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 Overview of the heat Exchanger

 Overview of TEMA Standard
 TEMA Class
 TEMA Nomenclature
 Baffles Basics
 Tube Layout
What is Heat Exchanger?
 A heat exchanger is a device built for
efficient heat transfer from one medium
to another.
 the mediums are separated by a solid
wall so that they never mix, or the
media are in direct contact
Types of heat Exchangers
 Tubular heat exchangers
 Shell and tube heat exchanger
 Double-pipe heat exchangers
 Multi Tube heat exchangers
 Air-cooled Heat Exchanger
 Non-tubular Heat Exchangers
 Plate & Frame Heat Exchangers
 Spiral Plate Heat Exchangers
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
 Used in all process industries
 Chemical plants
 Oil & Gas industry
 Petroleum refineries
 Petrochemical plants
 Fertilizer industries
 Power plants
 Workhorse of the industry
 No limitations on size, design pressures, design
temperatures and materials of construction.
 An extremely wide range of flow rates and heat
loads can be accommodated by varying diameters,
tube lengths, tube pitch, number of shell side passes,
shell baffle spacing etc.
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
 Shortcomings
 Inefficient conversion of pressure drop to heat
transfer due to
 Continuously varying flow area & velocity
 Zig-zag flow pattern with multiple bends
 Back-mixing in dead zones behind baffles
Double Pipe Heat Exchangers
Multi-Tube Heat Exchangers
Multi-Tube Heat Exchangers
Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Plate & Frame Heat Exchangers
Plate & Frame Heat Exchangers
• Consists of a pack of gasketed plates
Held together between a frame plate &
a pressure plate.
• Plates have chevron patterns.
• Assembly held together by tightening
• Chevron patterns create metal-to metal
contact between adjacent plates.
• Each plate has holes called ports at the
four corners.
• Ports form headers to distribute
respective fluids to opposite sides of each plate
Plate & Frame Heat Exchangers
• Gaps between plates form
flow passages for the fluids.
• Fluids are confined to heat
transfer surfaces of plates or
ports as appropriate by
gaskets (usually elastomers).
• Hot & cold fluids flow in
alternate passages.
• One fluid travels up one side
of a plate.
• The other fluid flows down
the opposite side of the plate.
Plate & Frame Heat Exchangers
• Compact design – higher surface area to volume ratio
than shell & tube heat exchangers.
• Much higher heat transfer coefficient is achieved
compared to S&T heat exchangers; surface area can be
• Easy to install and maintain.
• Opening & closing a standard unit does not require
dismantling of piping.
• Capacity can be expanded by simply adding more plates.
• True counter-current flow; very low approach can be
achieved (as low as 1C).
• Pressure range is limited to 25 bar, temperature range is
limited by gasket materials.
Plate & Frame Heat Exchangers
 Applications
• Food industry
• Pasteurizer
• Water-water exchangers (auxiliary cooling water system)
• Lean-Rich Amine exchangers
• Liquid-liquid exchangers
• Special designs of PHEs used for fluids containing fibres,
solids, crystals, pulp, viscous liquids
• Sulphuric acid coolers
Spiral Plate Heat Exchangers
Spiral Plate Heat Exchangers
Spiral Plate Heat Exchangers
• Fatty Acid Coolers
• PVC Slurry Heat Exchangers
• Column Interchangers
• Lean / Rich Amine Exchangers
• Bottoms Coolers
• Vent Condensers
• Column Overhead Condensers
• Reboilers

