Você está na página 1de 66

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer

for Red Chillies


Presented by
Partha Sarathi Singha
Roll No:31330046
Saurajyoti Baishya
Roll No: 31330040
Under the Guidance of
Dr. C.B. Khobragade

Department of Agricultural Engineering


Triguna Sen School of Technology
Assam University,Silchar
4th May 2015
Contents
I. Introduction
II. Review of literature
III. Methodology
IV. Result and discussion
V. Summary and conclusions
VI. References

2
7/9/2018 Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli
Introduction
 Renewable energy technology bridges the gap between mounting
global energy demand and dwindling supply of finite conventional
energy sources.

 The two factors that must be looked into are the efficiency and the
economics of installation of such application (othman and can
(2002)) .

 Solar technologies broadly classified as active or passive solar


depending upon the way they capture, convert and distribute the
sunlight (othman and can (2002)).

 The solar radiation potential of India is 4.7 kw/m2/day


(www.researchgate.com).

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 3


7/9/2018
Solar energy

 The sun gives us 1000 times more power than we need.

 If we can use 5% of this energy, it will be 50 times what the world


will require, (Souce:www.wikipedia.com).

 The energy radiated by the sun on a bright sunny day is


approximately 1 kw m-2

 The drawback is that energy cannot be stored.

 Much research and design have not been done in this field as in
other sources.

 Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive or


active depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute
sunlight.

4
7/9/2018 Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli
Solar Drying
 Drying is an essential process used all over the world for the
preservation of farm produce.

 It helps in reducing the water activity .

 Used to reduce the moisture content of agricultural products.

 Product produced after drying is useful and tasty for consumption.


Solar Dryer
 Solar dryers may be classified according to the mode of air flow as
natural convection and forced convection dryers.

 Solar drying may also be classified into direct, indirect and mixed-
modes (Source: Greatz (1991)).

5
7/9/2018 Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli
Chilli drying
 Chilli is one of the most important commercial crops of India.

 There are more than 400 different varieties of chillies found all over
the world.
 Botanical name is “Capsicum annuum”.

 The world’s hottest chilli “Naga Jolokia” is cultivated in hilly terrain


of Assam in a small town Tezpur, India. India is the largest producer
of chilli and annually production is around 1.1 million tones,
(www.wikipedia.com).

 Chilli is normally dried on open ground with no shelter provided.

 This practice results in poor final quality associated with huge


financial losses to the poor farmers.

6
7/9/2018 Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli
Objectives
1. To design a cabinet type solar dryer for chilli drying using
natural air circulation.

2. To evaluate the performance of the developed solar dryer.

3. To study the colour change during the drying period.

4. To study the cost economics of the developed solar dryer.

7
7/9/2018 Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli
Review of Literature
Author Year Findings
Solar Energy
Mukherjee 1985 Reported that India endow abundant amount of solar
intensity of 1700 kwh/m2/yr.

Rai 1988 Stated that solar radiation on the horizontal surface of in


India was of the order of 400-700 cal/cm2/day.
Bongiwar 1998 Revealed that solar energy was a very large
inexhaustible source of energy

Solar dryer

Sharma et al. 1995 Carried out experimental investigations on three types of


solar drying systems based on principle of natural and
forced convection systems.
Their result showed that cabinet type solar dryer was
suitable for fruits and vegetables ,Integrated solar
collector /drying system was useful for limited crop
volume in farm itself & Indirect multi-shelf dryer for
industries.
8
7/9/2018 Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli
Review of Literature
Author Year Findings

Supranto et al. 1999 designed an experimental solar assisted dryer for


palm oil fronds. The size of the collector was 240
cm x 120 cm with upper and lower channels were
adjustable for optimal operations. The size of
dryer was 100cm x 100cm x 80 cm. The
observed temperature rise was 25-30 OC with the
collector thermal efficiency of 50-60 per centage.

Anwar & Tiwari 2000 Presented thermal analysis of multi tray solar
drying system based on energy balance equation
of each component. Effect of solar collector
length and relative humidity had been
incorporated in the analysis. It also showed that
multi tray system is highly efficient than single
tray system

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 9


7/9/2018
Review of Literature
Author Year Findings

Pangavhane and 2002 Did experiments on grape drying & reported


sawhney solar drying feasible and economical for grape
dry
El-sebella 2002 Investigated solar dryer for drying of fruits and
vegetables. The uniqueness of this thesis was
that they calculated the drying constant as well
as the hendersons constant values c and n.

