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# World of Electronics

1
Electrical Properties
Units and Definitions: V = voltage (volt)
• Ohm’s Law V = IR I = current (amp)
R = resistance (ohm)
• Current density J = I/A
• Electric field E = V/l, l = distance
• Electrical conductivity J = E,  = 1/
• Resistance and conductance R = l/ A
g = 1/R (ohm-1, S)
2
Classical Model of Electronic
Conduction in Metals
• n conduction electrons/volume
• Apply electric field E to give electron accel.
of eE/m, where m = electron mass
• Assume  = average time between collisions
eE
v   Drift velocity
d m
ne 2
J  nev  E Current density
d m

3
Classical Model of Electronic
Conduction in Metals

## ne 2 • For most metals, the


e  0.4% per K.
 ne 
 m  • This property is used for
 ne temperature measurements.

 = mobility
4
Question
ne2

m 
For most metals, Metal (ppm/
K)
1 dR 1 d
  4 103 /K Al 23.1

R dT  dT
Ag 18.9
The primary contribution to this change is that:
Cu 16.5
(a)n decreases with increasing temperature
 (b) decreases with increasing temperature
Fe 11.8

5
Solution
ne2

m 
For most metals, Metal (ppm/
K)
1 dR 1 d
  4 103 /K Al 23.1

R dT  dT
Ag 18.9
The primary contribution to this change is that:
Cu 16.5
(a)n decreases with increasing temperature
 (b) decreases with increasing temperature
Fe 11.8

6
Example
Given Ag with room temperature electrical conductivity of
6.3  107 (ohm-m)-1 and that there are 5.85  1022 silver
atoms per cm3, each with one conduction electron. Calculate
the electron mobility and average time between collisions.

7
Solution
Given Ag with room temperature electrical conductivity of
6.3  107 (ohm-m)-1 and that there are 5.85  1022 silver
atoms per cm3, each with one conduction electron. Calculate
the electron mobility and average time between collisions.

##  = 6.3  107 (ohm-m)-1 , n = 5.85  1022 electrons per cm3

n = 5.85  1028 electrons per cm3
  ne
 6.3 10 7 m3
  19
 0.0067 m 2
/volt.s
ne 5.85 10 1.6 10 ohm  m.C
28

m 0.0067  9.11031
  19
 3.83 1014
s
e 1.6 10 8
Thermal Velocity and Drift Velocity
At temperature T, the thermal velocity of an electron Vth is:
3kT
Vth  1.17 105 m /s at 300K
m
e
Drift velocity Vd at electric field E is: d
V  E  E
m
 Use Ag as an example and for E = 2 V/m:
Vd  0.0067  2  0.0134 m/s

Why is the drift velocity so much smaller than Vth ?

##  • Electric field too small

X • Electrons too heavy
 • Short time between collisions 9
Energy Band Model for
Electronic Conduction
empty
N 3s
electrons

occupied

Closely
spaced
levels

10
Energy Band Model for
Electronic Conduction
Conduction
electron
Conduction band

Bandgap Thermal
excitation

Valence band
Hole

11
valence band
Question
Conduction
electron
Conduction band

Electric field E

Valence band
Hole

## Which direction will the electron move?

Which direction will the hole move?

12
Conduction
electron
Conduction band

Electric field E

Valence band
Hole

## Net effect: positive current in the same

direction as the electric field, due to flow
of electrons and holes
13
Intrinsic Semiconductors
Material Bandgap at 300 K (eV)
C (diamond) 6.0
GaN 3.37
Band gap directly related to bond
SiC (4H) 3.25strength
SiC (6H)
Why? 3.0
AlAs 2.15
• Large bandgap = more difficult to remove
GaAs 1.4
electrons from the valence band, due to
Siatomic bonding 1.1
InSb 0.17
•GeDifficult to remove electrons0.67
from the
Snchemical
(gray Sn)bond = strong bonding
0.0
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Intrinsic Semiconductors
• Since electrons and holes are present in a
semiconductor, both contribute to electrical
conduction
J  (ne  pe )E
n p

## • Excitation of electrons to form electrons and

holes can be treated as an equilibrium chemical

reaction:

VB  electrons + holes 15
Intrinsic Semiconductors
[electrons][holes]  Eg 
 C exp 
[VB]  kBT 

 Eg 
np  C'exp 
  kBT 

## For a given material, np = constant f(T) only


Since n = p in intrinsic semiconductors, we can write:
 Eg 
ni  exp 
 2kBT 
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Comparing Conductivity of
Semiconductors and Metals
metals
Two equivalent ways to think about increase
temperature-
of conduction electrons with temperature:
saturation
controlled
(1)Thermally assisted excitation across the
ionization-controlled
bandgap
ln 
(2)Thermally assisted excitation from the
covalent bond
mobility-controlled

1/T

## Slope =  Egap / 2kB Increasing temperature 17

Utilizing Bandgaps in
Semiconductors
• Thermistors Detecting temperature change
• Photodetectors Detecting photons