T:- Tubular

E:- Exchanger

M:- Manufacturers

A:- Association
Front Head Types

• A Type (Channel and removable

• Flanged joints at both ends of channel.
• Bolted to tubesheet at one end & flat cover
plate at the other end.
• Cleaning of insides of tubes is possible without
removing the whole channel or associated
• Relatively high cost due to two flanged joints.
• Very widely used used, especially in petroleum
Front Head Types
• B Type (Bonnet)
• Flanged joint at one end of channel.
• Welded head at other end of channel.
• Cheaper & lighter than A type.
• Not recommended for exchangers requiring
frequent tube side cleaning.
• For mechanical cleaning of tubes, bonnet &
associated piping must be removed.
• Used for cleaner tube side fluids.
• For large diameter bonnets, manway may be
provided to provide access without removing
bonnet and associated piping.
Front Head Types
• C Type (Channel integral with
• Similar to A type, except that the channel
is welded directly to tubesheet.
• Tubesheet extended & bolted to shell.
• Shell is removable, channel & tube bundle
left in place.
• Suitable for hazardous tube side fluids &
heavy, high pressure tube bundles.
• Suitable for exchangers requiring more
frequent cleaning on shell side.
Front Head Types
• N Type (Channel integral with
• Similar to C type, except tubesheet is welded
to shell.
• Only applicable for fixed tube sheet
• Tubes can be internally cleaned without
removing the channel or the associated piping.
• Can be used for hazardous services.
• Shell side cleaning is not possible.
• Requires larger shell diameter.
Front Head Types
• D Type (Special high pressure
• Specially designed closure for high
pressures on tube side.
• Tube sheet and channel are integral (drum
tube sheet).
• Very large bolt sizes for channel cover
requiring use of hydraulic bolt tensioners.
Rear Head Types

 Can be broadly classified as

 Fixed tubesheet type.

 Floating head type.

 U-tube type
Rear Head Types
L Type
• Fixed tube sheet arrangement.
• Corresponds to A type front head.
• Generally used with single or odd no.
of tube pass exchangers
• Cleaning of insides of tubes is
possible without removing the channel.

M Type
• Fixed tube sheet arrangement.
• Corresponds to B type front head.
• Generally used with even no. of tube
pass exchangers
Rear Head Types
N Type
• Fixed tube sheet arrangement.
• Corresponds to N type front head.
• Generally used with single or odd no.
of tube pass exchangers
• Cleaning of insides of tubes is
possible without removing the channel.

P Type:
• In this the gap between the shell and
the floating tube sheet is sealed by
compressing packing material.
• This is not suitable for hazardous and
high pressure applications.
Rear Head Types

S Type ( Floating head with backing device)

• Also called as split ring floating head(SRFH).

• Floating head is bolted to backing device.

• Backing ring is split (made in two halves).

• Commonly used with A type front end head.

• AES is most common type in refinery services

Rear Head Types

T Type (Pull through floating head):

• Rear end can be pulled through without

removing the floating head.
• Requires larger shell diameter than S type.
• Relatively costlier than S type.
• Easier to dismantle than S type.
• Commonly used in Kettle type heat
• Preferred when there is large pressure
differential between shell & tube sides.
Rear Head Types

U-Type (U tube bundle)

• Bundle is easily removable for external

• No problems of differential thermal
• Extensively used for clean tube side
services like steam, gases, BFW.
• Used for two-phase mixtures on tube side
to prevent phase separation.
• When used with D type front head, gives
very economical design by eliminating
tube sheet and channel at rear end
Rear Head Types

W Type (Externally sealed floating

tube sheet)

• Also called as O-ring or lantern ring type

• Uses lantern ring seals between the floating
tube sheet, shell & channel.
• Possibility of leaks at packed joints.
• Suitable for low pressure, non-hazardous
fluids on both shell and tube side.
• Used for water, steam, air, lube oil.
• Design temperature should not exceed 191C;
limitations on design pressure.
Shell Types

E Type

• One pass on shell side.

• Mostly common type – industry standard.
• If two or more tube passes are used, then
temperature cross may be a problem.
• Temperature cross can be avoided by
using multiple shells in series.
Shell Types

F Type G Type

H Type J Type
Shell Types

F Type G Type
Baffle Types
• Single segmental
• Double segmental
• No-tube-in-window (NTIW)
• Disc and doughnut
• Helical baffles
• RODbaffles
• EMbaffles
• Grid baffles
Tube Layout Patterns
Tube layout patterns

• Square (90)
• Rotated Square (45)
• Triangular (30)
• Rotated triangular (60)

 Square and rot. square layouts used in exchangers

requiring mechanical cleaning on shell side.
 For square & rot. square layouts, min. cleaning lane of
6.35 mm to be provided as per TEMA Standards; tube
layout required to be aligned
Tube Layout Patterns
 Rotated square layout gives higher heat transfer
compared to square layout when shell side flow is
 Rotated square layout may require larger shell diameter
compared to square layout because of alignment of
 Triangular layout gives higher heat transfer and pressure
drop than rot. triangular layout for a given baffle spacing.