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World of Electronics

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Electrical Properties
Units and Definitions: V = voltage (volt)
• Ohm’s Law V = IR I = current (amp)
R = resistance (ohm)
• Current density J = I/A
• Electric field E = V/l, l = distance
• Electrical conductivity J = E,  = 1/
• Resistance and conductance R = l/ A
g = 1/R (ohm-1, S)
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Classical Model of Electronic
Conduction in Metals
• n conduction electrons/volume
• Apply electric field E to give electron accel.
of eE/m, where m = electron mass
• Assume  = average time between collisions
eE
v   Drift velocity
d m
ne 2
J  nev  E Current density
d m

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Classical Model of Electronic
Conduction in Metals

ne 2 • For most metals, the



m conductivity decreases about
e  0.4% per K.
 ne 
 m  • This property is used for
 ne temperature measurements.

 = mobility
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Question
ne2

m 
For most metals, Metal (ppm/
K)
1 dR 1 d
  4 103 /K Al 23.1

R dT  dT
Ag 18.9
The primary contribution to this change is that:
Cu 16.5
(a)n decreases with increasing temperature
 (b) decreases with increasing temperature
Fe 11.8

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Solution
ne2

m 
For most metals, Metal (ppm/
K)
1 dR 1 d
  4 103 /K Al 23.1

R dT  dT
Ag 18.9
The primary contribution to this change is that:
Cu 16.5
(a)n decreases with increasing temperature
 (b) decreases with increasing temperature
Fe 11.8

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Example
Given Ag with room temperature electrical conductivity of
6.3  107 (ohm-m)-1 and that there are 5.85  1022 silver
atoms per cm3, each with one conduction electron. Calculate
the electron mobility and average time between collisions.

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Solution
Given Ag with room temperature electrical conductivity of
6.3  107 (ohm-m)-1 and that there are 5.85  1022 silver
atoms per cm3, each with one conduction electron. Calculate
the electron mobility and average time between collisions.

 = 6.3  107 (ohm-m)-1 , n = 5.85  1022 electrons per cm3


n = 5.85  1028 electrons per cm3
  ne
 6.3 10 7 m3
  19
 0.0067 m 2
/volt.s
ne 5.85 10 1.6 10 ohm  m.C
28

m 0.0067  9.11031
  19
 3.83 1014
s
e 1.6 10 8
Thermal Velocity and Drift Velocity
At temperature T, the thermal velocity of an electron Vth is:
3kT
Vth  1.17 105 m /s at 300K
m
e
Drift velocity Vd at electric field E is: d
V  E  E
m
 Use Ag as an example and for E = 2 V/m:
Vd  0.0067  2  0.0134 m/s

Why is the drift velocity so much smaller than Vth ?

 • Electric field too small


X • Electrons too heavy
 • Short time between collisions 9
Energy Band Model for
Electronic Conduction
empty
N 3s
electrons

occupied

Closely
spaced
levels

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Energy Band Model for
Electronic Conduction
Conduction
electron
Conduction band

Bandgap Thermal
excitation

Valence band
Hole

Hole = absence of electron in


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valence band
Question
Conduction
electron
Conduction band

Electric field E

Valence band
Hole

Which direction will the electron move?


Which direction will the hole move?

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Answer
Conduction
electron
Conduction band

Electric field E

Valence band
Hole

Net effect: positive current in the same


direction as the electric field, due to flow
of electrons and holes
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Intrinsic Semiconductors
Material Bandgap at 300 K (eV)
C (diamond) 6.0
GaN 3.37
Band gap directly related to bond
SiC (4H) 3.25strength
SiC (6H)
Why? 3.0
AlAs 2.15
• Large bandgap = more difficult to remove
GaAs 1.4
electrons from the valence band, due to
Siatomic bonding 1.1
InSb 0.17
•GeDifficult to remove electrons0.67
from the
Snchemical
(gray Sn)bond = strong bonding
0.0
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Intrinsic Semiconductors
• Since electrons and holes are present in a
semiconductor, both contribute to electrical
conduction
J  (ne  pe )E
n p

• Excitation of electrons to form electrons and


holes can be treated as an equilibrium chemical

reaction:

VB  electrons + holes 15
Intrinsic Semiconductors
[electrons][holes]  Eg 
 C exp 
[VB]  kBT 

 Eg 
np  C'exp 
  kBT 

For a given material, np = constant f(T) only



Since n = p in intrinsic semiconductors, we can write:
 Eg 
ni  exp 
 2kBT 
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Comparing Conductivity of
Semiconductors and Metals
metals
Two equivalent ways to think about increase
temperature-
of conduction electrons with temperature:
saturation
controlled
(1)Thermally assisted excitation across the
ionization-controlled
bandgap
ln 
(2)Thermally assisted excitation from the
covalent bond
mobility-controlled

1/T

Slope =  Egap / 2kB Increasing temperature 17


Utilizing Bandgaps in
Semiconductors
• Thermistors Detecting temperature change
• Photodetectors Detecting photons

