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# MOTION

## Syllabus objectives- 3.1- 3. 24

Module 1 – Mechanics
Unit 1
Prepared by Jerene Harris
OBJ. 3. 1 EXPLAIN DISPLACEMENT, SPEED, VELOCITY AND
ACCELERATION

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 Displacement

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

 Speed

 Velocity

 Acceleration

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OBJ. 3.2 USE GRAPH TO REPRESENT DISPLACEMENT, SPEED,
VELOCITY, AND ACCELERATION IN SINGLE DIMENSION

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Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem
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OBJ. 3.3 USE THE GRADIENT OF AND AREA UNDER MOTION
GRAPHS TO SOLVE PROBLEMS

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Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem
 Worksheet

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OBJ. 3.4 DERIVE EQUATIONS REPRESENTING UNIFORMLY
ACCELERATED MOTION IN A SINGLE DIMENSION

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 v = u + at
 Assumptions

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

 Uniform or constant acceleration
 Motion is in a straight line

 a = (v-u)/t

 at = v – u

##  Solve in terms of final velocity v gives

 v = u + at…. (equation 1)
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OBJ. 3.4 DERIVE EQUATIONS REPRESENTING UNIFORMLY
ACCELERATED MOTION IN A SINGLE DIMENSION

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 Lets examine the velocity-time
graph for the motion of an  Area under triangle = ½ t x (v-u)
object p

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

 Area of rectangle = u x t
v
 Displacement s= ut + ½t(v-u)

 But v = u + at
u
 So s = ut + ½ t(u + at- u)
t

 S = ut + ½ at2….. Equation 2
 The displacement is given by s
and is the area under the v-t
graph 6
OBJ. 3.4 DERIVE EQUATIONS REPRESENTING UNIFORMLY
ACCELERATED MOTION IN A SINGLE DIMENSION

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 from equation one t = v-u/a
 Therefore s = u (v-u)/a + ½ a [(v-u)/a]2

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

 S = [2u(v-u) + (v-u)2]/2

##  S= (2uv- 2u2 + v2 -2uv + u2)/2a

S = (v2 – u2 )/ 2a

 Rearranging gives

 v2 = u2 + 2as…… equation 3
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OBJ. 3.5 USE THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION TO SOLVE
PROBLEMS, ON UNIFORMLY ACCELERATED MOTION

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 worksheet

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

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OBJ. 3.6 SOLVE PROBLEMS INVOLVING BODIES
UNDERGOING PROJECTILE MOTION

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 worksheet

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

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PROJECTILE MOTION
• A red marble is dropped off a cliff at the same
time a black one is shot horizontally.
• At any point in time the marbles are at the
same height, i.e., they’re falling down at the
same rate, and they hit the ground at the same
time.
• Gravity doesn’t care that the black ball is
moving sideways; it pulls it downward just the
same.
• Since gravity can’t affect horiz. motion, the
black particle continues at a constant rate.
• With every unit of time, the marbles’ vertical
speed increases, but their horiz. speed remains
the same (ignoring air resistance).
9.8 m/s2 PROJECTILE MOTION
o Gravity’s downward pull is
independent of horiz. motion.
o So, the vertical acceleration of each
marble is -g (for the whole trip),
9.8 m/s2
and the sideways acceleration of
each is zero. (Gravity can’t pull
sideways).
o Whatever horiz. velocity the black
one had when shot is a constant
throughout its trip.
9.8 m/s2
o Only its vertical velocity changes.
(A vertical force like gravity can
only produce vertical acceleration.)
t=0 vy = 0
t=1
PROJECTILE MOTION (CONT.)
vy = 1
• If after one unit of time the marbles
t=2 have one unit of speed downward,
vy = 2 then after two units of time they have
two units of speed downward, etc.
• This follows directly from vf = v0 + at.
Since v0 = 0, downward speed is
t=3 proportional to time.
vy = 3

## • Note: The vectors shown are vertical

components of velocity.
• The shot marble has a horizontal
component too (not shown); the
dropped one doesn’t.
t=4 vy = 4
t=0 vx = v
t=1 vx
PROJECTILE MOTION (CONT.)
vy Since the shot black marble experiences
v no horiz. forces (ignoring air), it
vx undergoes no horiz. acceleration.
t=2
Therefore, its horiz. velocity, doesn’t
vy vy change. So, the horiz. vector has a
v constant magnitude, but the vertical
vector gets longer. The resultant (the
net velocity vector in blue) gets longer
vx and points more downward with time.
t=3 When t = 0, v = vx for the shot marble.
v = vy for the dropped marble for the
whole trip.
vy vy

vx continued on next
t=4 slide
PROJECTILE MOTION (CONT.)
v
The trajectory of any projectile is
parabolic. (We’ll prove this
later.) If its initial velocity
vector is horizontal, as with the
v black marble, the launch site is
at the vertex of the parabola.
The velocity vector at any point
in time is tangent to the
parabolic trajectory. Moreover,
velocity vectors are always
v tangent to the trajectory of any
moving object, regardless of its
shape.
continued on next
slide
t=0
y = 1
t=1
PROJECTILE MOTION (CONT.)
y = 3 x=1 • The vertical displacements
over consecutive units of
t=2
time show the familiar
x=2
ratio of odd numbers that
y = 5 we’ve seen before with
uniform acceleration.

