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INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS

Third Edition
By : Merrill I. Skolnik

Second Edition
By : Merrill I. Skolnik

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS

Third Edition
By : Merrill I. Skolnik

Chapter 1:
A Introduction to Radar

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


Contents

 Chapter 1: An Introduction to Radar


 Chapter 2: The Radar Equation
 Chapter 3: MTI and Pulse Doppler Radar
 Chapter 4: Tracking Radar
 Chapter 5: Detection of Signals in Noise
 Chapter 6: Information from radar Signals
 Chapter 7: Radar Clutter
 Chapter 8: Propagation of Radar Waves
 Chapter 9: The Radar Antenna
 Chapter 10: Radar Transmitters
 Chapter 11: Radar Receiver

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


What is the Radar?

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


What is the Radar?

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


What is the Radar?

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


What is the Radar?

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


Radar Advantages
 Cloud and smoke penetration.
 Night vision.
 Forest canopy penetration and canopy structure.
 Complements visible/infrared sensors (sensitive to terrain features and moisture).
 Good for discrimination of terrain structure (roughness) and drainage patterns.

Radar Disadvantages
 Interpretation requires knowledge of radar interaction with surfaces.
 Speckle (dark and bright pixels) limits interpretation.
 Satellite systems are not yet multispectral and multi polarization (usually one band/one
polarization) on most satellite platforms (limits forest canopy information).
 Not good for discrimination and mapping of different vegetation types except at very
general levels.
 Data analysis can be hindered in steep topography and rough terrain due to extreme
layover effects.

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


Review of Common Radar Types

• CW
• Simple Pulsed Range Radar
• Pulse Doppler
• Pulse Compression (Chirp and Phase Coded)
• Frequency Agile
• MTI (Coherent and Coherent-on-Receiver)
• Mono-pulse
• Phased Array
• SAR
• Bi-static Radars
• Instrumentation
• Multimode
• Other (MLS, ILS, TACAN)

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


History of the radar
• Before World War II: A simple radar by several country is proposed and applied.

• After World War II: the radar technology grew rapidly.


• Use of Doppler effect in MTI (moving target indicator).
• Use of High power stable amplifier such as klystron, TWT and solid state amplifier
instead of the magnetron tube.
• Use of mono-pulse radar for better accuracy.
• Use of pulse compression technique to achieve the range resolution.
• Use of Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for imaging of ground surfaces.
• Development of Airborne radar.
• Phase array Antenna for electronically scan of environments without mechanical
movement of the antenna.
• Use of HF over-the-Horizon radars to detect aircraft to almost 2000 nmi.
• Use of radar technology to recognize target by extraction of its information.
• radar to gather weather information, wind speed and direction.
• Use of digital signal processing to develop radar.

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


The Principle of the Radar

2R  c TR c  3 108 m / s

For example : TR  1 m sec  R  150Km

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


Typical Radar Waveform

PRI (Pulse Repetition Interval) 1


PRF (Pulse Repetition Frequency) PRF  PRI  1 m sec  PRF  1KHz
PRI

 is pulse width 
Duty Cycle    1 sec, PRI  1m sec  Duty Cycle  0.001
PRI

Pt is Peak Power 
 Pav  Pt for example: Pt  1 MWatts  Pav  1KWatts
Pav is Average Power PRI
INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1
Typical Radar Waveform

12
12 Watts = 10 log 10
Target echo is : 10
3
 90 dBm
10
INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1
IEEE Standard Radar Frequencies

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


Optical Region

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


Radar Block Diagram

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


Plan Position Indicator (PPI) Display

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


Antenna Pattern


Beam width = 65 D is Horizontal or Vertical dimension of antenna
D

c 3 108
For example : D  5 m and f  3 GHz     0.1 m  10 cm
f 3 109

0.1
 BW  65  1.3 deg .
5

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


The Radar Equation
Target


Pdensityin R 
Pt G  4 
4 R 2
G   2  Ae , Ae   a A
 
Ae , G
R Pt G 
Pdensityin TX  .
Pt 4 R 2 4 R 2
TX , RX
Pt G 
Pr  Pdensityin TX . Ae  . . Ae
4 R 2 4 R 2

1
 P G A  4
if Pr  S min  Rmax   t 2 e 
 (4 ) S min 
TX is transmitter 1

RX is receiver  4   PA   2 4
G   2  Ae  Rmax   t 2e 
G is gain of antenna
    4  S min 
Ae is effective aperture of antenna
Pt is peak power
 is radar cross section
R is distance (range) of target from radar

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


Example :

P 1.2 A ground-based air-surveillance radar operate at frequency of 1300MHz (L-Band). Its


maximum range is 200nmi (1 nautical mile equal 1852meter) for the detection of a target
with a radar cross section of 1m2. its antenna 12 m wide by 4 m high, and the antenna
aperture efficiency is 0.65. the minimum detectable signal is 10-13 watts. Determine the
following:

1. Antenna effective aperture and gain?


2. Peak transmitter power?
3. Pulse repetition frequency (PRF) to achieve a maximum unambiguous range of 200 nmi?
4. Average transmitter power , if the pulse width is 2 micro sec?
5. Duty cycle?
6. Horizontal and vertical beam width?

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


Solution :

1. Ae   A  0.65 12m  4m  31.2 m 2 , c 3 108


   0.2307m
f 1300 106
 4  4
 G   2  Ae  31.2  7362.90  GdB  10 log( 7362.90)  38.67dB

  0.2307 2

2. S min 
Pt G
.

4 R 4 R 2
2
. Ae 
P
4 R  2 2
S min 
4 200 1852  2 2
10 13  12.5 MWatts
G  Ae 7362.90 1 32.2
t

c c 3 108 1
3. 2 R  c T   f PRF    404 Hz  PRI   2.47m sec
f PRF 2 R 2  200 1852m 404

 2 106
4. Pav  Pt  3
12.5 106  10.12 KWatts
PRI 2.47 10


2 106
5. Duty   3
 8.097 104  0.0008
PRI 2.47 10

 0.2307  0.2307
6. HBW  65  65  1.24 deg . , VBW  65  65  3.74 deg .
D 12 D 4

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


Applications of the Radar
• Military Applications
 Space Systems
 Airborne Applications
 Maritime Applications
 Surveillance
 Search and Track
 Fire Control
 Navigation
 Missile Guidance
 Proximity Fuses
 Altimeter
 Terrain Avoidance
 Weather Mapping

• Civil Applications
 Space Systems
 Air Transport and Navigation Applications
 Maritime Applications
 Industry Applications. Speed and distance measurements
 Oil and Gas Exploration
 The movement of insects and birds.

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1
High Resolution Radars

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


New Radar systems

1. Enhanced Meteorological Radars. [Nexrad, Terminal Doppler Weather Radar, Wind profiler, TRMM
satellite weather radar and airborne wind-shear detection radar]
2. Planetary Explorations. [ Magellan for Venus, Cassini for Titan, a moon of Saturn]
3. Interferomectic Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for 3D images.
4. Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR).
5. Ground Penetration Radar (GPR).
6. Serial production of phased array radars. [Patriod, Aegis, Pave Paws, B-1B bomber]
7. Active aperture phased arrays.
8. Ballistic missile defense radars. [GBR and Arrow]
9. HF over the horizon radars. [ROTHR and Jindalee]
10. Battlefield surveillance. [JSTARS]
11. Radars for remote sensing of the environments.
12. Improved air-traffic control radars.
13. New multifunction airborne military fighter/attack radars.

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1


INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS , Merrill I. Skolnik , Third Edition Chapter 1