Bukalo O.bolaji 2008 Presented design ,construction and


performance evaluation on mixed mode solar
dryer. Drying efficiency was observed to
57.5%.

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 10


7/9/2018
Review of Literature
Author Year Findings

Solar cabinet Dryer


Osman and can 2001 Studied a solar cabinet dryer consisting of solar
air heater and drying cabinet .Three different air
velocities were applied to study change in drying
time. The drying time changed between 20.39 to
90 hours
Yusuf et al. 2011 Designed and fabricated a Direct Natural
Convection Solar Dryer for drying of Tapioca.
A minimum of 7.56 m2 solar collector area was
required to dry a batch of 100 kg tapioca in 20
hours (two days drying period). The initial and
final moisture content The average ambient
conditions are 32ºC air temperatures and 74 per
centage relative humidity with daily global solar
radiation incident on horizontal surface of 13 mj
m-2day-1

11
7/9/2018 Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli
Review of Literature
Author Year Findings

Techno
economics of
solar dryer
Kumar et al. 1998 Studied the status of solar drying in South-East region and
estimated the market potential based on the demand
potential. The energy saving potential of solar dryers in the
dried fruit and vegetable export sector of Thailand had been
estimated at 0.965 million tonnes of fuel oil per year, if only
5 per cent of application potential was considered for this
sector.

Jain et al. 2004 evaluated the techno-economics of forced convective solar


dryer for drying of groundnut, ginger and garlic in
comparison to electrically operated mechanical dryer. The
benefit cost ratio for the solar dryer and mechanical dryer
were found to be 1.56 and 1.118 respectively.

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 12


7/9/2018
Review of Literature
Author Year Findings

Sevada and Rathore 2004 evaluated techno economics of solar


tunnel dryer installed at an industry. The
net present worth for commercial solar
tunnel dryer was Rs 78,74,500/- whereas
for diesel fired electrical dryer it was Rs
36,52,500 /-. The benefit cost ratio for
solar tunnel dryer and diesel fired
electrical dryer was found to be 7.08 and
2.56 respectively. The payback period of
solar tunnel dryer and diesel fired
electrical dryer was 10 months and 2.9
years, respectively.

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 13


7/9/2018
Review of Literature
Author Year Findings

Color reading

Ornales et al 2009 evaluated raw and cooked (boiled and grilled)


Poblano, Bell, Chilaca, Caribe, Jalapeño, Serrano,
Habanero, and Manzano peppers for tristimulus
colour, capsaicinoids (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin,
nordihydrocapscapsaicin), and total phenolic
contents. Total phenolic content in non-pungent Bell
peppers was reduced by cooking (1.6–26.9%).
Boiling induced smaller changes in colour values
(L*, a*, and b*) compared to grilling.

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 14


7/9/2018
Methodology
Design of cabinet type solar dryer
The following assumptions and conditions were made
I. Location - Silchar (24.83°N, 92.77°E)
II. Orientation - South
III. Loading capacity- 3 kg
IV. Initial moisture content - 80%
V. Final moisture content - 10%
VI. Average ambient temperature - 31.8 °C
VII. Average Wet bulb temperature - 21 °C
VIII.Average dry bulb temperature - 31.8 °C
IX. Average humidity - 32%
X. Average wind speed - 1.2 kmph
XI. Average solar insolation - 381.05 w/m2
XII. Collector efficiency - 0.3
Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 15
7/9/2018
Design calculations
Mass balance
3x (1-0.8)=p x (1-0.1)
Calculating we get, p= 0.67 kg
Therefore amount of water removed = 3-0.67 = 2.33 kg
Equations for design cabinet type solar dryer
Q = W × Cp × (Td – Ta) + (Mw × λ)
Where,
Q = Total heat required, kcal
W = Weight of product, kg
Cp = Specific heat of water, kcal kg-1 °C-1
Td = Drying temperature, °C
Ta = Ambient temperature, °C
Mw = Mass of water to be removed during drying, kg
λ = Latent heat of vaporization, kcal kg-1

16
7/9/2018 Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli
Qt  100
Ac 
I t 