t=3
• Measured from the starting
point, the vertical
x=3 displacements would be 1,
4, 9, 16, etc., (perfect
squares), but the horiz.
y = 7
displacements form a
linear sequence since there
is no acceleration in that
x=4
direction.
t=4 continued on next
PROJECTILE EXAMPLE
A rifle is held perfectly horizontally 1.5 m over level ground. At the instant
the trigger is pulled, a second bullet is dropped from the tip of the barrel. The
muzzle velocity of the gun is 80 m/s.
1. Which bullet hits the ground first? answer: They hit at same time.

## 2. How fast is each bullet moving after 0.3 s ? answer:

Use vf = v0 + at and use vertical info only: v0 = 0, a = -9.8 m/s2,
and t = 0.3 s. We get vy in the pic for each bullet is -2.94 m/s.
Using the Pythagorean theorem for the fired bullet we get
80.054 m/s in a direction tangent to its path.
80 m/s
80 m/s

## vy fired bullet vy dropped bullet

after 0.3 s after 0.3 s
PROJECTILE EXAMPLE (CONT.)
3. How far away does the fired bullet land (its range)? answer:

## • The first step is to find the its hang time.

• This is the same hang time as the dropped bullet.
• Use y = v0 t + 0.5 a t 2 with only vertical data: -1.5 = (0) t + (0.5) (-9.8) t 2. So, t = 0.5533 s.
• The whole time the bullet is falling it’s also moving to the left at a constant 80 m/s.
• Since horizontally v is constant, we use d = v t with only horiz. info: d = (80 m/s) (0.5533 s)
= 44.26 m.
Note: When a = 0, x = v0 t + 0.5 a t 2 breaks down to d = v t.

80 m/s

1.5 m
PROJECTILES FIRED AT AN ANGLE

## Now let’s find range of a

projectile fired with speed v0
at an angle .
v0
v0 sin
Step 1: Split the initial
velocity vector into 
components.
v0 cos

continued on next
slide
Projectiles Fired at an Angle (cont.)
Step 2: Find hang time. Use y = v0t + ½ a t 2 with only vertical data:

## y = (v0 sin ) t + ½ (-g)t 2

Over level ground, y = 0. Divide through by t:
0 = v0 sin - 4.9 t, and
t = (v0 sin ) / 4.9
Note: If we had shot the projectile from a 100 m cliff, y
would be -100 m.
v0
v0 sin

v0 cos continued on next slide
Projectiles Fired at an Angle (cont.)

Step 3:
Now that we know how long it’s in the air, we know how long it travels horizontally.
(The projectile’s vertical and horizontal movements are completely independent.)
Use x = v0t + ½ a t 2 again, this time with only horizontal data:

## x = (v0 cos )t + ½ (0) t 2 = (v0 cos )t

This is the same as saying:
v0 horiz. distance = horiz. speed  time
In other words, d = v t

v0 cos continued on next slide
Picklemobile Example
• A stuntman drives a picklemobile off a 350 m cliff going
70 mph.
• The angle of elevation of the cliff is 21. He’s hoping to
make it across a 261 m wide river and land on a ledge 82 m
high. Does he make it ?

## 21 Well, the first thing we have to do is convert the

initial velocity into m/s:
70 mi 1609 m h
• • = 31.2861 m/s
h mi 3600 s
350 m
continued on next slide

261 m
82 m
Picklemobile Example (cont.)
We resolve the initial velocity into components.

## Then we find the picklemobile’s hang time

(which is the same as if it had been shot
21 straight up at about 11.2 m/s), with y =
29.2081 m/s 82 m - 350 m = -268 m.
-268 = 11.2119 t - 4.9 t 2
4.9 t 2 - 11.2119 t - 268 = 0
t = -6.3394 s or 8.6276 s
350 m

261 m continued
82 m on next slide

## continued on next slide

Picklemobile Example (cont.)
We want the positive answer for t. The interpretation of the negative answer is that if the
pickle car had been launched from the height of the ledge, it would have taken about 6.3 s
to reach the edge of the cliff

## 29.2081 m/s Anyway, for 8.62757 s the pickle mobile is in

the air and traveling to the right at about 29
m/s. Therefore, its range is
(29.2081 m/s) (8.6276 s)  252 m < 261 m.
Alas, the poor picklemobile doesn’t make it.

