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ASTRONOMY

SUBMITTED BY: JONATHAN G. FLORES

SUBMITTED TO: ENGR. JAMES
RINGOR(INSTRUCTOR)
Determination Azimuth of the Sun
An observation at the sun was made at a latitude at 41-20 N. The altitude at
the center of the sun after correction for refraction and parallax was 46-40
by consulting a solar sphemeris, tge declination of the sun at the instant of
observation was found to be 7-58 N
*what is the azimuth of the sun?

soltion.: L= 41-20 , C=90- 41-20 b=90-D

C=48-40 b=82-02
using cosine law:
Cosb= cos a cos c + sina sinc cos b
Cos 82-02 = cos 43-12 cos 48-40 + sin 43-12 sin 48-40 cos B
B= 131-50
If observation is in the morning
Azimuth=180 + 131-50
Ans .Azimuth= 331-50
Determination Azimuth of the Sun
An observation at the sun was made at a latitude at 45-26 N. The altitude at
the center of the sun after correction for refraction and parallax was 56-25 by
consulting a solar sphemeris, the declination of the sun at the instant of
observation was found to be 09-50 N
*what is the azimuth of the sun?

solution.: L= 45-26 , C=90 - 45-26 , b=09-50- 90 90-H = ZENITH DIST(a)

C=44-34 b=80-10 zenith dist.= 33-35
using cosine law:
Cosb= cos a cos c + sina sinc cos b
Cos 82-02 = cos 33-35 cos 44-34 + sin 33-35 sin 44-34 cos B
B= 85-53
If observation is in the morning
Azimuth=180 + 85-53
Ans .Azimuth= 265-53
Det. of azimuth by polaries
observation
The latitude and longitude of a station occuppied by an observer is 39-30-46N and
104-59-10W.
Eastern Local hour angle of Polaris= 118-46-35
Declination of polaris= + 89-12-37
The observer back sighted a reference mark and measured a horizontal angle of
258-19-58 to polaries.
Solution.
Tan A =Sin T ÷cosø tan δ- sin ø cos t
A= Azimuth of polaries
T= hour angle
Ø= latitude
δ= declination

Tan A=Sin 118-46-35÷ cos 39-49-46 tan 89-12-37 – sin 39-49-46 cos 118-46-35
ans.: A= 00-53-47
Det. of azimuth by polaries
observation
The latitude and longitude of a station occuppied by an observer is 43-02-25 N and
104-59-10W.
Eastern Local hour angle of Polaris= 125-15-10
Declination of polaris= + 87-28-15
The observer back sighted a reference mark and measured a horizontal angle of
258-19-58 to polaries.
Solution.
Tan A =Sin T ÷cosø tan δ- sin ø cos t
A= Azimuth of polaries
T= hour angle
Ø= latitude
δ= declination

Tan A=Sin 125-15-10 ÷ cos 43-02-25 tan 87-28-15 – sin 43-02-25 cos 125-15-10
ans.: A= 23-54-25.76
2.) DETERMINATION
OF AZIMUTH IN ANY MARK BY USE
AZIMUTH OF THE SUN.

ans.: Azimuth of mark= 102-33-49

2.) DETERMINATION
OF AZIMUTH IN ANY MARK BY USE
AZIMUTH OF THE SUN.

ans.: Azimuth of mark= 125-34-27.76

Determination of longitude
From an observation of the sun, the local apparent time is computed to be 3h 12m
30s . The watch time reading is 4h 51m 30s . The equation of the time of the day is
12m 12.1s. The watch is 40s too slow of the phil. Standard time.
• Compute the longitude of the place of observation.
Solution: standard time= 4h 51m 30s + 40 s
=4h 52m 10s
local civil time= 3h 12m 30s –(- 12m 12.1s)
=4h 24m 42.1s
Longitude of place:
Longitude diff.= standard time – local civil time
=4h 52m 10s – 4h 24m 42.1s
Longitude diff.=06-51-58.5

Note 15= 1hr of time

Longitude= 120 + 06-51-58.5
ans.: longitude-= 126-51-58.5
Determination of longitude
From an observation of the sun, the local apparent time is computed to be 4h 11m
59.8s . The watch time reading is 3h 53m 41s . The equation of the time of the day
is 15m 33.3s. The watch is 30s too slow of the phil. Standard time.
• Compute the longitude of the place of observation.
Solution: standard time= 3h 43m 41s + 30 s
=3h 54m 11s
local civil time= 4h 11m 59.8s –(- 15m 33.3s)
=4h 27m 33.1s
Longitude of place:
Longitude diff.= standard time – local civil time
=3h 54m 11s – 4h 27m 33.1s
Longitude diff.=8-20-45

Note 15= 1hr of time

Longitude= 120 + 8-21-45
ans.: longitude-= 128-20-45
Determination of latitude
A star has an angle of 52-30 and an azimuth of 93-11. the stars declination during the
observation is + 6-30.
*compute the latitude of the place observation.
Solution:
Cos ½ (40-41)⁄cos ½ (145-41)= tan ½(135-38)⁄tan ½ c zenith dist.= 52-08 (a)
B-A=93-11 – 52-30
B-A= 40- 41
B+A= 93-11+ 52-30
B+A= 145- 41
b+a= 83-30 + 52-08
b+a= 135-38
Cos ½( 40-41)⁄cos ½(145-41)= tab ½(135-38)⁄tan ½ c
½ c= 37-39
C= 75-18
90-L= 75-18
L= 14-42 N( LATITUDE)
Determination of latitude
A star has an angle of 50-45 and an azimuth of 80-50. the stars declination during the
observation is + 6-30.
*compute the latitude of the place observation.
Solution:
Cos ½ (40-41)⁄cos ½ (145-41)= tan ½(135-38)⁄tan ½ c zenith distance= 65-02
B-A=80-50 – 50-45
B-A= 30-05
B+A= 80-50+ 50-45
B+A= 131-35
b+a= 83-30 + 65-02
b+a= 148-32
Cos ½( 40-41)⁄cos ½(145-41)= tab ½(135-38)⁄tan ½ c
½ c= 37-39
C= 75-18
90-L= 75-18
L= 14-42 N( LATITUDE)
Determination of altitude
• The observed meridian altitude of a star on april 10,1990 was 39-24, star bearing
south. Refraction corrections is 1-11. the declination of the star at that instant was
-8-29-21.
*determine the corrected altitude.
Solution:
Corrected altitude:
Observed altitude= 39-24-00 + 0-01-11
ans: Altitude H= 39-22-49
Declination of the sun
A solar observation was observed in the afternoon. Station occupied is t-1 and the
station observed is T-2. initial reading of mark is 178-36-00. angle A as computed
from the formula is equal to 103-25-18. the computed mean horizontal angle is
103-28-30. north polar distance from table is 70-36-24. variation per hour is – o-
37-57. time of observation is 3:45:45 pm.

Solution :

Note: angle A is on the west if observed on the afternoon.

ᶱ =103-28-30 – 103-25-18
ᶿ= 00-03-12 W ( declination)