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Chapter 3: Inclusion and Identity

Palmer and Gorman: From

Individualism to Collectivism

• “Master problem “ of Social Life

• Humans consistently seek inclusion in a
• Palmer is individualist while Gorman is
What is inclusion?

• Single individual changes from an outside

into an insider by joining a group.
From Isolation to Inclusion

• Animals are social creature.

• humans beings, "have a pervasive drive to

form and maintain at least a minimum
quantity of lasting, positive, and impactful
interpersonal relationship.

Roy Baumeister and Mark Leary (1995, p

The need to belong

• Most people spend the majority of their

waking hours in the company of other

• Survey says that 87.3% of Americans

reported that they lived with other people.
The need to belong
People affiliate
in groups

Putnam’s “bowling alone”

hypothesis: affiliation patterns
are shifting
Isolations can be rejuvenating, but:

• Isolated individuals (e.g., stranded

explorers) report negative effects.
• Solitary confinement recognized as a
severe punishments.
• People seek membership in a variety of
• People build their social capital by creating
online and face to face relationships.
Inclusion and The Inclusion/Exclusion Continuum

Rejection Acceptance

Maximum Active Passive Passive Active Maximum

Exclusion Exclusion Exclusion Inclusion Inclusion Inclusion

Group Group avoids Group Group neither Group Group Group

rejects or person ignores accepts nor allows welcomes actively
ostracizes person rejects member to member recruits
person individual join member

• Ostracism: Excluding one or more

individuals from a group by reducing or
eliminating contact with the person,
usually by ignoring, shunning or explicitly
banishing them
• People need to belong is slaked when
group accepts them but they are more
satisfied seeks them out.

• People accepted in a group value

experienced in the group rather than the
excluded one.
• People experiencing exclusion may suffer
psychological and physiological

• Exclusion in online is called

Reaction to Exclusion

• Fight vs. Flight • Tend and be Friend

Withdrawal and freezing Attention to social cues
Aggressive, combative Increased motivation
and orientation Prosocial orientation
Sociometer Theory

• Self-esteem is not the evaluation of your

worth-it is an indicator of how well you are
accepted into social groups
• Self esteem monitor acceptance or
• Self esteem arises if we are included in a
Inclusions and Survival

• Evolutionary psychology uses Charles

Darwin of Natural Selection.
• Living in a group yielded both cost and
benefits for early humans