82 m
continued on next slide
Picklemobile Example (cont.)
What max height does the pickle mobile attain?

## It attains the same max height as

11.2 m/s. Since its vertical
velocity is zero at its high pt.,
parabolic we have
trajectory 02 - (11.2119)2 = 2(-9.8) y.
So, y = 6.41 m. Add 350 m
350 m and the max height is 356.41 m.
continued on next slide

82 m
Picklemobile Example (cont.)
What is the impact velocity of the pickle
mobile (the velocity upon splash down)?
The horiz. component is the same at landing as it
was on liftoff. We must find the final vertical
29.2081 velocity: vf2 - (11.2119)2 = 2(-9.8)(-350).
m/s So, vf = -83.5805 m/s. 29.2081 m/s
The Pythag. theorem gives us the 

83.5805 m/s
magnitude of the resultant.
 = tan-1 (83.5805 / 88.5371) = 70.74.
350 m Thus the impact velocity is about
88.5 m/s at 71 below the horizontal.
Obj. 3. 7 show projectile motion is parabolic
o A projectile is shot horizontally with speed v0 .
o Its horizontal position is given by x = v0 t + ½ (-g) t 2. ( but gravity is zero)
o So time t = v0 /x
o The projectile’s vertical position is given by y = v0 t + ½ (-g) t 2.
o (initial velocity v0 = 0)
o
Given that y = ½ (-g) t 2
Substitute time (t= v/x) in above equation

g
y= x2
2 v02
The equation is parabolic of the form y = ax – bx2
Obj. 3. 7 show projectile motion is parabolic
o A projectile is shot with speed v0 at an angle .
o Its vertical position is given by y = (v0 sin ) t + ½ (-g) t 2.
o Here y is the dependent quantity, and t is the independent quantity.
o Everything else is a constant.
o The projectile’s horizontal position is given by x = (v0 cos ) t. (gravity is zero here)
o Only x and t are variables, and t = x / (v0 cos ). Let’s substitute this for t in the
equation for y:
y = (v0 sin ) t + ½ (-g) t 2

## y = (v0 sin ) [x / (v0 cos )] - ½ g [x / (v0 cos )]2

g
y = (tan ) x - x2
2 v02 cos2
The coefficients of x and x 2 are constants. Since the leading coef. is negative, this
is the equation of a parabola opening down.
Symmetry and Velocity
The projectile’s speed is the same at points directly across the parabola
(at the same vertical position). The angle is the same too, but with
opposite orientation. Horizontal speeds are the same throughout the
trajectory. Vertical speeds
are the same only at points of
equal height.

The vert. comp. shrinks The horiz. comp.
then grows in opposite doesn’t change. At
direction at a const. rate the peak, the horiz.
(-g). The resultant comp. equals the
velocity vector’s resultant velocity
orientation and magni- vector.
 tude changes, but is
always tangent.
Symmetry and Time
Over level ground, the time at the peak is half the hang time. Notice the
symmetry of times at equal heights relative to the 10 unit mark. The
projectile has covered half its range when it has peaked, but only over
level ground. Note: near the peak the object moves more slowly than
when lower to the ground. It rises
t = 10 3/4 of its max height in only
1/2 of its rising time. (See
t=5 t = 15 if you can prove this for
an arbitrary launch
velocity.)
t=3 t = 17

t=0 t = 20
Max height & hang time depend only on
initial vertical velocity
o Each initial velocity vector below has the a different magnitude (speed) but each
object will spend the same time in the air and reach the same max height.
o This is because each vector has the same vertical component.
o The projectiles will have different ranges, however.
o The greater the horizontal component of initial velocity, the greater the range.
Max Range at 45
o Over level ground at a constant launch speed, what angle maximizes the range, R ?
o First consider some extremes: When  = 0, R = 0, since the object is on the ground
from the moment it’s launched.
o When  = 90, the object goes straight up and lands right on the launch site, so R = 0
again. The best angle is 45, smack dab between the extremes.

## Here all launch speeds are the

same; only the angle varies.
76

45

38
Range Formula & Max Range at 45
First find the time. Note that y = 0, since the projectile starts and stops at ground level
(no change). y = v0 t + ½ at 2. So, 0 = (v0 sin ) t - ½ g t 2
Since the ground is level we divide through by t giving us t = 2 v0 sin / g. Then,
R = (v0 cos ) t = (v0 cos ) (2 v0 sin / g) = 2 v02 sin cos / g.
By the trig identity sin 2 = 2 sin cos, we get R = v02 sin 2 / g. Since v0 and g are
fixed, R is at a max when sin 2 is at a max. When the angle, 2, is 90, the sine
function is at its maximum of 1. Therefore,  = 45.

v0
v0 sin
 v0 cos
MAX RANGE WHEN Y  0
 When fired from a cliff, or from below ground, a projectile doesn’t
attain its max range at 45.
 45is only the best angle when a projectile is fired over level
ground.
 When fired from a cliff, a projectile attains max range with a launch
angle less than 45  (see next slide).
 When fired from below ground, a projectile attains max range with
a launch angle greater than 45 
Range when fired from cliff
45 If ground were
level, the 45
launch would win.
< 45

Launch speeds
are the same.