Where,
AC = Area of collector, m2
Qt = Energy required, kcal hr-1
It = Solar insulation, kcal m2 hr-1
η = Collection efficiency, per centage

Qt  q  (Tdb  Twb )  (0.24  0.45  h)

17
7/9/2018 Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli
Where,
q=Air flow rate, Kg dry air hr-1
Tdb = Dry bulb temperature, °C
Twb =Wet bulb temperature, °C
h=Humidity, per centage

Humid volume
H .V  (2.83  4.56 X h) X (Ta  273)
Where,

h= Humidity, per centage


Ta = Ambient temperature, °C

qa  q  H .V

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 18


7/9/2018
Where,

qa= Air flow rate,m3 s-1

qa =Area X velocity

Force  g X h X ( Pa  Pe)

Where,
g = 9.81, N/m2
ρa= air density, kg/m3
ρe= exit air density, kg/m3
h = height, m
Actual draft =.75 x Force
velocity = (2xForce/pe) ½

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 19


7/9/2018
Calculated parameters
Sl. No. Calculated parameters Values with units

1 Heat Required 1328.76 kcal


2 Heat Required per hour 83.04 kcal h-1
3 Area of Collector 0.5476 m² (740 mm x 740 mm)

4 Air flow rate 0.27 m3 s-1


5 Inlet hole Diameter 10 mm
6 Number of Inlet holes 72
7 Exit hole diameter 70 mm
8 Lower tray dimension 350 mm x 740 mm
9 Upper tray dimension 650 mm x 740mm

20
7/9/2018 Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli
Plate 1 Different views of cabinet type
solar dryer

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 21


7/9/2018
Working principles of cabinet type solar dryer

I. Equation of continuity
II. Bernoulli equation
III. Natural air flow
Procedure for calculation of results
Experimental analysis is done based on two types of process:
I. No load test
II. Full load test
Calculation of drying rate
Rate of removal of water per hour is calculated in this section.
calculation of overall efficiency
mw   w
Efficiency 
i A

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 22


7/9/2018
Where,
mw= Total mass of water removed, kg
λw= Heat of vapourisation of water. kj kg-1
A= Collector area, m²
i= Average insolation of silchar in month of march, 2015, w m-2
Instruments used during the experiment
Plate 2- Instruments used
Instrument Name

(A) Sling psychrometer

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 23


7/9/2018
(B) Hygrometer

(C) Digital Solarimeter

(D) Digital Anemometer

(F) Colorimeter

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 24


7/9/2018
(G) Hot Air Oven

(H) Weighing Balance

(E) Desicator

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 25


7/9/2018
Specifications
Sl. Instrument used Specifications Measurement
No.
1. Multi Channel  Range: 0-100 / 200 / 600 /
Digital 1200 oC Temperature at
Temp. Indicator various places
 Accuracy: 0.5 % FS±1 digit
 Number of channels: 6

 Operating temp. 10 oC to 50
oC

2. Electric Oven  Capacity: 200 gm Moisture


 Taring Range: 0-200 gm Content
 Readability: 0.1 mg
 Pan Diameter: 8.2 cm
3. Electric Balance BL •Make: CONTECH Weight loss in
series •Auto power off Red chili
(BL220H) •Automatic zero tracking. samples
Specifications
Sl. No. Instrument used Specifications Measurement

4. Compact Hygro- Measuring range 20~99% Relative


thermometer Display accuracy = ± 3% humidity and
Display resolution = 1% temperature
Battery = 1.5 volts, size
AAA
5. Digital Solarimeters Measuring Range: 1~1300
W/m2 Solar
Conversion factor: Insolation
W/m2=0.7995 × lux
Solar cell Included
6. Anemometer with Displays: 18 mm LCD, 31/2 Wind Velocity
temperature digits
measurement Measurement: m/s, km/hr,
ft/min, temp. oC, oF

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 27


7/9/2018
Color Measurement
I. It generally measures four colors namely RGBY i. e Red, blue, Green and
Yellow.
II. There are three parameters for measuring the color .They are L, a and b.
III. L measures the darkness to whiteness.
IV. a measures redness to greenness
V. b measures blue to yellowness

E  (a F  a I ) 2  ( LF  LI ) 2  (bF  bI ) 2

Where,
∆E=Change in color
aF =Final a value
aI= Initial a value
bF=Final b value
bI=Initial b value

