to produce water, which may be excreted from the body.
Four main stages in glucose respiration

The complete process of aerobic


respiration of glucose can be divided into
four distinct processes:
 Glycolysis
 Pyruvate oxidation
 The Krebs Cycle
 The electron transport chain of
reactions.

Fig: The Overall process of cell


respiration, showing the order of the
four main stages.
The overall process of cell respiration

 Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm of the cell where


glucose is split into 2 molecules of pyruvate.

 Pyruvate oxidation takes place in the inner matrix


( inner fluid) of mitochondria where pyruvate is
converted into acetyl CoA.

 Krebs cycle occurs in the matrix of mitochondria


where acetyl CoA drives a cycle of reactions which
produces hydrogen.

 Electron transport chain are located in the inner


membrane of mitochondria, hydrogen drives a series
of redox reactions which release enough energy to
make ATP.
How organisms use energy

Fig:

Cells cannot use energy as soon as it is released from respiration: the energy is
first used to build up a temporary energy store, which takes the form of a chemical called
adenosine tri phosphate or ATP.
Molecules of ATP are best thought of as “Packets of energy”. Respiration fills
these ATP packets with energy and they are ‘emptied’ when energy is needed anywhere in
the body.
How does ATP release Energy
 ATP stands for Adenosine Tri Phosphate. ATP are is relatively small soluble
organic molecule. Because of its solubility and small size, ATP can be transported
rapidly around cells and so can supply energy where it is needed. Metabolically
active cell such as those in muscle, transport and break down many ATP molecules.
 When ATP loses a phosphate group to become ADP, adenosine diphosphate, the
reaction is exergonic (it releases energy). The same amount of energy is released
when ADP loses another phosphate group to become AMP (adenosine mono
phosphate) ; less energy is released when the last phosphate group is lost.
 ATP is an important molecule in living systems because it can lose its terminal
phosphate group readily, releasing enough energy to power biological processes
without producing excess heat.

ATP ADP + Pi + Energy (30.6kJ mol-1)


ADP AMP + Pi + Energy
AMP Less amount of Energy
The Biochemistry of Anaerobic respiration
Anaerobic respiration differs from aerobic respiration in three important ways:

 Breaks down glucose in the


absence of oxygen
 do not completely break
down glucose into carbon
dioxide and water but into
intermediate substance such
as lactic acid or alcohol
 releases far less energy
than aerobic respiration.

Fig: Anaerobic respiration


The Biochemistry of Anaerobic respiration
Organisms which respire anaerobically are called anaerobes.
Certain bacteria are complete anaerobes. They live permanently in
conditions where no oxygen exists and rely entirely upon anaerobic
respiration for energy.

In anaerobic respiration, glucose is broken down into pyruvate.


Animals and some bacteria convert pyruvate into lactate by a simple
reduction reaction. In contrast, plants and fungi such as yeast convert
pyruvate to ethanol (alcohol) and carbon dioxide.

In animals, vigorous exercise leads to anaerobic respiration in


the muscles and the resulting build-up of lactate causes fatigue.

Bacteria that produce lactic acid are used in the manufacture of


dairy products such as yoghurt. The tangy taste is due to the high
concentration of this organic acid.
Anaerobic respiration in Microorganisms

Yoghurt

Lactobacillus bulgaricus in yoghurt


Anaerobic respiration in Microorganisms
 Microorganisms such as yeast and certain
bacteria obtain most of their energy by a form
of anaerobic respiration called fermentation.
 Many types of yeast are used in alcoholic
fermentation. The equation for the
fermentation of glucose is as follows:

C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2+ 210 kJ of energy


Glucose Ethanol
 For fermentation, yeast needs a source of
carbohydrate, anaerobic conditions and a
suitable temperature. The alcoholic drink
produced by fermentation depends largely on
the source of the sugar solution used:
Fermentation of apple juice produces
cider, grape juice produces wine and malt
Fig:
extract from germinating barley produces beer.
Distillation of certain fermentation products
gives rise to much stronger alcoholic solutions
called spirits such as whisky and gin.
Anaerobic respiration in Microorganisms

Breads

Wine

Beer
 The equation for anaerobic respiration shows that CO2 is a product of
alcoholic fermentation. In the making of bread, bakers’ dough rises because the
yeast mixed into it produces CO2 gas which fills the dough with bubbles as it
escapes.

Anaerobic respiration in Plants

The ability of plants to live as temporary anaerobes allows them to survive in


conditions where animals would quickly die of suffocation. When flood occurs,
for example, plants can survive for several days.
Photosynthesis
The Need for Energy

 All living things need continuous supply of


energy.
 Almost all energy used by living organisms
comes from sun.
 Energy from the ‘SUN’ is captured and
stored by green organisms in the bonds of
‘GLUCOSE’: a process known as
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
AUTOTROPHS:

Organisms that can produce their


own food from the substances
available in their surroundings using
light (photosynthesis) or chemical
energy (chemosynthesis).

HETEROTROPHS:

Heterotrophs cannot synthesize


their own food and rely on other
organisms -- both plants
and animals -- for nutrition.
Photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis is the process by which light
energy is changed to chemical potential energy
and stored in the bonds of glucose molecules.

Occurs in organism
which contains
“ Chlorophyll”
Reaction in Photosynthesis
The Role of Chlorophyll
• Chlorophyll is found in Chloroplast
• Works as a CATALYST in photosynthesis
Reaction  speed up the process.

• Other pigments _
– Carotenes  orange
– Xanthophylls  yellow
• They assist photosynthesis reaction by absorbing
different colors and help Chlorophyll
Differences between
Photosynthesis and Respiration
Enzymes
How the confectioners make the runny yolk-
like inside to chocolate eggs?
The answer is : use of an enzyme

Enzymes are complex chemicals that control reactions


in living cells.
They are biochemical catalysts speeding up reactions
that would otherwise happen too slowly.
The chemical in which an enzyme works on is called its
substrate.
An enzyme combines with its substrate to form a short-
lived enzyme/substrate complex.
Once a reaction has occurred, the complex breaks up
into products and enzyme.
Substrates
Products

E-S complex

Active site

Enzyme Enzyme Enzyme


The Chemical nature of enzymes
Enzymes are specific: each enzyme usually
catalyses only one reaction.
Enzymes combine with their substrates to form
temporary enzyme-substrate complex.
Enzymes are not altered or used up by the reactions
they catalyze, so can be used again and again.
Enzymes are sensitive to temperature and pH.
Many enzymes need cofactors in order to function.
Enzyme function may be slowed down or stopped by
inhibitors.
Classification of Enzyme
There are 6 types of reaction they can catalyze-
Oxidoreductase: These catalyze oxidation and reduction reactions.
Transferase: These catalyze the transfer of a chemical group from
one compound to another.
Hydrolase: These catalyze hydrolysis (splitting by use of water)
reactions.
Most digestive enzymes are hydrolases.
Lyase: these catalyze the break down of molecules by reactions
that do not involved hydrolysis.
Isomerase: These catalyze the transformation of one isomer into
another
Ligase: These catalyze the formation of bonds between
compounds, often using the free energy made available from ATP
hydrolysis.