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# Aplikasi bose Einstein

## Aplikasi Bose - Einstein

• Radiasi benda hitam
• Hukum pergeseran Wien
• Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)

## • Kapasitas kalor Kristal

• Model Einstein
• Model Debye

• Bose-Einstein Condensate
8𝜋 8𝜋ℎ𝑐 𝑑𝜆
𝑔 𝜆 𝑑𝜆 = 4 𝑑𝜆 E 𝜆 𝑑𝜆 = 4 𝐸
𝜆 𝜆
𝑒 𝑘𝑇 −1
𝑔 𝜆 𝑑𝜆
n 𝜆 𝑑𝜆 = 𝐸
𝑒 𝑘𝑇 −1
𝐸 = ℎ𝑐/𝜆

ℎ𝑐
𝐸(𝜆)𝑑𝜆 = 𝑛 𝜆 𝑑𝜆
𝜆

Pergeseran Wien
𝑑𝐸 𝜆
|𝜆𝑚 = 0
𝑑𝜆

𝜆𝑚 𝑘𝑇
= 0.194197
ℎ𝑐

𝜆𝑚 𝑇 = 2.9 × 10−3 𝑚𝐾

https://astronomy.stackexchange.com/questions/249/how-do-stellar-temperatures-vary
Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)

## Anonymous, CMB Spectrum, https://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/Sept05/Gawiser2/Gawiser2.html

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)

## NASA / WMAP Science Team, CMB Images, http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/media/121238/index.html

Kapasitas Kalor Kristal (Model Einstein &
Debye)
• Semua fonon berosilasi dengan frekuensi karakteristik yang sama 𝜔0
ℏ𝜔
3𝑁ℏ 2 exp
𝑘𝑇
𝐶𝑣 = 2 𝜔02
𝑘𝑇 2 ℏ𝜔
exp −1
𝑘𝑇

## • Frekuensi getaran kisi memenuhi persamaan disperse 𝜔 = 𝑣𝑔 𝑘

• Ada sebuah frekuensi maksimum 𝜔𝑚 , yang boleh dimiliki fonon dalam kristal sehingga tidak ada
fonon yang dimiliki frekuensi di atas 𝜔𝑚 .
Θ𝐷
3ℏ2 𝑉 𝑇 𝑒 𝑥𝑥4
𝐶𝑣 = න 𝑑𝑥 ℏ𝑣𝑔3 6𝜋 2 𝑁
2𝜋𝑣𝑔2 𝑘𝑇 2 0 𝑒𝑥 − 1 2
Θ𝐷 =
𝐾𝐵 𝑉

ℏ𝜔𝑚 𝑘Θ𝐷
𝑥= = = Θ𝐷 /𝑇
𝑘𝑇 𝑘𝑇
Kapasitas Kalor Kristal

Zhenhua Zhou, On the existence of Einstein oscillators and thermal conductivity in bulk metallic glass,
Applied Physics Letters 89(3) · July 2006