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 28


7/9/2018
Evaluation of techno-economics of cabinet type
solar dryer
Economic analysis of the system can be carried out by employing following
indicators:
I. Net Present Worth (NPW)
II. Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR)
III. Pay-back Period
Following assumptions were considered during calculation of economic
analysis of the system:
I. The operating life of the system is 10 years (n).
II. The cabinet type solar dryer can operate for 8 hours per day.
III. The maintenance cost is 6% of the capital cost.
IV. Annual working day is 300 days.
V. A discount rate of 10 per cent was used (i).
VI. Raw material cost: The fresh red chilli @ 30/- per kg.
VII. Selling cost of dried red chilli @ 200/- per kg

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 29


7/9/2018
Net present worth
The difference between the present value of all future returns and
the present money required to make an investment is the net present
worth or net present principals for the investment.
The mathematical statement for net present worth can be written
as:

NPW = Ʃ Bt – Ct /(1+t)n
Where,
Ct = Cost in each year
Bt = Benefit in each year
t = 1, 2, 3................n
i = Discount rate

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 30


7/9/2018
Benefit Cost Ratio
This ratio was obtained when the present worth of the benefit stream was
divided by the present worth of the cost stream.
The mathematical benefit-cost ratio can be expressed as:
t n
B
Benefit-cost ratio = ∑ (1  i ) t
t

t 1
t n
Ct
∑ (1  i ) t
t 1
Where,
Ct = Cost in each year
Bt = Benefit in each year
t = 1, 2, 3................n
i = discount rate

Payback Period
The payback period is the length of time from the beginning of the project
until the net value of the incremental production stream reaches the total
amount of the capital investment.

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 31


7/9/2018
Results and Discussion
The performance of solar dryer is discussed under the
following sub headings:
I. No load testing
II. Full load testing
Individually all the parameters were again
framed separately under the following category:
I. Variation of ambient temperature with trays
temperature
II. Variation of ambient temperature with inlet and
exit temperature of dryer
III. Variation of solar insolation of outside with trays
inside the dryer
IV. Variation of relative humidity of outside with trays
inside.

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 32


7/9/2018
Fig 1-Variation of temperature with respect to time
and relative humidity
60 40 Ambient temperature
(˚C)

Outside relative humidity, (%)


35
50 Temperature inside
30 the Solar dryer (˚C)
Temperature, (°C)

40 Upper tray
25 Temperature inside
the Solar dryer(˚C)
30 20 Lower tray
Temperature of inlet
15 (˚C)
20
10 Temperature of outlet
(˚C)
10
5 Inside RH (%) Upper
0 0 tray
Inside RH(%) Lower
tray
Time, (h)
Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 33
7/9/2018
Fig-2 Variation of ambient temperature with upper and
lower tray (n=3; where error bars indicate standard
deviation from mean)

55
50 Ambient
Temperature (°C)

temperature (˚C)
45
40 Upper Tray
Temperature (°C)
35
30
Lower Tray
25 Temperature (°C)

Time (h)

34
7/9/2018 Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli
Fig-3 Variation of ambient temperature with inlet and
exit temperature of dryer (n=3; where error bars
indicate standard deviation from mean)
55
50
Temperature (°C)

45
40
Temperature of
35 inlet (˚C)
30
Temperature of
25 outlet (˚C)

Time (h)

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 35


7/9/2018
Fig-4 Variation of solar insolation of outside with
trays inside the dryer (n=3; where error bars indicate
standard deviation from mean)
600
Soalr insolation (w/m2)

500 Outside solar


insolation
400 (w/m²)
300
Solar Insolation
200 Upper Tray
(w/m²)
100

0 Solar Insolation
Lower Tray
(w/m²)
Time (h)
36
7/9/2018 Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli
Fig-5 Variation of relative humidity of outside with
trays inside (n=3; where error bars indicate standard
deviation from mean)
38
36
Relative Humidity (%)

34
32
30 Outside RH (%)
28
Inside RH (%) Upper
26 tray
24 Inside RH (%)
22 Lower tray
20

Time (h)

