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Food Ingredient

Food Additives

The Role in Food Industry

Food Ingredient ?
 Intermediate Food Products (IFPs) for the secondary
processing industries.

 Substance that forms part of a mixture.

 On a product label, the ingredients are listed in order

of predominance, with the ingredients used in the
greatest amount first, followed in descending order by
those in smaller amounts.
Interaction among food components
Food Additives ?
 A food additive is any substance added to food.

 Any substance the intended use of which results or

may reasonably be expected to result -- directly or
indirectly -- in its becoming a component or
otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food.

 The label must list the names of any FDA-certified

color additives (e.g., FD&C Blue No. 1 or the
abbreviated name, Blue 1) and etc.
Food Ingredient Vs Food Additive

 Allfood additives are carefully regulated by

federal authorities and various international
organizations to ensure that foods are safe to
eat and are accurately labeled.

 Both of them are required to list in the food on

the label.

 Food additives are a part of food ingredient.

How Important “Label Food” For You?
Types of Food Ingredients

Types of What They Do Examples Names Found

Ingredients of Uses on Product Labels
Preservatives Prevent food Fruit sauces and Ascorbic acid, citric acid,
spoilage from jellies, sodium benzoate, calcium
bacteria, beverages, baked propionate, sodium
molds, fungi, goods, cured erythorbate, sodium nitrite,
or yeast meats, oils and calcium sorbate, potassium
(antimicrobials margarines, sorbate, BHA, BHT, EDTA,
); slow or cereals, tocopherols (Vitamin E)
prevent dressings, snack
changes in foods, fruits and
color, flavor, or vegetables
texture and
delay rancidity
Sweeteners Add Beverages, Sucrose (sugar), glucose,
sweetness baked goods, fructose, sorbitol, mannitol,
with or without confections, corn syrup, high fructose corn
the extra table-top sugar, syrup, saccharin, aspartame,
calories substitutes, many sucralose, acesulfame
processed foods potassium (acesulfame-K),
Color Offset color Many processed FD&C Blue Nos. 1 and 2,
Additives loss due to foods, (candies, FD&C Green No. 3, FD&C
exposure to snack foods Red Nos. 3 and 40, FD&C
light, air, margarine, Yellow Nos. 5 and 6, Orange
temperature cheese, soft B, Citrus Red No. 2, annatto
extremes, drinks, extract, beta-carotene, grape
moisture and jams/jellies, skin extract, cochineal extract
storage gelatins, pudding or carmine, paprika oleoresin,
conditions; and pie fillings) caramel color, fruit and
correct natural vegetable juices, saffron
variations in (Note: Exempt color additives
color; enhance are not required to be
colors that declared by name on labels
occur but may be declared simply
naturally; as colorings or color added)
provide color
to colorless
and "fun" foods
Flavors and Add specific Pudding and pie Natural flavoring, artificial
Spices flavors (natural fillings, gelatin flavor, and spices
and synthetic) dessert mixes,
cake mixes, salad
candies, soft
drinks, ice cream,
BBQ sauce
Flavor Enhance Many processed Monosodium glutamate
Enhancers flavors already foods (MSG), hydrolyzed soy
present in protein, autolyzed yeast
foods (without extract, disodium guanylate
providing their or inosinate
own separate
Fat Replacers Provide Baked goods, Olestra, cellulose gel,
(and expected dressings, frozen carrageenan, polydextrose,
components texture and a desserts, modified food starch,
of creamy confections, cake microparticulated egg white
formulations "mouth-feel" in and dessert protein, guar gum, xanthan
used to reduced-fat mixes, dairy gum, whey protein
replace fats) foods products concentrate
Nutrients Replace Flour, breads, Thiamine hydrochloride,
vitamins and cereals, rice, riboflavin (Vitamin B2), niacin,
minerals lost in macaroni, niacinamide, folate or folic
processing margarine, salt, acid, beta carotene,
(enrichment), milk, fruit potassium iodide, iron or
add nutrients beverages, ferrous sulfate, alpha
that may be energy bars, tocopherols, ascorbic acid,
lacking in the instant breakfast Vitamin D, amino acids (L-
diet drinks tryptophan, L-lysine, L-
(fortification) leucine, L-methionine)
Emulsifiers Allow smooth Salad dressings, Soy lecithin, mono- and
mixing of peanut butter, diglycerides, egg yolks,
ingredients, chocolate, polysorbates, sorbitan
prevent margarine, frozen monostearate
separation desserts
stable, reduce
dispersed, and
to help
dissolve more
Stabilizers Produce Frozen desserts, Gelatin, pectin, guar gum,
and uniform dairy products, carrageenan, xanthan gum,
Thickeners, texture, cakes, pudding whey
Binders, improve and gelatin
Texturizers "mouth-feel" mixes, dressings,
jams and jellies,
pH Control Control acidity Beverages, Lactic acid, citric acid,
Agents and and alkalinity, frozen desserts, ammonium hydroxide,
acidulants prevent chocolate, low sodium carbonate
spoilage acid canned
foods, baking
Leavening Promote rising Breads and other Baking soda, monocalcium
Agents of baked baked goods phosphate, calcium
goods carbonate
Anti-caking Keep Salt, baking Calcium silicate, iron
agents powdered powder, ammonium citrate, silicon
foods free- confectioner's dioxide
flowing, sugar
Humectants Retain Shredded Glycerin, sorbitol
moisture coconut,
soft candies,
Yeast Promote Breads and other Calcium sulfate, ammonium
Nutrients growth of baked goods phosphate
Dough Produce more Breads and other Ammonium sulfate,
Strengthener stable dough baked goods azodicarbonamide, L-
s and cysteine
Firming Maintain Processed fruits Calcium chloride, calcium
Agents crispness and and vegetables lactate
Enzyme Modify Cheese, dairy Enzymes, lactase, papain,
Preparations proteins, products, meat rennet, chymosin
s and fats
Gases Serve as Oil cooking spray, Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide
propellant, whipped cream,
aerate, or carbonated
create beverages
The Role of Ingredient in Food Industry ?
 Foodindustry has been undergoing major
change : to fulfill requirements from consumers.