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Question
Can metals act as thermistors?
• Of course, they can.
• Recall that the resistance of typical metals increases by
0.4% per K, but ………

ln 

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1/T
Extrinsic Semiconductors
• When impurities are introduced into a
semiconductors, they change the electrical
properties
• Two types: N and P

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N-Type Semiconductors
• Start with Si (group IV element)
• Introduce antimony Sb (group V) impurities
• Sb has one more valence electron than
needed for bonding --> loosely bound --->
easily excited to the conduction band
• Sb is known as a donor or N-type impurity

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N-Type Semiconductors

Conduction band

Donor levels

Valence band
Sb  Sb+ + e

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N-Type Semiconductors
• What is (are) the source(s) of conduction electrons in
N-type semiconductors?
- valence electrons?
- N-type dopants?
• What is (are) the source(s) of holes in n-type
semiconductors?
- valence electrons?
- N-type dopants?
• n=p? 23
N-Type Semiconductors

Si

Sb

covalent
bond

conduction
electron

24
N-Type Semiconductors
• Energy separation between donor levels and
bottom of conduction band ~ 40-50 meV
• KE of thermal electrons at room temperature ~ 40
meV
• Each donor provides one conduction electron
• For Si, there are 5  1022 atoms/cm3. One ppm
donor concentration --> 5  1016 conduction
electrons/cm3 >> ni = 1.45  1010 conduction
electrons/cm3
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N-Type Semiconductors
• Since np = constant, large n means small p
• Electrons are known as majority charge
carriers
• Material is neutral - the negative charges of
conduction electrons are balanced by
positive charges of ionized donors.

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Charge Distribution

Si

• Sketch the spatial distribn of valence els


• Sketch the spatial distribn of conduction els
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Charge Distribution

Si

Conduction electrons
Valence electrons
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N-Type Semiconductors

Si

Sb

covalent
bond

conduction
electron

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P-Type Semiconductors
• Start with Si (group IV element)
• Introduce aluminum (group III element) impurities
• Aluminum has one less valence electrons than
needed for bonding --> neighboring electron easily
excited to satisfy the bonding requirement -->
creating a vacancy in the valence band
• Aluminum is known as an acceptor or P-type
impurity
30
Conduction band

Acceptor levels Empty - Al levels


Occupied - Al- levels
Valence band

Al  Al- + h

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P-Type Semiconductors
• Holes = majority charge carriers, with
positive effective charge
• Positive charge balanced by ionized
acceptors (negative charge)

32
Questions
Consider introducing silicon impurity into
otherwise pure gallium arsenide.
• What is the carrier type if silicon atoms
(valence = 4) go into gallium sites (valence
= 3)?
• What is the carrier type if silicon atoms go
into arsenic sites (valence = 5)?

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Selected Semiconductor Devices
• Hall Probe
• PN Junction
• Transistor

36
Hall Probe
A Hall probe is a device to measure magnetic
field strength

B Top view

I I
VH

++++++
B field
out of
page
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Hall Probe

Assume that majority charge carriers are holes


e(v  B)  eEH
BI 1
Hence VH 
t pe

Can be used to distinguish between semiconductor
types
(N or P)
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Questions
• Why are semiconductors better materials to
be used in Hall detectors?
• The equation shows that the Hall voltage
varies inversely as thickness. At what point
will this equation be invalid?

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PN Junction
• P-type SC - holes are majority charge carriers
• N-type SC - electrons are majority charge
carriers
• When placed in intimate contact, diffusion of
charge carriers occurs due to concentration
gradient - electric field across junction
• Equilibrium when electric field balances the
driving force for diffusion
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PN Junction at Equilibrium
Els flowing to P-side:
n-SC p-SC
• P-side negative
• Electron energy 
• CB and VB 
Electron energy
Conduction band

Valence band

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Current Flow in PN Junction
Conduction band

Valence band

p-SC

n-SC Conduction band

Valence band

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Effect of Applied Voltage
eV Conduction band

eV Valence band

n-SC p-SC

Effects of V on I’s are not the same

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Currents in a PN Junction
n-SC p-SC

eV I4
Conduction band
I1

Valence band

I1  I1 exp (eV/kBT)
I4  I4
Net electron current to the right = I1 exp (eV/kBT) - I1
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PN Junction
I For Si PN junctions,
obtain substantial
currents when V >
0.6 volt

V
Forward bias

Reverse bias

+ - - +

N P N P

45
Sample Applications of PN
Junction Devices
• Rectification - converting AC to DC
• Light-emitting diodes and lasers
• Solar cells
• X-ray detectors
• Voltage regulators

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Sample Applications of PN
Junction Devices
• Rectification - converting AC to DC
• Light-emitting diodes and lasers
• Solar cells
• X-ray detectors
• Voltage regulators