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 37


7/9/2018
Important results of no load test
I. The maximum temperature recorded was 50.36± 0.8 °C and 47.76
± 1 °C in the upper and lower trays respectively at 13:00 h.
II. The maximum temperature recorded was 52.2 ± 1 °C and 46.9±
0.3 °C of outlet and inlet of the dryer and minimum temperature
were both 29.96 °C.
III. The maximum solar insolation noted was 542.33± 2 w m-2 outside
while inside the upper tray it was 352.66± 1 w m-2 at 12:00 h. The
maximum insolation of the lower tray was 254.66±3 w m-2 at 11:00
h.
IV. The maximum relative humidity outside and in upper and lower
trays respectively were 35.33± 0.01 per centage, 36± 0.01 per
centage and 35± 1.77 per centage at 9:00 h.
V. The minimum relative humidity outside and in upper and lower trays
respectively were 23.78± 0.1 per centage, 24.6± 0.2 per centage
and 23.33± 1 per centage at 2:00 h

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 38


7/9/2018
Load testing

 Load test was conducted to know the variation of solar radiation


and relative humidity inside and outside the dryer and also to know
the variation of ambient temperature and temperature inside the
dryer for both upper and lower tray with respect to time.

 About 3 kg of fresh red chilli with a moisture content of about 80


per centage (w.b) were put on the upper and lower trays of the
cabinet type solar dryer.

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 39


7/9/2018
Fig-6 Variation of temperature with respect
to time and relative humidity for day1
60 45 Ambient Temperature (˚C)
40

Relative humidity (%)


50 Temperature inside the
35
Temparature (°C)

solar dryer (˚C) Upper tray


40 30 Temperature inside the
25 solar dryer (˚C) Lower tray
30 Temperature of inlet (˚C)
20
20 15 Temperature of outlet (˚C)
10
10 Inside RH(%) Upper tray
5
0 0 Inside RH(%) Lower tray

Outside RH (%)
Time (h)

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 40


7/9/2018
Fig-7 Variation of temperature with respect
to time and relative humidity for day 2
60 45 Ambient Temperature

Outside Relative Humidity, (%)


(˚C)
40
50 Temperature inside the
35 solar dryer (˚C) Upper
Temperature, (°C)

tray
40 30 Temperature inside the
solar dryer(˚C) Lower
25 tray
Temperature of inlet
30
20 (˚C)
Temperature of outlet
20 15 (˚C)
10 Inside RH(%) Upper
10 tray
5
Inside RH(%) Lower
0 0 tray
Outside RH(%)

Time, (h)
Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 41
7/9/2018
Fig-8 Variation of ambient temperature with trays
temperature with respect to time (n=3; where error bars
indicate standard deviation from mean)
Day Figure
55
50
45
1 Ambient Temperature (˚C)
Temperature (°C)

40
35 Upper Tray Temperature (°C)
30
25 Lower Tray Temperature (°C)

Time (h)

55
50
Temperature (°C)

45
2 Ambient Temperature (˚C)
40
35 Upper Tray Temperature (°C)

30
Lower Tray Temperature (°C)
25
9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00
Time (h)

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 42


7/9/2018
Fig-9 Variation of ambient temperature with inlet and exit
temperature of dryer with respect to time (n=3; where error
bars indicate standard deviation from mean)
Day Figure
60
Temperature (°C)

55
50
1 45
40
35 Temperature of inlet (˚C)
30 Temperature of outlet (˚C)
25
9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00
Time (h)

55
Temperature (°C)

50
45
2 40 Temperature of inlet (˚C)
35
Temperature of outlet (˚C)
30
25
9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00
Time (h)

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 43


7/9/2018
Fig-10 Variation of solar insolation of outside with trays
inside the dryer with respect to time (n=3; where error bars
indicate standard deviation from mean)
Day Figure

650
Solar insolation (w/m²)

550
450
1 350 Outside solar insolation (w/m²)
250 Solar Insolation Upper Tray (w/m²)
150 Solar Insolation Lower Tray (w/m²)
50
9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00
Time (h)

600
Moisture Content in (%)

500
400
Outside solar insolation (w/m²)
300
w.b

2 200 Solar Insolation Upper Tray (w/m²)


100
0 Solar Insolation Lower Tray (w/m²)
9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00
Time (h)

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 44


7/9/2018
Fig-11 Variation of relative humidity of outside with
trays inside (n=3; where error bars indicate standard
deviation from mean)
Day Figure
45
Relative humidity (%)

40
35
Outside RH (%)
1 30 R.H (%) of Upper Tray
25 R.H (%) of Lower Tray

Time (h)