 Nowdays, food products must always be : safe,

must meet nutritional and sensory requirements,
and must offer more and more benefits to satisfy
the needs created by our changing lifestyles.

Food industry must offer 4 essential elements :

Health, Taste, Safety, and Convenience
Ingredient could create
“new product”
Following are some reasons why ingredients are
added to foods:

To Maintain or Improve Safety and Freshness:

- Preservatives slow product spoilage caused by mold, air,
bacteria, fungi or yeast.

- To maintaining the quality of the food, they help control

contamination that can cause foodborne illness,
including life-threatening botulism.

- They also prevent cut fresh fruits such as apples from

turning brown when exposed to air.
To Improve or Maintain Nutritional Value:
- Vitamins and minerals (and fiber) are added to many foods to
make up for those lacking in a person's diet or lost in processing, or
to enhance the nutritional quality of a food.
- Such fortification and enrichment has helped reduce malnutrition
in the U.S. and worldwide. All products containing added nutrients
must be appropriately labeled.

Improve Taste, Texture and Appearance:

- Spices, natural and artificial flavors, and sweeteners are added to
enhance the taste of food.
- Food colors maintain or improve appearance.
- Emulsifiers, stabilizers and thickeners give foods the texture and
consistency consumers expect.
- Leavening agents allow baked goods to rise during baking.
- Some additives help control the acidity and alkalinity of foods.
- Other ingredients help maintain the taste and appeal of foods with
reduced fat content.
What's On the Label?

1. Serving Size This section is the

basis for determining number
of calories, amount of each
nutrient, and %DVs of a food.
2. Amount of Calories If you
want to manage your weight
(lose, gain, or maintain), this
section is especially helpful.
3. Limit these Nutrients Eating
too much total fat (including
saturated fat and trans fat),
cholesterol, or sodium may
increase your risk of certain
chronic diseases, such as
heart disease, some cancers,
or high blood pressure.
4. Get Enough of these Nutrients
Americans often don't get enough dietary fiber, vitamin A,
vitamin C, calcium, and iron in their diets.

5. Percent (%) Daily Value

This section tells you whether the nutrients (total fat, sodium,
dietary fiber, etc.) in one serving of food contribute a little or a
lot to your total daily diet.

6. Footnote with Daily Values (%DVs)

The footnote provides information about the DVs for important
nutrients, including fats, sodium and fiber. The DVs are listed for
people who eat 2,000 or 2,500 calories each day.