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ELECTRICAL MATERIALS

Group 2
Electricity

Electricity is the physical flow of electrons,


referred to as an electrical current.
Electricity is an energy carrier that
efficiently delivers the energy found in primary
sources to end users, who in turn convert it into
energy services.
Electrical Material is basically the parts or
elements used in the making of any electrical
construction project. This can vary from a small
house circuit to as big as a large industrial plant.
 Types of Convenience Outlet
 Types of Switches
 Junction Boxes
 Porcelain Insulators
 Fuses
 Conduit Fittings
 Conductors
 Switch Boxes
 Architectural Lamps
According to Merriam Webster Dictionary, a
convenience outlet is a receptacle in a wall or
baseboard for connection to lamps or other
electrical appliances.
TYPE A
Where an ungrounded plug
with two parallel prongs is
inserted.
The plug has two flat 1.5
mm thick blades, measuring 15.9
– 18.3 mm in length and spaced
12.7 mm apart.
TYPE B
Where a plug with two
parallel prongs and an earth pin
is inserted.
TYPE B
It has two flat 1.5 mm thick
blades, spaced 12.7 mm apart,
measuring 15.9 – 18.3 mm in length
and 6.3 mm in width. It also has a
4.8 mm diameter round or U-shaped
earth pin, which is 3.2 mm longer
than the two flat blades, so the
device is grounded before the power
is connected.
TYPE C
Type C is probably the
single most widely used
international plug. This two-wire
plug is ungrounded and has two
round prongs.
TYPE C
The plug has two 4 mm
round pins, measuring 19 mm in
length on centres spaced 18.6
mm apart at the base and 17.5
mm apart at the tip.
TYPE D
This 5 amp plug has three
round prongs that form a
triangle. The central earth pin is
20.6 mm long and has a diameter
of 7.1 mm. The 5.1 mm line and
neutral pins are 14.9 mm long,
on centres spaced 19.1 mm
apart.
TYPE E
The E socket is
accomplished with a round male
pin, which is permanently
mounted in the socket. This earth
pin is 14 mm long and has a
diameter of 4.8 mm.
TYPE E
The plug itself is similar to
C except that it is round and has
the addition of a female contact
to accept the socket’s grounding
pin. The plug has two 4.8 mm
round pins, measuring 19 mm in
length on centres spaced 19 mm
apart.
TYPE F
commonly called “Schuko
plug”, which is the acronym of
“Schutzkontakt”, a German word
meaning “protection contact” or
“safety contact”.
TYPE G
It has three rectangular
prongs that form an isosceles
triangle.
TYPE G
The central earth pin is 4
by 8 mm and 22.7 mm long. Line
and neutral pins are 4 by 6.35
mm and 17.7 mm long, on
centres spaced 22.2 mm apart.
TYPE H
This earthed 16 amp plug is
unique to Israel. It has three 4.5
mm round prongs, measuring 19
mm in length and forming a
triangle. The centres of the line
and neutral pins are spaced 19
mm apart.
TYPE I
This 10 amp plug has two
flat 1.6 mm thick blades, set at
30° to the vertical, forming an
upside-down V.
TYPE J
Type J plugs have three 4
mm round pins, measuring 19
mm in length. The centres of the
line and neutral prongs are
spaced 19 mm apart.
The switch is an electrical device that is
used to break or make an electrical circuit
manually or automatically.
The types of switches are classified into four types
namely:
• SPST (Single Pole Single throw)
• SPDT (single pole double throw)
• DPST (double pole, single throw)
• DPDT (double pole double throw)
SPST (Single Pole Single Throw)
The SPST is a basic ON/OFF switch, that is
used to connect or break the connection between
two terminals.
The application of SPST switch is light switch
given below and it is also called as a toggle switch.
SPDT (Single Pole Double Throw)
The SPDT switch is a three terminal switch,
one terminal is used as input and remaining two
terminals are used as outputs.
DPST (Double Pole, Single Throw)
The DPST switch consists of two poles that
means it includes two identical switches located on
side by side. This switch is operated by one single
toggle, which means that two discrete circuits are
controlled at a time through one push.
DPDT (Double Pole Double Throw)
This switch is equal to two SPDT switches, it
means two separate circuits, connecting two inputs
of each circuit to one of two outputs. The switch
position controls the number of ways and from the
two contacts each contact can be routed.
A junction box is an enclosure that protects a
connection (the junction) of two or more wires
carrying electrical current.
One-gang Plastic Nail Box
The typical junction box is a one-gang plastic
nail box used for ROMEX® wiring, otherwise
known as nonmetallic-sheathed cable.
One-gang Metal Cut-in Box
The one-gang metal cut-in box has
adjustable mounting ears for an increased, stable
fit, which makes it ideal for a flush installation.
This junction box works for outlets and switches.
One-gang Handy Box
This basic metallic one-gang handy box holds
outlets and switches. It installs directly on top of
the wall to accommodate a microwave outlet. Its
primary use is in a garage or shop area with
conduits.
Two-gang Plastic Face Nail Box
The two-gang plastic face nail box is a
junction for outlets and switches. This box is
especially helpful for tight spots with minimal
nailing room. Because of its shallow depth, it
provides more room to hammer in nails.
Metal Pancake Box
The metal pancake box is approximately 3 to
5 inches in diameter, and it works for lighting
fixtures. This box mounts onto the framing
surface, flush with finished drywall.
Four-square Metal Box
The four-square metal box uses raised rings
for single gang or double gangs, triple gang and
quadruple gang. It works for receptacles and
switches.
An electrical insulator made from porcelain; the
porcelain is often made in a one-
fire process, the glaze being applied to
the green or unfired ware, in contrast to the two-
fire process used in making ordinary porcelain.
Porcelain