45
Relative humidity (%)

40

35 Outside RH(%)
2 30 Inside RH (%) Upper tray
Inside RH (%) Lower tray
25
9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00
Time (h)

45
7/9/2018 Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli
Fig-12 Variation of moisture content (%) of upper and
lower tray with time (n=3; where error bars indicate
standard deviation from mean)
90
Moisture content in % (w.b)

80
70
Day1 Upper tray m.c
60
% (w.b)
50
Day1 Lower tray mc
40
% (w.b)
30
Day2 Upper tray m.c
20 % (w.b)
10 Day2 Lower tray mc
0 % (w.b)

Time (h)

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 46


7/9/2018
Important points of load testing
I. On day 1 the maximum temperature recorded was 50.1± 0.01 °C in
the upper tray at 1:00 h and 49.1± 1°C in the lower tray at 14:00 hr.
II. On day 2 the maximum temperature recorded was 50.8± 1 °C in the
upper tray and47.9 ± 0.1°C in lower tray at 13:00 h.
III. On day 1 the maximum temperature recorded was 53.6± 0.5°C and
48.6± 0.2 °C of the oulet and inlet of the dryer respectively at 12:00 h
and minimum temperature were both 29.5± 0 °C at 9:00 h.
IV. On day 2 the maximum temperature recorded was 50.8± 0.5 °C and
47.8± 1 °C of the oulet and inlet of the dryer respectively at 13:00 h
and minimum temperature were both 30.3± 0.5 °C at 9:00 h.
V. On day1 the maximum solar insolation noted was 530± 1 w m-2
outside while inside the upper tray it was 361± 1 w m-2 at 12:00 h.
The maximum insolation of the lower tray was 311± 1 w m-2 at 12:00
h.

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 47


7/9/2018
VI. On day 2 load testing the maximum solar insolation noted was 500 ± 3 w
m-2 outside while inside the upper tray it was 309± 3 w m-2 at 12:00 h. The
maximum insolation of the lower tray was 265± 4 w m-2 at 12:00 h.
VII. On day 1 the maximum relative humidity outside and in upper and lower
trays were 42± 2.03 per centage, 43± 2 per centage and 41.5± 1 per
centage respectively at 9:00 h. The minimum relative humidity outside and
in upper and lower trays were 31.9 ± 1 per centage, 32.5 ± 1.55 per
centage and 31± 1.87 per centage respectively at 14:00 h.
VIII. On day 2 the maximum relative humidity outside and in upper and lower
trays were 40± 1 per centage, 40.8± 1.22 per centage and 39± 2.01 per
centage respectively at 9:00 h. The minimum relative humidity outside and
in upper and lower trays were 30± 1 per centage, 31.1± 1 per centage
and 29.5± 1.1 per centage respectively at 14:00 h.
IX. On day 1 the initial moisture content on both upper and lower tray was
80. per centage At the end of the day the moisture content on the upper
tray was 68.33± 0.02 per centage and at the lower tray it was 72.5± 0.5
per centage .
X. On day 2 the initial moisture content on upper tray was 68.33 ± 0.02 per
centage and lower tray was 72.5± 0.5 per centage . At the end of the day
the moisture content on the upper tray and lower tray it was 10 ± 0 per
centage .

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 48


7/9/2018
Open sun drying moisture change
It was observed that in open sun drying method the required
final moisture content was attained in 30 hours of drying process. It
was found that the final required moisture content was 10 per centage
at the end of the drying. The drying period was 8 h per day and
hence, four days were taken to attain the final moisture content.
Plate 3: Open drying

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 49


7/9/2018
Fig-13 Variation of Moisture content (%) w.b
with time (n=3; where error bars indicate
standard deviation from mean)
90
Moisture content (%) w.b

80
70
Day 1 moisture
60 content (%) w.b
50
Day 2 moisture
40
content (%) w.b
30
Day 3 moisture
20
content (%) w.b
10
0 Day 4 moisture
content (%) w.b

Time (h)

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 50


7/9/2018
Important points about open sun drying
I. On day 1 initial moisture content per centage (w.b) was 80 ± 0 per
centage which is reduced to 73.33± 0.4 per centage.
II. On day 2 initial moisture content per centage (w.b) was73.33± 0.4
per centage which is reduced to 63.63± 0.5 per centage.
III. On day 2 initial moisture content per centage (w.b) was 63.63± 0.5
per centage (w.b) which is reduced to 20 ± 0.5 per centage.
IV. On day 2 initial moisture content per centage (w.b) was 20± 0.5 per
centage which is reduced to 10 ± 0 per centage.