## Because the < 45

parabola is flatter it
eventually overtakes
45  parabola.
Ranges at complementary launch angles
An object fired at angle  will have the same
75 range as when it’s fired at the same speed at an
angle 90 - .
Reason: R = 2v02 sin cos / g, and the sine
of an angle is the cosine of its complement
(and vice versa).
15 For example, R at 40 is
2v02 sin 40 cos 40 / g
= 2v02 cos 50 sin 50 / g
= R at 50.
50

40
OBJ. 3.8 STATE NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION

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 First law
 A body at rest stays at rest or if moving continues to move with uniform

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

velocity unless acted upon by an external force

 Second law
 The rate of change of momentum is proportional to the applied force
and takes in the direction in which the force acts

 Third law
 If a body A exerts a force on a body B then body B exerts an equal and
opposite force on body A 36
OBJ. 3.9 EXPLAIN LINEAR MOMENTUM

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 Linear momentum is the product of an object mass and velocity

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

 Linear momentum, p = mass, m x velocity, v
 p =mv

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MOMENTUM FACTS

• p = mv
• Momentum is a vector quantity!
• Velocity and momentum vectors point in the same direction.
• SI unit for momentum: kg · m/s (no special name).
• Momentum is a conserved quantity (this will be proven later).
• A net force is required to change a body’s momentum.
• Momentum is directly proportional to both mass and speed.
• Something big and slow could have the same momentum as
something small and fast.
MOMENTUM EXAMPLES
3 m /s 30 kg · m /s
10 kg 10 kg

Note: The momentum vector does not have to be drawn 10 times longer than the
velocity vector, since only vectors of the same quantity can be compared in this
way.

26º
5g
p = 45 kg · m /s
at 26º N of E
OBJ. 3.10 STATE THE PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION OF LINEAR
MOMENTUM

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 The principle of conservation of linear momentum states that for

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

any system, the total momentum before collision is equal to the
total momentum after collision provided that no external forces act
on the system

40
OBJ. 3.11 APPLY THE PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION OF
LINEAR MOMENTUM

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 In next slides

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

41
CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM IN 1-D
Whenever two objects collide (or when they exert forces on each other without
colliding, such as gravity) momentum of the system (both objects together) is
conserved. This mean the total momentum of the objects is the same before and
after the collision.

## (Choosing right as the + direction, m2 has - momentum.)

before: p = m1 v1 - m2 v2

v1 v2
m1 m2

m1 v1 - m2 v2 = - m1 va + m2 vb
after: p = - m1 va + m2 vb

va vb
m1 m2
DIRECTIONS AFTER A COLLISION

On the last slide the boxes were drawn going in the opposite direction after colliding. This
isn’t always the case. For example, when a bat hits a ball, the ball changes direction, but
the bat doesn’t. It doesn’t really matter, though, which way we draw the velocity vectors in
“after” picture. If we solved the conservation of momentum equation (red box) for vb and
got a negative answer, it would mean that m2 was still moving to the left after the collision.
As long as we interpret our answers correctly, it matters not how the velocity vectors are
drawn.

v1 v2
m1 m2

m1 v1 - m2 v2 = - m1 va + m2 vb
va vb
m1 m2
SAMPLE PROBLEM 1
35 g
7 kg
700 m/s
v=0

## • A rifle fires a bullet into a giant slab of butter on a frictionless surface.

• The bullet penetrates the butter, but while passing through it, the bullet pushes the butter to
the left, and the butter pushes the bullet just as hard to the right, slowing the bullet down.
• If the butter skids off at 4 cm/s after the bullet passes through it, what is the final speed of the
bullet?
(The mass of the rifle matters not.)

35 g
7 kg
v=? 4 cm/s

## continued on next slide

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1 (CONT.)
Let’s choose left to be the + direction & use conservation of momentum, converting all units to
meters and kilograms.
35 g
p before = 7 (0) + (0.035) (700) 7 kg
700 m/s
= 24.5 kg · m /s
v=0

## 35 g p after = 7 (0.04) + 0.035 v

7 kg
v=? 4 cm/s = 0.28 + 0.035 v

## v came out positive. This means we chose the correct direction

of the bullet in the “after” picture.
35 g
SAMPLE PROBLEM 2 7 kg 700 m/s

v=0
Same as the last problem except this time it’s a block of wood rather than butter,
and the bullet does not pass all the way through it. How fast do they move together
after impact?

v
7. 035 kg

## (0.035) (700) = 7.035 v v = 3.48

Note:
m/s
Once again we’re assuming a frictionless surface, otherwise there would be a
frictional force on the wood in addition to that of the bullet, and the “system” would
have to include the table as well.
PROOF OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM
The proof is based on Newton’s 3rd Law. Whenever two objects collide (or exert forces on each
other from a distance), the forces involved are an action-reaction pair, equal in strength,
opposite in direction. This means the net force on the system (the two objects together) is
zero, since these forces cancel out.