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Rectifiers

Half-wave rectification

Full-wave rectification

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Half-wave Rectification

Full-wave Rectification

49
Light Emitting Diodes (LED)
Conduction band

h Valence band

n-SC p-SC

• Efficient light emission with certain semiconductors, known


as direct-gap semiconductors, e.g., GaAs, GaN, InP etc
• Possible alternative to incandescent and compact fluorescent
lighting 50
Solar Cells
Conduction band

h Valence band

n-SC p-SC

• Just the opposite of LED - produces electrical current


when illuminated by light or photons
• Only works when the photon energy > band gap
• Single crystal Si solar cells - efficiency ~ 15-20%
• Single crystal GaAs solar cells - efficiency ~ 20-25% 51
Multi-Junction Solar Cells
• Purpose: to capture a
larger fraction of the
solar spectrum
• Expensive, but can be
compensated by the use
of concentrators
• Concentrators provide
the added benefit of
improved efficiency
• world record ~ 50%
• require tracking
52
Solar Cells: I-V Characteristics
I  I o[exp( eV / kBT )1] G
where G = solar intensity and  = efficiency to produce e-h pairs
I Light off

Light on, G1

Light on, G2 >


G1
V

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Solar Cells: I-V Characteristics
kB T G 
I 0V  ln  
e  Io 
Note that the output voltage increases with temperature and
solar intensity



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Transistors
• Two broad types:
– Bipolar junction transistors
– Field effect transistors
• Two functions:
– Switch
– Amplifier

57
Transistors
• Two broad types:
– Bipolar junction transistors
– Field effect transistors
• Two functions:
– Switch
– Amplifier

58
Biopolar Junction Transistor
• Two types - NPN and PNP
• Consider NPN transistor. There are three
parts
– Emitter, heavily n-doped
– Base, p-doped
– Collector, lightly n-doped

59
NPN Transistor
CB

Emitter (N) Base (P) Collector (N)

60
Transistor Action
IE = C [exp (eV/kBT) - 1 ]
RBE = V/IE is small

Emitter (N) Base (P) Collector (N)

• Normal setup: emitter-base forward-biased, base-collector


reversed biased
• 99% of current injected into base goes into collector
• Small modulation of the voltage on the base has an
exponential effect on the collector current
61
+15 V

Transistor as an
R Amplifier C

B C
E

Emitter (N) Base (P) Collector (N)

• Voltage gain VC/VBE


• VC = RC IC
• VBE = RBE IBE (RBE = resistance from base to emitter)
• Since IBE ~ IC, IBE ~ IC
• Voltage gain ~ RC / RBE , typically 100-500
• Note that the voltage gain is due to the transfer of resistor
values from the input to the output circuit, hence the name
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transistor
Transistor as a Switch

Emitter (N) Base (P) Collector (N)

• When forward-biased and VBE > 0.6 volt, large current -->
device is ON
• When VBE < 0.6 or -ve (reverse-bias), small current -->
device is OFF

63
Electron Tunneling
• Benefit of electron tunneling every time we
switch on an electrical device
• When an insulator is thinner than 5 nm or
so, obtain electrical conduction

67
Electron Tunneling
V

Electron, energy E
Transmitted
by tunneling
Reflected

Probability of transmission
 2m(V  E) 
 exp2

2 
s exp As V  E


68
Applications of Electron
Tunneling
• Field-emission display
• Scanning tunneling microscope

69
Field Emission

Electron energy 

Vacuum level before applied


electric field

 Conduction electrons
tunneling into vacuum

z
Vacuum level after applied
Conduction
electric field E
electrons

 =  - eEz

70
How Big a Field?
 =  - eEz
Tunneling barrier thickness z = /eE
Set z = 10 nm,  = 4 eV:
E = 4 V/10 nm = 4 x 108 V/m
Trick: use a sharp tip
Electric field above a sharp tip with radius R ~ V/R, where V
is the applied voltage.

71
Field emission image of single
crystal tungsten

72
Carbon nanotube
field emission lamps

73
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

Probability of transmission
 exp As1/ 2 
V where A ~ 10.25 nm-1, s in nm,
and  tunneling barrier in eV


74
Vertical Sensitivity of STM
• Consider changing the tip-surface spacing
by 0.1 nm
• For  = 4 eV, the current changes by a factor
of exp(0.110.25 2) ~ e2, or a factor of 8.

75
STM image of graphite

76
Thermoelectric Effect
Thot

A B

Tcold

V = (SA – SB) (Thot – Tcold)

S = thermoelectric power or 77
Seebeck coefficient
Waterpot Generator

78
Thermoelectric Conversion Efficiency
0.3

0.25 ZT=5
Tcold = 400 K
0.2
Efficiency

ZT=2
0.15

0.1 ZT=1

0.05

0
0 100 200 300 400 500
dT(K)

S 2T S 2T • Best materials are Se- or Te-


ZT  
K K containing semiconductors
• ZT ~ 1 80
What Have We Learned from
Chapter 3?
• Classical and band model of electronic conduction
• Intrinsic and extrinsic (P- and N-type)
semiconductors
• Temperature dependence of conductivity
• Hall effect and Hall probe
• PN junction and applications
• Transistors (junction and FET)
• Electron tunneling
• Thermoelectric effect
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