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 51


7/9/2018
Drying rate for cabinet type solar dryer
I. Hourly removal of water was calculated with the help of weighting
balance.

II. It was found on day 1 the maximum drying rate was 0.32± 0.02 kg
h-1 at 12:00 h and minimum 0 kg h-1 at 9:00 h and 17:00 h.

III. On day 2 the maximum drying rate was 0.40 ± 0.02 kg h-1 at 11:00 h
and minimum 0 kg h-1 at 9:00 h and 17:00 h.

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 52


7/9/2018
Fig-14Variation of drying rate for cabinet type solar
dryer for day1 (n=3; where error bars indicate standard
deviation from mean)
0.5
0.45
0.4
Drying rate (kg/h)

0.35 Day 1 drying


0.3 rate (kg/h)
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05 Day2 drying
rate (kg/h)
0

Time (h)

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 53


7/9/2018
Colour changes observations
I. It was observed that the initial L, a and b values of the fresh red chilli
sample was 49.18± 0.52, 55.87± 0.79 and 27.36± 1.33 respectively.

II. On day 1 of the cabinet solar drying the L, a and b value dropped
down to 46.2± 0.5, 29.01± 0.23 and 23.03± 0.3 from the initial value
of the fresh red chilli. The colour change calculated from equation
3.17 in chapter 3 increases monotonically from 0 to 27.36± 0.32.

III. On day 2 of the cabinet solar drying the L, a and b value dropped
down to 40.87±0.12, 21.46± 0.5 and 12.51± 0.5 from the initial
value 46.2, 29.01 and 23.03 of the fresh red chilli. The colour change
calculated from equation 3.17 in chapter 3 increases monotonically
from 27.36± 0.32 to 38.38± 0.32.

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 54


7/9/2018
Fig-15 Variation of colour parameters with respect
to time in day 1 (n=3; where error bars indicate
standard deviation from mean)
60

50
Color reading

40
Day 1 L
30 Day1 a
Day 1 b
20 Day 2 L
Day 2 a
10
Day 2 b
0

Time (h)
Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 55
7/9/2018
Fig-16 Variation of colour change with respect to
time (n=3; where error bars indicate standard
deviation from mean)
45
40
35
Color change

30
25
20
Color change day 1
15
10 Color change day 2
5
0

Time (h)

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 56


7/9/2018
Plate 4: Final dried product

7/9/2018 Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 57


Evaluation of techno-economics of solar
dryer
Table-2 Evaluation of economic indicator
Year Cash PW of Cash Cash inflow PW of Cash NPW
outflow outflow inflow
0 21980 21980 0 0 0
1 13980 12709.1 20100 18272 5563.6
2 13980 11553.7 20100 16611 5057.9
3 13980 10503.4 20100 15101 4598.0
4 13980 9548.5 20100 13728 4180.0
5 13980 8680.5 20100 12480 3800.0
6 13980 7891.3 20100 11345 3454.6
7 13980 7174.0 20100 10314 3140.5
8 13980 6521.8 20100 9376 2855.0
9 13980 5928.9 20100 8524 2595.5
10 0 0 20100 7749 7749.4

TOTAL 80511.2
Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli
123505.79 42994.6 58
7/9/2018
Economic indicator
Table-3 Economic indicator
Sl. No. Economic indicator Value
1. Net present worth Rs 42994.6

2. Benefit-cost ratio 1.53

3. Pay-back period 4 months 23 days

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 59


7/9/2018
Cost of operation for cabinet type solar
dryer
The yearly cost of operation for cabinet type solar dryer was
calculated based on the following assumption:
I. Interest rate @ 12 per cent of initial investment.
II. Depreciation @ 10 per cent of initial investment per year.
III. Repair and maintenance cost @ 6 per cent of capital cost is about
Rs 480/- per year.
IV. Discount rate is assumed 10 per cent.
V. The annual use of cabinet type solar dryer is assumed as 300 days.
Total raw material required for one batch
The capacity of cabinet type solar dryer is 3 kg.
Total cost required for one year for drying red chilli
Total cost = 3 X 30 X 150
Total cost for one batch is 13500/-.
Total revenue can generate of red chilli for one batch
Cost of dry red chill 0.67 X 150 X 200 (considering 8 hours working
day) cost is Rs 20100/-.