F F
M m

## force on M due to m force on m due to M

For each object, F = (mass) (a) = (mass) (v / t ) = (mass v) / t = p / t. Since the force
applied and the contact time is the same for each mass, they each undergo the same
change in momentum, but in opposite directions. The result is that even though the
momenta of the individual objects changes, p for the system is zero. The
momentum that one mass gains, the other loses. Hence, the momentum of the
system before equals the momentum of the system after.
CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM APPLIES ONLY IN
THE ABSENCE OF EXTERNAL FORCES!

## In the first two sample problems, we dealt with a frictionless surface. We

couldn’t simply conserve momentum if friction had been present because, as
the proof on the last slide shows, there would be another force (friction) in
addition to the contact forces. Friction wouldn’t cancel out, and it would be a
net force on the system.

The only way to conserve momentum with an external force like friction is to
make it internal by including the tabletop, floor, or the entire Earth as part of
the system. For example, if a rubber ball hits a brick wall, p for the ball is not
conserved, neither is p for the ball-wall system, since the wall is connected to
the ground and subject to force by it. However, p for the ball-Earth system is
conserved!
SAMPLE PROBLEM 3
An apple is originally at rest and then dropped. After falling a short time,
it’s moving pretty fast, say at a speed V. Obviously, momentum is not
conserved for the apple, since it didn’t have any at first. How can this be?

apple
m
• Gravity is an external force on the apple, so momentum
V
for it alone is not conserved.
F
• To make gravity “internal,” we must define a system
v that includes the other object responsible for the
gravitational force--Earth.
Earth • The net force on the apple-Earth system is zero, and
M momentum is conserved for it. During the fall the Earth
F attains a very small speed v. So, by conservation of
momentum:
mV = M v
SAMPLE PROBLEM 4
A crate of raspberry donut filling collides with a tub of lime Kool Aid on
a frictionless surface. Which way on how fast does the Kool Aid
rebound? answer: Let’s draw v to the right in the after picture.
3 (10) - 6 (15) = -3 (4.5) + 15 v v = -3.1 m/s
Since v came out negative, we guessed wrong in drawing v to the right, but
that’s OK as long as we interpret our answer correctly. After the collision the
lime Kool Aid is moving 3.1 m/s to the left.
before
10 m/s 6 m/s
3 kg 15 kg

after
4.5 m/s v
3 kg 15 kg
CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM IN 2-D
To handle a collision in 2-D, we conserve momentum in each dimension
separately. Choosing down & right as positive:
before:
m2
m1
2
px = m1 v1 cos1 - m2 v2 cos2
1 v2
v1 py = m1 v1 sin1 + m2 v2 sin2

after:
m1 m2 px = -m1 va cosa + m2 vb cos b
a b
va vb
py = m1 va sina + m2 vb sin b

## m1 v1 cos1 - m2 v2 cos2 = -m1 va cosa + m2 vb cos b

m1 v1 sin1 + m2 v2 sin 2 = m1 va sina + m2 vb sin b
CONSERVING MOMENTUM W/ VECTORS
B p1
E m2
m1
F 2
1
O p before
p2
R
E p1
p2

pa
A m1 m2
F a b p after
T
E
R pa pb
pb

## This diagram shows momentum vectors, which are parallel to their

respective velocity vectors. Note p1 + p 2 = p a + p b and
p before = p after as conservation of momentum demands.
EXPLODING BOMB

Acme

after

before

A bomb, which was originally at rest, explodes and shrapnel flies every
which way, each piece with a different mass and speed. The momentum
vectors are shown in the after picture.
continued on next
slide
EXPLODING BOMB (CONT.)
• Since the momentum of the bomb was zero before the explosion, it
must be zero after it as well.
• Each piece does have momentum, but the total momentum of the
exploded bomb must be zero afterwards.
• This means that it must be possible to place the momentum
vectors tip to tail and form a closed polygon, which means the
vector sum is zero.
If the original
momentum of the bomb
were not zero, these
the original momentum
vector.
2-D SAMPLE PROBLEM
152 g
A mean, old dart strikes an innocent mango
before that was just passing by minding its own
40
business. Which way and how fast do they
34 m/s move off together?