• Porcelain is the most frequently used material


for insulators. Insulators are made of wet,
processed porcelain. The fundamental materials
used are a mixture of feldspar (35%), china clay
(28%), flint (25%), ball clay (10%), and talc
(2%).
Insulator Strings
• Most high-voltage lines use ball-and-socket-type
porcelain or toughened glass insulators. These
are also referred to as ‘‘cap and pin.’’ The cross
section of a ball-and socket-type insulator is
shown in Figure 1.
• The basic technical data of these insulators. The
porcelain skirt provides insulation between the iron cap
and steel pin. The upper part of the porcelain is smooth
to promote rain washing and cleaning of the surface.
• The lower part is corrugated, which prevents wetting
and provides a longer protected leakage path. Portland
cement attaches the cup and pin. Before the application
of the cement, the porcelain is sandblasted to generate a
rough surface.
Figure 2 - Insulator string

• A thin expansion layer (e.g.,


bitumen) covers the metal
surfaces. The loading
compresses the cement and
provides high mechanical
strength.

(a) clevis type, (b) ball-and-socket type


Figure 2 - Insulator string

• The metal parts of the standard ball-and-socket


insulator are designed to fail before the
porcelain fails as the mechanical load increases.
• This acts as a mechanical fuse protecting
the tower structure. The ball-and-socket
insulators are attached to each other by
inserting the ball in the socket and securing the
connection with a locking key.
Diameter 25.4 cm (10 in.)

Spacing 14.6 cm (5-3/4 in.)

Leakage distance 305 cm (12 ft)

Typical operating voltage 10 kV

Mechanical strength 75 kN (15 klb)

Table 1 – Technical Data of a Standard Insulator


• Figure 2 shows a ball-and-socket insulator
string and the clevis-type string, which is used
less frequently for transmission lines.
• Fog-type, long leakage distance
insulators are used in polluted areas, close to
the ocean, or in industrial environments.
Line Voltage (kV) Number of Standard
Insulators
69 4-6
115 7-9
138 8-10
230 12
287 15
345 18
500 24
765 30-35
Table 2 – Typical Number of Standard (5-
1/4 ftx10 in.) Insulators at Different Voltage
Levels
• Insulator strings are used for high-voltage
transmission lines and substations. They are
arranged vertically on support towers and
horizontally on dead-end towers.
• Table 2 shows the typical number of insulators
used by utilities in the U.S. and Canada in lightly
polluted areas.
A Fuse or an Electric Fuse is an
Electrical/Electronic device that protects the circuit
from different electrical faults like over current and
overload. Fuses can be considered as a sacrificial
element in the circuit as they act as a weak link in
the entire circuit.
Institute of Electrical and American National
Electronics Engineers Standards Institute

International Electrotechnical
Commission
•Current or Ampere Rating
•Melting Time
•Voltage Rating and
•Interrupting Rating or Breaking capacity
•I2T Value of the Fuse
Current Rating or Current Capacity of Fuse

Current Rating or the Current Capacity of a Fuse defines the


maximum amount of current a fuse can hold without blowing or
melting. This is usually mentioned in Amperes i.e. 2A, 4A, 600A etc.
Voltage Rating of Fuse