18
Question
Can metals act as thermistors?
• Of course, they can.
• Recall that the resistance of typical metals increases by
0.4% per K, but ………

ln 

19
1/T
Extrinsic Semiconductors
• When impurities are introduced into a
semiconductors, they change the electrical
properties
• Two types: N and P

20
N-Type Semiconductors
• Introduce antimony Sb (group V) impurities
• Sb has one more valence electron than
needed for bonding --> loosely bound --->
easily excited to the conduction band
• Sb is known as a donor or N-type impurity

21
N-Type Semiconductors

Conduction band

Donor levels

Valence band
Sb  Sb+ + e

22
N-Type Semiconductors
• What is (are) the source(s) of conduction electrons in
N-type semiconductors?
- valence electrons?
- N-type dopants?
• What is (are) the source(s) of holes in n-type
semiconductors?
- valence electrons?
- N-type dopants?
• n=p? 23
N-Type Semiconductors

Si

Sb

covalent
bond

conduction
electron

24
N-Type Semiconductors
• Energy separation between donor levels and
bottom of conduction band ~ 40-50 meV
• KE of thermal electrons at room temperature ~ 40
meV
• Each donor provides one conduction electron
• For Si, there are 5  1022 atoms/cm3. One ppm
donor concentration --> 5  1016 conduction
electrons/cm3 >> ni = 1.45  1010 conduction
electrons/cm3
25
N-Type Semiconductors
• Since np = constant, large n means small p
• Electrons are known as majority charge
carriers
• Material is neutral - the negative charges of
conduction electrons are balanced by
positive charges of ionized donors.

26
Charge Distribution

Si

## • Sketch the spatial distribn of valence els

• Sketch the spatial distribn of conduction els
27
Charge Distribution

Si

Conduction electrons
Valence electrons
28
N-Type Semiconductors

Si

Sb

covalent
bond

conduction
electron

29
P-Type Semiconductors
• Introduce aluminum (group III element) impurities
• Aluminum has one less valence electrons than
needed for bonding --> neighboring electron easily
excited to satisfy the bonding requirement -->
creating a vacancy in the valence band
• Aluminum is known as an acceptor or P-type
impurity
30
Conduction band

## Acceptor levels Empty - Al levels

Occupied - Al- levels
Valence band

Al  Al- + h

31
P-Type Semiconductors
• Holes = majority charge carriers, with
positive effective charge
• Positive charge balanced by ionized
acceptors (negative charge)

32
Questions
Consider introducing silicon impurity into
otherwise pure gallium arsenide.
• What is the carrier type if silicon atoms
(valence = 4) go into gallium sites (valence
= 3)?
• What is the carrier type if silicon atoms go
into arsenic sites (valence = 5)?

33
Selected Semiconductor Devices
• Hall Probe
• PN Junction
• Transistor

36
Hall Probe
A Hall probe is a device to measure magnetic
field strength

B Top view

I I
VH

++++++
B field
out of
page
37
Hall Probe

## Assume that majority charge carriers are holes

e(v  B)  eEH
BI 1
Hence VH 
t pe

Can be used to distinguish between semiconductor
types
(N or P)
38
Questions
• Why are semiconductors better materials to
be used in Hall detectors?
• The equation shows that the Hall voltage
varies inversely as thickness. At what point
will this equation be invalid?

39
PN Junction
• P-type SC - holes are majority charge carriers
• N-type SC - electrons are majority charge
carriers
• When placed in intimate contact, diffusion of
charge carriers occurs due to concentration
gradient - electric field across junction
• Equilibrium when electric field balances the
driving force for diffusion
40
PN Junction at Equilibrium
Els flowing to P-side:
n-SC p-SC
• P-side negative
• Electron energy 
• CB and VB 
Electron energy
Conduction band

Valence band

41
Current Flow in PN Junction
Conduction band

Valence band

p-SC

## n-SC Conduction band

Valence band

42
Effect of Applied Voltage
eV Conduction band

eV Valence band

n-SC p-SC

## Effects of V on I’s are not the same

43
Currents in a PN Junction
n-SC p-SC

eV I4
Conduction band
I1

Valence band

I1  I1 exp (eV/kBT)
I4  I4
Net electron current to the right = I1 exp (eV/kBT) - I1
44
PN Junction
I For Si PN junctions,
obtain substantial
currents when V >
0.6 volt

V
Forward bias

Reverse bias

+ - - +

N P N P

45
Sample Applications of PN
Junction Devices
• Rectification - converting AC to DC
• Light-emitting diodes and lasers
• Solar cells
• X-ray detectors
• Voltage regulators

46
Sample Applications of PN
Junction Devices
• Rectification - converting AC to DC
• Light-emitting diodes and lasers
• Solar cells
• X-ray detectors
• Voltage regulators