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 60


7/9/2018
Initial investment of cabinet type solar dryer = Rs 8000
Red chilli (raw material) cost, @ 3X30X150 = Rs 13, 500
Repair and maintenance cost @ 6% of total cost = Rs 480
Total cost per year = Rs 13980
Total cost = Fixed cost + Operating cost
= 8000 + 13980
= 21980/-
Total revenue can generate by cabinet type solar dryer (Capacity = 3 kg)
Total benefit (per year) = 0.67 X 150 X 200 = 20100/- (cash inflow)

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 61


7/9/2018
Summary
I. The cabinet type solar dryer was designed and developed at
workshop Fouzia Steel Enterprices, Meherpur, Silchar and tested at
yard of Department of Agricultural Engineering, Triguna Sen School
of Technology, Assam University, Silchar for small farmer and
households in NEH region.
II. The dryer had capacity to dry 3 kg fresh red chilli in 16 sunlight
hours. The tests were conducted from 8:00 to 17:00 hrs and the
hourly data was recorded.
III. The no load test was carried out to know the trend of various
operating parameters with respect to time.
IV. The full load testing of dryer was conducted for evaluating the
performance in actual loaded condition. In order to compare the
efficiency of drying in cabinet type solar dryer, open sun drying was
also conducted.
V. The chilli was dried within 16 daylight hrs from initial moisture
content 80 per cent to final moisture content about 10 per cent
w.b

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 62


7/9/2018
Conclusion
 For drying of 3 kg Chilly a cabinet type solar dryer was designed and
developed with a collector area of 0.5476 m2.
 The chilly was dried within 16 hours from initial moisture content 80
per cent to the final moisture content about 10 per centage w.b.
 The chilly was dried within 30 hours from initial moisture content 80
per cent to the final moisture content about 10 per centage w.b. in open
sun drying.
 The total time 14 hours was less required in case of the solar cabinet
dryer as compared to open sun drying.
 The overall efficiency of solar dryer was found to be 48.57 %.
 Net present worth was Rs 42994.6
 Benefit cost ratio was 1.53.
 Pay back period was 4 month and 23 days.

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 63


7/9/2018
REFERENCES
 Bongirwar D.R. 1998. Utilization of solar energy in agricultural
sector. Industrial Products Finder., 36 : pp.161-166.
 Mukherjee R. 1985. Renewable energy for rural development in
Arunachal Pradesh, Indian Society of agricultural engineering
9 (1) :pp.30-35.
 Rai G. D. 1988. Solar Energy Utilization.Second edition Khanna
publishers, New Delhi. Second Edition : pp.20-92
 Osman, Y. and Can, E. 2001. Thin layer solar drying of some
vegetables. Drying Technology 19: 583 -597.
 Supranto, Sopian, K., Duad, W.R.W., Othman and Yatim, B.,
1999. Design of an experimental solar assisted dryer for palm oil
fronds. Renewable energy 16: 643-646.

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 64


7/9/2018
 Sharma V.K., Colangelo., A and Spagna, G. 1995. Experimental
investigation of different solar dryers suitable for fruit and
vegetable drying. Energy 6: 413 -424.
 El-Sebaii, A.A., Aboul-Enein, S., Ramadan, M.R.I. and El-
Gohary, H.G. 2002. Empirical correlations for drying kinetics of
some fruits and vegetables. Energy 27: 845-859.
 Bala, B.K., Mondol, M.R.A., Biswas, B.K., Das., Chaudhary,
B.L., and Janjai.S. 2003. Solar drying of pineapple using solar
tunnel dryer. Renewable Energy 28: 183-190.
 Anwar, S.I. and Tiwari, G.N. 2000. Thermal analysis of of
multicrop drying system using solar energy. Solar energy society
of India 11: 1-13.
 Pangavhane, D.R. and Sawhney, R.L. (2002). Review of research
and development work on solar dryer of grape drying. Energy
Conversion and Management 43: 45-61.

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 65


7/9/2018
THANK YOU

Design of Cabinet Type Solar Dryer for Red Chilli 66


7/9/2018