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Chapter 3: Inclusion and Identity

Palmer and Gorman: From


Individualism to Collectivism

• “Master problem “ of Social Life


• Humans consistently seek inclusion in a
group.
• Palmer is individualist while Gorman is
collectivist.
What is inclusion?

• Single individual changes from an outside


into an insider by joining a group.
From Isolation to Inclusion

• Animals are social creature.

• humans beings, "have a pervasive drive to


form and maintain at least a minimum
quantity of lasting, positive, and impactful
interpersonal relationship.

Roy Baumeister and Mark Leary (1995, p


497)
The need to belong

• Most people spend the majority of their


waking hours in the company of other
people.

• Survey says that 87.3% of Americans


reported that they lived with other people.
The need to belong
People affiliate
in groups

Putnam’s “bowling alone”


hypothesis: affiliation patterns
are shifting
Isolations can be rejuvenating, but:

• Isolated individuals (e.g., stranded


explorers) report negative effects.
• Solitary confinement recognized as a
severe punishments.
• People seek membership in a variety of
groups.
• People build their social capital by creating
online and face to face relationships.
Inclusion and The Inclusion/Exclusion Continuum
exclusion

Rejection Acceptance

Maximum Active Passive Passive Active Maximum


Ambivalence
Exclusion Exclusion Exclusion Inclusion Inclusion Inclusion

Group Group avoids Group Group neither Group Group Group


rejects or person ignores accepts nor allows welcomes actively
ostracizes person rejects member to member recruits
person individual join member
Ostracism

• Ostracism: Excluding one or more


individuals from a group by reducing or
eliminating contact with the person,
usually by ignoring, shunning or explicitly
banishing them
• People need to belong is slaked when
group accepts them but they are more
satisfied seeks them out.
Ostracism

• People accepted in a group value


experienced in the group rather than the
excluded one.
• People experiencing exclusion may suffer
psychological and physiological
deprivation
Cyberostracism

• Exclusion in online is called


Cyberostracism
Reaction to Exclusion

• Fight vs. Flight • Tend and be Friend


Withdrawal and freezing Attention to social cues
Aggressive, combative Increased motivation
and orientation Prosocial orientation
Sociometer Theory

• Self-esteem is not the evaluation of your


worth-it is an indicator of how well you are
accepted into social groups
• Self esteem monitor acceptance or
rejection.
• Self esteem arises if we are included in a
group
Inclusions and Survival

• Evolutionary psychology uses Charles


Darwin of Natural Selection.
• Living in a group yielded both cost and
benefits for early humans