5 m/s
0.3 kg Working in grams and taking left & down as + :

## 152 (34) sin 40 = 452 v sin

152 (34) cos 40 - 300 (5) = 452 v cos
after
Dividing equations : 1.35097 = tan
452 g
 = 53.4908
 Substituting into either of the first two equations :
v v = 9.14 m/s
40 ALTERNATE SOLUTION
Shown are momentum vectors (in g m/s).
5168  The black vector is the total momentum
before the collision. Because of
p conservation of momentum, it is also the
total momentum after the collisions. We
40 can use trig to find its magnitude and
1500 direction.
Law of Cosines : p2 = 5168 2 + 1500 2 - 2  5168  1500 cos 40

p = 4132.9736 g m/s

## sin  sin 40

Law of Sines : =  = 13.4908
1500 4132.9736

## Angle w/ resp. to horiz. = 40 + 13. 4908   53.49

OBJ. 3.12 DISTINGUISH BETWEEN INELASTIC AND
PERFECT ELASTIC COLLISION

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 During elastic collision energy is conserved
 Energy is not conserved in inelastic collision

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

 Sample question
 An object of mass 3kg travelling at 6m/s strikes another object of mass
5kg travelling at 1m/s in the same direction. The object sticks together
and move with a velocity v. Calculate v. assume that total momentum
before collision is equal to total momentum after

57
OBJ. 3.12 DISTINGUISH BETWEEN INELASTIC AND
PERFECT ELASTIC COLLISION

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 An elastic collision is one in which the total kinetic energy of colliding
bodies is the same before and after, i.e., none of the original kinetic
energy is converted to wasted heat.

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

 A purely inelastic collision occurs when two bodies stick together after
colliding.
 An inelastic collision is one in which at least some of the kinetic energy
the bodies have before colliding is converted to waste heat.
 In real life almost all collisions are inelastic, but sometimes they can be
approximated as elastic for problem solving purposes.
 The collision of air molecules is truly elastic. (It doesn’t really make
sense to say waste heat is generated since the motion of molecules is
58
thermal energy.)
ELASTIC COLLISION
Since no waste heat is created in an elastic collision, we can write equations to
conserve both momentum and energy. (In a closed system--meaning no external
forces--momentum is conserved whether or not the collision is elastic.)

before: after:
v1 v2 vA vB
m1 m2 m1 m2

conservation of momentum:
m1 v1 - m2 v2 = -m1 vA + m2vB
conservation of energy:
½ m1 v12 + ½ m2 v22 = ½ m1 vA2 + ½ m2vB2
(Energy is a scalar, so there is no direction associated with it.)
Elastic Collision
Since no waste heat is created in an elastic collision, we can write
equations to conserve both momentum and energy. (In a closed
system--meaning no external forces--momentum is conserved
whether or not the collision is elastic.)
before: after:
v1 v2 vA vB
m1 m2 m1 m2

conservation of momentum:
m1 v1 - m2 v2 = -m1 vA + m2vB
conservation of energy:
½ m1 v12 + ½ m2 v22 = ½ m1 vA2 + ½ m2vB2
(Energy is a scalar, so there is no direction associated with it.)
Elastic Collision Example
A 95 g rubber biscuit collides head on with an 18 g superball in an
elastic collision. The initial speeds are given. Find the final speeds.
before: after:
6 m/s 8 m/s vA vB

95 g 18 g
conservation of momentum:
(95 g)(6 m/s) - (18 g)(8 m/s) = -(95 g) vA + (18 g) vB
No conversion to kg needed;
426 = -95 vA + 18 vB grams cancel out.
conservation of energy:
½ (95 g)(6 m/s) 2 + ½ (18 g)(8 m/s) 2 = ½ (95 g)vA2 + ½ (18 g)vB2
continued on
cancel halves: 4572 = 95vA2 + 18vB2 next slide
Elastic Collision Example (cont.)
Both final speeds are unknown, but we have two equations, one
from conserving momentum, and one from conserving energy:
momentum: 426 = -95 vA + 18 vB
energy: 4572 = 95vA2 + 18 vB2

## If we solve the momentum equation for vB and substitute that into

the energy equation, we get:

## 4572 = 95vA2 + 18 [(426 +95 vA) /18] 2

Expanding, simplifying, and solving the quadratic gives us
vA = -6 m/s or -1.54 m/s. Substituting each of these values into the
momentum equation gives us the corresponding vB’s (in m/s):
{ vA = -6, vB = -8 } or { vA = -1.54, vB = 15.54 }
continued on next slide
Analysis of Results
before: after:
6 m/s 8 m/s vA vB