Along with Current Rating, a fuse will also be specified with the
maximum voltage it can be supplied with. Based on the Voltage
Rating, Fuses are again classified in to Low Voltage (LV) Fuses and
High Voltage (HV) Fuses (and even miniature fuses).
I2T (Ampere Squared Seconds)

I2T value of a Fuse measures the heat energy in the fuse. This heat
energy is due to current flow and also the arc produced when the fuse
is blown.
Breaking Capacity of Fuse

Breaking Capacity of the Fuse is also known as the Interrupting Rating


or Short Circuit Rating. Breaking Capacity will specify the maximum
safe current that the fuse can interrupt at a voltage less than the
maximum rated voltage.
Current Rating or Current Capacity of Fuse

Current Rating or the Current Capacity of a Fuse defines the


maximum amount of current a fuse can hold without blowing or
melting. This is usually mentioned in Amperes i.e. 2A, 4A, 600A etc.
In a DC system, when the metallic wire
On the
Fuses can be divided into two main other hand,
categories i.e. intothe
according theAC system,
Melts because of the heat generated by the
type of input supply voltage. voltage with 60Hz or 50Hz frequency changes it
over current, then Arc is produced and it is
amplitude from zero to 60 times every second,
very difficult to extinct this arc because of
so arc can be extinct easily as compared to DC.
DC constant value. So
DCinFuses
order to minimize ACfuses
Fuses
Therefore, AC are little bit small in sizes as
the fuse arcing, DC fuse are little bigger
compared to DC fuses.
than an AC fuse which increase the
distance between the electrodes to reduce
the arc in the Fuse.
Fuses can also be categorized based on one time or multiple
Operations.

One time use only Fuse Resettable Fuses


One Time use only Fuse
One time use fuses contain a metallic wire, which burns
out, when an over current, over load or mismatched load connect
event occur, user has to manually replace these fuses, switch fuses
are cheap and widely used in almost all the electronics and electrical
systems.
Resettable Fuses
Resettable fuse is a device, which can be used as multiple times
without replacing it. Polymeric positive temperature coefficient
device (PPTC, commonly known as a resettable fuse, poly-switch or
poly-fuse) is a passive electronic component used to protect against
short current faults in electronic circuits.
Other Types of Fuses

Cartridge Fuses
Cartridge fuses are used to protect electrical appliances
such as motors air-conditions, refrigerator, pumps etc,
where high voltage rating and currents required. They are
available up to 600A and 600V AC and widely used in
industries, commercial as well as home distribution
panels.
Blade Type & Automobiles Fuses
This type of fuses (also known as spade or plug-in fuses) comes
in plastic body and two metal caps to fit in the socket. Mostly, they
used in automobiles for wiring and short circuit protection.
Uses and Applications of Fuses
Electronic Fuses can be used in all types of electrical and electronic
applications including:

•Motors •DVD players


•Air-conditions •Portable Electronics
•Home distribution boards •LCD monitors
•General electrical appliances •Scanners
and devices •Battery packs
•Laptops •Hard disk drives
•Cell phones •Power convertors
•Game systems
•Printers
•Digital cameras
Conduit fittings are connectors and fittings
used to connect one piece of conduit to another, or
to connect conduit to an electrical box.
Conduit
Electrical conduits are metal, plastic or fiber pipes
designed to protect cables and wires.
• Conduit Bodies – These are tubular units with
openings at each end for admitting conduits,
and providing access to the wires.
• Bends - To save time, equipment and labor costs, you
can tackle change in direction of a conduit with pre-
fabricated bends.
• Coupling – Conduit couplings
are essential for almost
coupling system for securely
linking together lengths of
conduit and attaching site-
fabricated bends.
• Drains- Prevent drips, and
water-logging in the conduit
runs.
• Bushings and Locknuts – Bushings create a smooth
entry point to conduits without any sharp edges,
protecting the conductors from damage during wire
pulls.
• Unions – It has two
separate heads and a
locking mechanism which
can connect two pieces of
conduit together.
• Nipples and Hubs – Nipples can save time and money
when a conduit is needed between enclosures that
are placed closed to each other. Hubs are used to
connect conduits to bus boxes or enclosures that
don’t have a factory threaded entry.
• Reducers and Reducing Washers – A reducer is a
special kind of combination coupling that allows you
to connect raceways of one trade size to larger or
smaller ones.
• Straps/Clamps – Straps are
used to mount conduits to
ceilings or walls using screws
or bolts.
Electrical conductor is a substance or
material that allows electrons to flow atom to atom
of that material with drift velocity in the conduction
band against a small resistance offered by that
substance.
• Silver- only for special purposes
• Copper- most common
• Gold- “effective but expensive”
• Aluminum- lot of risks
1. Romex Cables
2. Armored Cables(AC)
3. Service Entry (SE)
Conductors
4. Knob-and-Tube (KT) Wiring
1. Romex Cable
-Romex is the trade name
for a type of electrical
conductor with non-
metallic sheathing that is
commonly used as
residential branch wiring.
1.1.Romex Cables Size and Uses
Rated
Wire Wire Gauge or Type Common Uses
Amperage
14-2 Romex 15 A Lighting Circuits
12-2 Romex 20 A Lighting and Outlet Circuits, refrigerator

