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FLIXBOROUGH DISASTER

CPE601

PREPARED BY :

  • 1. AMIRA AMIZA BINTI AMINUDIN (2015429658)

  • 2. NUR FARINA BINTI MOHAMAD SILAN (2015263522)

  • 3. MOHD FAIZ BIN SAIBOL (2015409194)

  • 4. AMAR BIN MOHD MAAROF (2015429558)

OF EH2206a

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Largest explosion ever occur in UK

The Flixborough disaster was an explosion at a chemical

plant The Flixborough Works of Nypro (UK) Ltd.

1 st June 1974 , Saturday

Product : cyclohexane (highly flammable)

ACTUAL CONDITION

Vertical crack in reactor no.5 was leaking cyclohexane.

A gigantic vapor cloud explosion occurred.

28 employees were killed and 36 injured.

the explosion and subsequent fires totally destroyed the plant which was never rebuilt.

Over 1800 houses and 167 businesses in the surrounding

communities were damaged.

Widespread damage to property within a 6 mile radius around the plant

SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

Reactor 5 developed a leak in the vessel shell and had to be removed for repair
Reactor 5 developed a
leak in the vessel shell
and had to be removed
for repair
Temporary
bypass assembly
Failure of 20-in
bypass releases
was fabricated to
An expansion
bellow failed
cyclohexane
vapour
bridge the gap

Formed vapour cloud that ignited

30 tons of cyclohexane vapor were released to the air
30 tons of
cyclohexane vapor
were released to
the air

Depiction of vapour release

Depiction of vapour release

CHAPTER 2 Analysis of rupture

20-inch Hypothesis

CHAPTER 2 Analysis of rupture 20-inch Hypothesis The reason that leads to the bellows fractured by

The reason that leads to the bellows fractured by shear stress, was that the temporary pipe was installed without examining what the effect of a pressure surge on the bellows.

CHAPTER 2 Analysis of rupture 20-inch Hypothesis The reason that leads to the bellows fractured by

The support of the temporary pipe was a scaffolding structure in which the pipe is installed, without being fastened down.

CHAPTER 2 Analysis of rupture 20-inch Hypothesis The reason that leads to the bellows fractured by

The bending moment was strong enough to tear the bellows and two 28 inch holes appeared in the plant.

Simplified plan and elevation

Simplified plan and elevation
  • It was confirmed by a metallurgical investigation showing that zinc embrittlement on austenitic stainless steel at a temperature of between 800 and 900 degree C could occur in a pipe under a stress of 3.21ton/sq.in. within a few seconds.

  • There was evidence that support the possibility that the stress corrosion cracking of a stainless-steel pipe had been caused by zinc contamination from galvanized-wire supporting lagging.

It was confirmed by a metallurgical investigation showing that zinc embrittlement on austenitic stainless steel

It was shown that rapid creep cavitation of stainless steel may occur within minutes at temperatures of 950 degree C or more and under a stress of 4.7ton/sq.in.

Assembly of 20-in bypass

Assembly of 20-in bypass

PREVENTION ACTION THAT SHOULD BE DONE

• Materials that are least likely for stress corrosion cracking to occur. • Manipulating the temperature
• Materials that are least
likely for stress corrosion
cracking to occur.
• Manipulating the
temperature or even
changing the material.
• Eliminate the source of
stress or reduce it below
threshold level.
• Adding inhibitors,
modifying the electrode
MATERIAL
potential of the metal, or
• Stress-relief annealing.
SELECTION &
• Engineers may also lower
the peak stress
mechanically.
CONTROL
isolating the metal from
the environment with
coatings.
CONTROL OF STRESS
CONTROL OF
ENVIRONMENT
• Use of paint or any other
polymeric coatings are
advised since their nature
of high electrical resistance
will hinder motion of
current from the anode to
the cathode thus protect
underlying metal.

Lessons learnt from the event

Lessons learnt from the event Reduction of inventory Had it been smaller the leak would have

Reduction of inventory

Had it been smaller the leak

would

have

been

less.

In

 

fact, it was Flixborough that

made

chemical

engineers

realize

that

it

might

be

possible

to

reduce

inventories.

Control

Control

 
 

of

modifications

Lessons learnt from the event Reduction of inventory Had it been smaller the leak would have

Control

of

plant

modification

process

No modification should be

made

until

it

has

been

authorized

in writing

by

a

competent

person

who

should

normally

 

be

professionally qualified

Lessons learnt from the event Reduction of inventory Had it been smaller the leak would have

Need for suitably qualified staff

No

change

in

operating

conditions,

should

not

be

made until they

have been

authorized

 

by

a

professionally

qualified

manager

who

should

first

use a systematic technique

to

help

him

identify

the

consequences.

The

reference

to

professional qualifications is

important

especially

in

designing equipment.

CONCLUSION

- Flixborough is one of famous industry accident.

- Failing in technical measure is the reason why this accident occur.

- Because of there is no witnesses, there are 2 theories been proposed which are the 20 inch pipe theory and the 8 inch in hypothesis.

- The 20 inch pipe theory is most acceptable compared from the 8 inche in hypothesis.

- The moral of story, no modification should be made until it been the authorized from competent person.