95 g 18 g

## The interpretation of the negative signs in our answers is that we

assumed the wrong direction in our after picture. Our first result
tells us that m1 is moving to the right at 6 m/s and m2 is moving at
8 m/s to the left. This means that the masses missed each other
instead of colliding. (Note that when the miss each other both
momentum and energy are conserved, and this result gives us
confidence that our algebra is correct.) The second solution is the
one we want. After the collision m1 is still moving to the right at
1.54 m/s, and m2 rebounds to the right at 15.54 m/s.
{ vA = -6, vB = -8 } or { vA = -1.54, vB = 15.54 }
miss collision
Inelastic Collision Problem
Schmedrick decides to take up archery. He coerces his little brother
Poindexter to stand 20 stand paces away with a kumquat on his head
while Schmed takes aim at the fruit. The mass of the arrow is 0.7 kg,
and when the bow is fully stretched, it is storing 285 J of elastic
potential energy. (Things that can be stretched or compressed, like
springs, can store this type of energy.) The kumquat’s mass is 0.3 kg.
By the time the arrow hits the kumquat, friction and air resistance turn
4% of the energy it originally had into waste heat. Surprisingly,
Schmedrick makes the shot and the arrow goes completely through
the kumquat, exiting at 21 m/s. How fast is the kumquat moving
now?

## continued on next slide

Inelastic Collision (cont.)
First let’s figure out how fast the arrow is moving when it hits the
fruit. 96% of its potential energy is turned to kinetic:

## 0.96 (285) = ½ (0.7) v 2 v = 27.9592 m/s

0.7 kg
0.3 kg
27.9592 m/s v=0 vK 21 m/s
before after

Now we conserve momentum, but not kinetic energy, since this is not
an elastic collision. This means that if we did not know the final
speed of the arrow, we would not have enough information.
0.7 (27.9592) = 0.3 vK + 0.7 (21) vK = 16.2381 m/s

## continued on next slide

Inelastic Collision (cont.)
How much more of the arrow’s original energy was lost while
plowing its way through the kumquat?

0.7 kg
0.3 kg
27.9592 m/s v=0 16.2381 21 m/s
before m/s
after
Before impact the total kinetic energy of the system is

## K0 = ½ (0.7) (27.9592)2 = 273.6 J

After impact the total kinetic energy of the system is

## Kf = ½ (0.7) (21)2 + ½ (0.3) (16.2381)2 = 193.9 J

Therefore, 79.7 J of energy were converted into thermal energy.
This shows that the collision was indeed inelastic.
Elastic Collision in 2-D
The Norse god Thor is battling his archenemy--the
evil giant Loki. Loki hurls a boulder at some helpless
Scandinavian folk. Thor throws his magic hammer in
Thor order to deflect it and save the humans. Assuming
an elastic collision and that even the gods must obey the laws of
physics, determine the rebound speed of the boulder and the final
velocity of Thor’s hammer.
105 kg 200 kg
41 35
170 m/s 85 m/s
before

after

 71
vH vB
continued on next slide
Elastic Collision in 2-D (cont.)
105 kg 200 kg
41 35
170 m/s 85 m/s
before

after

 vB
71
vH
horizontal momentum:
105 (170) cos 41 - 200 (85) cos 35 = -105vH cos + 200 vB cos 71
vertical momentum (down is +):
105 (170) sin 41 + 200 (85) sin 35 = 105 vH sin  + 200vB sin 71
kinetic energy (after canceling the ½’s):
105 (170) 2 + 200 (85) 2 = 105 vH2 + 200 vB2
continued on next slide
Elastic Collision in 2-D (cont.)

 vB
71
vH

The left side of each equation can be simplified, but we have a system
of 3 equations with 3 unknowns with first degree, second degree and
trigonometric terms. This requires a computer. With some help from
Mathematica, we get vH = 94 m/s,  = -22.3º, and vB = 133.3 m/s.
Since  is measured below the horizontal, the negative sign means
the hammer bounced back up, which makes sense because Thor’s
magic hammer always returns to him.
94 m/s
22.3º
71
133.3 m/s
OBJ. 3.12 DISTINGUISH BETWEEN INELASTIC AND
PERFECT ELASTIC COLLISION

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 Sample question
 A stationary nucleus of mass 3.65 x10-25kg decays to produce two

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

particles A and B. The particles then move off in opposite directions.

70
OBJ. 3.13 EXPLAIN AND USE THE CONCEPT OF THE
IMPULSE OF A FORCE

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 Impulse is the product of force and time. The unit of impulse is Ns.

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

 If a body is moving with a velocity u experiences a force which causes
its velocity to increase to v, then according to Newton’s second law
 Ft = mv- mu

##  Since mv-mu represents change in momentum then change in

momentum of an object can be represented as ∆p which is equivalent to
the impulse.

71
IMPULSE - MOMENTUM EXAMPLE
A 1.3 kg ball is coming straight at a 75 kg soccer player at 13 m/s who
kicks it in the exact opposite direction at 22 m/s with an average force of
1200 N. How long are his foot and the ball in contact?

