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# Copyright 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 Pearson, Education, Inc.

3.1

Graphing
Equations
The Rectangular Coordinate
System
Ordered pair – two numbers associated with a point on
a graph. The first number gives the horizontal location
of the point. The second gives the vertical location.
Coordinate – a number in an ordered pair; x-
coordinate, y-coordinate.
x-axis – horizontal number line
y-axis –vertical number line
Origin – point of intersection of the two axes
Quadrants – four regions created by the intersection of
the two axes.
Graphing an Ordered Pair

## To graph the point corresponding to a

particular ordered pair (a, b), you must start
at the origin and move a units to the left or
right (right if a is positive, left if a is negative),
then move b units up or down (up if b is
positive, down if b is negative).
Graphing an Ordered Pair
y-axis
(0, 5)
Note that the
(5, 3) order of the
(–4, 2) coordinates is
3 units up
(0, 0) very
(–6, 0) 5 units right x-axis important,
since (–4, 2)
origin and (2, –4)
(2, –4) are located in
different
Example
Plot each ordered pair. State in which quadrant, or on which
axis the point lies.
a. (4, 2)
b. (‒3, ‒2)
c. (2, ‒3)
d. (0, 4)
e. (5, 0)
Solution
d. (0, 4) y-axis
e. (5, 0) x-axis
Vocabulary
Paired data are data that can be represented
as ordered pairs.
A scatter diagram is the graph of paired data
as points in the rectangular coordinate system.
Completing Ordered Pair
Solutions
In general, an ordered pair is a solution of an
equation in two variables if replacing the
variables by the values of the ordered pair
results in a true statement.
If you know one coordinate of an ordered pair
that is a solution for an equation, you can find
the other coordinate through substitution and
solving the resulting equation.
Example
Determine whether (3, –2) is a solution of
2x + 5y = –4.
Let x = 3 and y = –2 in the equation.
2x + 5y = –4
2(3) + 5(–2) = –4
6 + (–10) = –4
–4 = –4 True

## So (3, –2) is a solution of 2x + 5y = –4

Example
Determine whether (–1, 6) is a solution of 3x – y = 5.
Let x = –1 and y = 6 in the equation.

3x – y = 5
3(–1) – 6 = 5
–3 – 6 = 5
–9 = 5 False

## So (–1, 6) is not a solution of 3x – y = 5

Linear Equations
A linear equation in two variables is an
equation that can be written in the form
Ax + By = C
where A, B, and C are real numbers and
A and B not both 0. This form is called
standard form.
Example
Graph the linear equation 2x – y = –4.

## To graph this equation, we find three ordered

pair solutions by choosing a value for one of the
variables, x or y, then solving for the other
variable. (The third solution acts as a check for
the other two.) We plot the solution points, then
draw the line containing the 3 points.
Example (cont)
Graph the linear equation 2x – y = – 4.

Let x = 1.

2x – y = –4
2(1) – y = –4 Replace x with 1.
2 – y = –4 Simplify.
– y = –6 Subtract 2 from both sides.
y=6 Multiply both sides by –1.

## The ordered pair (1, 6) is a solution of 2x – y = – 4.

Example (cont)
Graph the linear equation 2x – y = – 4.

Next, let y = 4.

2x – y = –4
2x – 4 = –4 Replace y with 4.
2x = – 4 + 4 Add 4 to both sides.
2x = 0 Simplify.
x=0 Divide both sides by 2.

## The ordered pair (0, 4) is a second solution.

Example (cont)
Graph the linear equation 2x – y = – 4.

Next, let x = 4.

2x – y = –4
2(– 3) – y = –4 Replace x with –3.
– 6 – y = –4 Simplify.
–y = 2 Add 6 to both sides.
y = –2 Multiply both sides by –1.

Example (cont)
y
(1, 6)
(0, 4)

## Now we plot all three of the

solutions (1, 6), (0, 4) and
(–3, –2).
x
(– 3, – 2)
And then we draw
the line that
contains the three
points.
Example
Graph the linear equation y  3 x  3
4

## Since the equation is solved for y, we should

choose values for x.
To avoid fractions, we should select values of x
that are multiples of 4 (the denominator of the
fraction).
Example (cont)

## Graph the linear equation y  3 x  3

4
Let x = 4.
y =3 x + 3
4

3
y= (4) + 3 Replace x with 4.
4

y=3+3=6 Simplify.

## So one solution is (4, 6).

Example (cont)
3
Graph the linear equation y  x  3
4

Next, let x = 0.
3
y= x+3
4
y = 3 (0) + 3 Replace x with 0.
4
y=0+3=3 Simplify.

## So a second solution is (0, 3).

Example (cont)
3
Graph the linear equation y  x  3
4

## Next, let x = –4.

3
y= x+3
4
3
y = (–4) + 3 Replace x with – 4.
4
y = –3 + 3 = 0 Simplify.

## So the third solution is (–4, 0).

Example (cont)
y

(4, 6)
Now we plot all three of
the ordered pair (0, 3)
solutions; (4, 6), (0, 3)
and (–4, 0).
(–4, 0) x
And then we draw
the line that
contains the three
points.

## When graphing a linear equation in two

variables, if it is
• solved for y, it may be easier to find ordered
pair solutions by choosing x-values. If it is
• solved for x, it may be easier to find ordered
pair solutions by choosing y-values.

If a graph crosses the x-axis at (2, 0) and the y-axis at (0, –8),
then
(2, 0) (0, –8)

x-intercept y-intercept

Notice that for the x-intercept, the y-value is 0 and for the
y-intercept, the x-value is 0.
Note: Sometimes in mathematics, you may see just the
number –8 stated as the y-intercept and 2 stated as the
x-intercept.
Intercepts

## Finding x- and y-Intercepts

To find the x-intercept, let y = 0 and solve for x.

## To find the y-intercept, let x = 0 and solve for y.

Example
1
Graph the linear equation y  x
3
1
Let x = 0 y  (0)  0
3
1
Let x = 6 y (6)  2
3

1
Let x = 3 y  ( 3)  1
3
Graphing Nonlinear
Equations
Not all equations in two variables are linear
equations, and not all graphs of equations in two
variables are lines.
Example
Graph the parabola y
y  x 2.
5

x y = x2
2 4
5 x
1 1 5

0 0
1 1
5
2 4
Example
y
Graph the absolute value
equation y  x . 5

x y = |x|
2 2
1 1 5 5 x
0 0
1 1
2 2 5
Example
Graph the equation y

y  x. 5

x y x
0 0
1 1 x
5 5
4 2
9 3

5