10-2 Romex 30 A Electric water heater, baseboard heaters


10-3 Romex 30 A Electric Clothes Dryer
Range, Heat pump, On-Demand Electric
6/3 Cu Range Cable 50 A
Water heater
2 Gauge Copper 100 A Central Electric Heat
Aluminum 1/0-1/0-1/0-2 Service Feeder
AL 1/0 SER 100 A
wire for 100 A breaker panel

Aluminum 4/0-4/0-4/0-2/0 Service feeder


AL 4/0 SER 200 A
wire for 200A breaker panel
2.Armored Cable (AC)
-Armored cable (AC), also known
as BX, was developed in the early
1900s by Edwin Greenfield. the
rules for protection and support
of AC wiring are essentially the
same as the rules for Romex.
Unlike Romex, however, AC wiring
has a flexible metallic sheathing
that allows for extra protection.
3. Service Entry (SE) Conductors
-These cables begin at the
splice and enter the meter.
Service entrance conductors
are those that run between
the service point and the
service equipment.
4.Knob-and-Tube (KT) Wiring
-A system that is now obsolete,
they are more difficult to improve
than modern wiring systems and
are a fire hazard. Knob-and-tube
wiring is supported with ceramic
knobs, and runs intermittently
though ceramic tubes beneath
framing and at locations where
the wires intersect.
Types of Metal Switch Boxes for New
Construction
SWITCH BOXES come in many
types, materials and sizes, and
selecting the right one for the
job.

Metal electrical boxes are


required if the conduit and metal
box system itself is used to
ground the electrical circuit.
Gangable Switch Box One Piece Drawwn Steel Box
• A gangable switch box is a • This type of box is a utility box
sometimes called a “Handy box”.
modular box having removable It can be used for switches,
sides allowing a single box to outets or can be used as a small
be expanded into a 2-gang, 3- junction box. Its body is made
from one piece of cold drawn or
gang or 4-gang box holding stamped steel and cannot be
multipple devices. ganged.
Welded or Tabbed Switch Box
• Although theses boxes look similar to a
gangable box, they are very different.
Theses non-gangable switc boxes are
made from flat steel plates and may
have interlocking tabs/or spo welds
holding together. They cannotbe take
apart and are not gangable. They are
available in single gang, 2 gang, 3 gang,
4 gang box sizes
ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING

• Is a field within architecture,


interior design and electrical
engineering that is concerned
with the design of lighting
systems, including natural
light, electric light or both to
serve human needs.
General lighting
• Provides an area with overall
illumination. Also known as
ambient lighting, general
lighting radiates a comfortable
level of brightness, enabling
one to see and walk about
safety.
Task Lighting
• It helps you to perform
specific task such as
reading, sewing cooking,
homework , hobbies, games
or balancing ur checkbook.
Accent Lighting
• Adds drama to a room by
creating visual interest. As part
of decorating scheme. It
requires atleast three times as
much light on the focal point
as the general lighting around
it.
REFERENCES
• https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/convenience%20outlet
• https://www.slideshare.net/michaelrecolito/electrical-supplies-materials
• http://www.efxkits.com/blog/types-of-switches-with-applications/
• https://www.ehow.com/list_6719746_types-junction-boxes.html
• https://www.electronicshub.org/fuses-types-fuses/
• https://www.worldstandards.eu/electricity/plugs-and-sockets/
• https://www.nachi.org/conductor-types.htm
• https://sciencing.com/metals-make-good-conductors-electricity-
8115694.html