47
Rectifiers

Half-wave rectification

Full-wave rectification

48
Half-wave Rectification

Full-wave Rectification

49
Light Emitting Diodes (LED)
Conduction band

h Valence band

n-SC p-SC

## • Efficient light emission with certain semiconductors, known

as direct-gap semiconductors, e.g., GaAs, GaN, InP etc
• Possible alternative to incandescent and compact fluorescent
lighting 50
Solar Cells
Conduction band

h Valence band

n-SC p-SC

## • Just the opposite of LED - produces electrical current

when illuminated by light or photons
• Only works when the photon energy > band gap
• Single crystal Si solar cells - efficiency ~ 15-20%
• Single crystal GaAs solar cells - efficiency ~ 20-25% 51
Multi-Junction Solar Cells
• Purpose: to capture a
larger fraction of the
solar spectrum
• Expensive, but can be
compensated by the use
of concentrators
• Concentrators provide
improved efficiency
• world record ~ 50%
• require tracking
52
Solar Cells: I-V Characteristics
I  I o[exp( eV / kBT )1] G
where G = solar intensity and  = efficiency to produce e-h pairs
I Light off

Light on, G1

## Light on, G2 >

G1
V

53
Solar Cells: I-V Characteristics
kB T G 
I 0V  ln  
e  Io 
Note that the output voltage increases with temperature and
solar intensity



54
Transistors
– Bipolar junction transistors
– Field effect transistors
• Two functions:
– Switch
– Amplifier

57
Transistors
– Bipolar junction transistors
– Field effect transistors
• Two functions:
– Switch
– Amplifier

58
Biopolar Junction Transistor
• Two types - NPN and PNP
• Consider NPN transistor. There are three
parts
– Emitter, heavily n-doped
– Base, p-doped
– Collector, lightly n-doped

59
NPN Transistor
CB

## Emitter (N) Base (P) Collector (N)

60
Transistor Action
IE = C [exp (eV/kBT) - 1 ]
RBE = V/IE is small

## • Normal setup: emitter-base forward-biased, base-collector

reversed biased
• 99% of current injected into base goes into collector
• Small modulation of the voltage on the base has an
exponential effect on the collector current
61
+15 V

Transistor as an
R Amplifier C

B C
E

## • Voltage gain VC/VBE

• VC = RC IC
• VBE = RBE IBE (RBE = resistance from base to emitter)
• Since IBE ~ IC, IBE ~ IC
• Voltage gain ~ RC / RBE , typically 100-500
• Note that the voltage gain is due to the transfer of resistor
values from the input to the output circuit, hence the name
62
transistor
Transistor as a Switch

## Emitter (N) Base (P) Collector (N)

• When forward-biased and VBE > 0.6 volt, large current -->
device is ON
• When VBE < 0.6 or -ve (reverse-bias), small current -->
device is OFF

63
Electron Tunneling
• Benefit of electron tunneling every time we
switch on an electrical device
• When an insulator is thinner than 5 nm or
so, obtain electrical conduction

67
Electron Tunneling
V

Electron, energy E
Transmitted
by tunneling
Reflected

Probability of transmission
 2m(V  E) 
 exp2

2 
s exp As V  E


68
Applications of Electron
Tunneling
• Field-emission display
• Scanning tunneling microscope

69
Field Emission

Electron energy 

## Vacuum level before applied

electric field

 Conduction electrons
tunneling into vacuum

z
Vacuum level after applied
Conduction
electric field E
electrons

 =  - eEz

70
How Big a Field?
 =  - eEz
Tunneling barrier thickness z = /eE
Set z = 10 nm,  = 4 eV:
E = 4 V/10 nm = 4 x 108 V/m
Trick: use a sharp tip
Electric field above a sharp tip with radius R ~ V/R, where V
is the applied voltage.

71
Field emission image of single
crystal tungsten

72
Carbon nanotube
field emission lamps

73
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

Probability of transmission
 exp As1/ 2 
V where A ~ 10.25 nm-1, s in nm,
and  tunneling barrier in eV


74
Vertical Sensitivity of STM
• Consider changing the tip-surface spacing
by 0.1 nm
• For  = 4 eV, the current changes by a factor
of exp(0.110.25 2) ~ e2, or a factor of 8.

75
STM image of graphite

76
Thermoelectric Effect
Thot

A B

Tcold

## V = (SA – SB) (Thot – Tcold)

S = thermoelectric power or 77
Seebeck coefficient
Waterpot Generator

78
Thermoelectric Conversion Efficiency
0.3

0.25 ZT=5
Tcold = 400 K
0.2
Efficiency

ZT=2
0.15

0.1 ZT=1

0.05

0
0 100 200 300 400 500
dT(K)

## S 2T S 2T • Best materials are Se- or Te-

ZT  
K K containing semiconductors
• ZT ~ 1 80
What Have We Learned from
Chapter 3?
• Classical and band model of electronic conduction
• Intrinsic and extrinsic (P- and N-type)
semiconductors
• Temperature dependence of conductivity
• Hall effect and Hall probe
• PN junction and applications
• Transistors (junction and FET)
• Electron tunneling
• Thermoelectric effect
81