## answer: We’ll use Fnet t =  p. Since the ball

changes direction,  p = m  v = m (vf - v0)
= 1.3 [22 - (-13)] = (1.3 kg) (35 m/s)
= 45.5 kg · m /s. Thus, t = 45.5 / 1200
= 0.0379 s, which is just under 40 ms.

During this contact time the ball compresses substantially and then
decompresses. This happens too quickly for us to see, though. This
compression occurs in many cases, such as hitting a baseball or golf
ball.
OBJ. 3.14 DRAW AND INTERPRET F-T GRAPHS

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 A force-time graph illustrates how a force varies over a period of time
as it acts on an object.

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

 The area under a force time graph represents the change in momentum
of the object in question

73
OBJ. 3.14 DRAW AND INTERPRET F-T GRAPHS

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Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem
 Get samples of graph to place here

74
OBJ. 3. 15 SOLVE PROBLEMS RELATED TO NEWTON’S LAWS
OF MOTION

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Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem
 Assign worksheet to students

75
CIRCULAR MOTION

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speed.

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

 It is important to note that although the speed is constant, the velocity
is not since velocity is a vector quantity having both magnitude and
direction.

##  The velocity of an object in circular motion at a givenv point is always

tangential to the circle.

76
v
v
CIRCULAR MOTION

##  Period : time taken for one complete revolution

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 Frequency: number of rotation per second

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

 Calculating period
• period = time / number of revolution

 Calculating frequency
•Frequency = number of revolution/ time taken

##  Therefore, 1/T =f and 1/f = T 77

OBJ. 3.16 EXPRESS ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT IN RADIANS

 The radian is defined as the ratio of the arc-length swept out in time

28/02/2015
to the radius of the circle. This radian is an angle and can be
represented by the following equation

 θ = s/r

##  The circumference of a circle represents one complete revolution and

is given by
C=2π r

 Therefore for one complete revolution ,the angle θ (in radian) is given
by
 θ = s/r which equates to θ = 2 π r/r
 θ = 2 π radians 78
OBJ. 3.17 APPLY THE CONCEPT OF ANGULAR VELOCITY TO
PROBLEMS INVOLVING CIRCULAR MOTION

28/02/2015

 w = ∆θ/ ∆t

 w = θ/ t

##  For one complete revolution θ = 2 π radians

 So w = 2 π / T………….. ie T = 2 π/ w

 But wt = s/r

##  Therefore v = s/r = wtr/r = rw

79
0BJ. 3.19 USE EQUATIONS FOR CENTRIPETAL ACCELERATION
AND CENTRIPETAL FORCE

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Centripetal Force Centripetal accelerations

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

 
of velocity law
 a = ∆v/∆t  F = ma
 If change in time is very small  But a =v2/r
then change is angle is also  So F =mv2/r
small so  Since a =w2r, the centripetal
 ∆v = θ ∆v acceleration can also ne
 a = ∆v θ /∆t written as F = mw2r
 a = vw
 But v= rw so a= rw2 80
s
If  is in radians, then the arc
length, s, is  times r. This
 follows directly from the definition
circle is wrapped along the circle.

## When the arc length is as long as the 1 radian

radius, the angle subtended is one
r
dimensionless, since it’s found by
dividing a length by a length.)
OBJ. 3.19 USE EQUATIONS FOR CENTRIPETAL ACCELERATION
AND CENTRIPETAL FORCE

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From F = ma, we get Fc = mac = mv2 / r.

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

• If a body is turning, look at all forces acting on it, and find the net
force.
• The component of the net force that acts toward the center of
curvature (perpendicular to the body’s motion) is the centripetal
force.
• The component that acts parallel to its motion (forward or
backwards) is the tangential component of the net force.
82
OBJ. 20 USE THE EQUATIONS OF CIRCULAR MOTION TO SOLVE
PROBLEMS

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Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem
 See part b of notes for questions and other examples

83
CONICAL PENDULUM
• Consider an • The vertical
object of mass component of T
m attached to a  balances mg. 
string of length •
l and made to • The horizontal
rotate in an component of T
horizontal is the centripetal T
force.
r
ac ac
m m v
v

mg
mg

## continued on next slide

OBJ. 3.20… CONICAL PENDULUM (CONT.)

##  • Since the mass is moving in a circular

path, there must be centripetal force
acting towards the center of circle
T cos • The horizontal component of tension, T
sin, provides the centripetal force.
T

T cos = mg
m T sin T sin = mv2 / r

See it in
tan = v2 / rg
mg
action Dividing equations:
OBJ. 20 USE THE EQUATIONS OF CIRCULAR MOTION TO SOLVE
PROBLEMS
• Lets imagine a plane flying in a vertical
v circle
Ntop
• Its speed is constant, but because of its
mg
nonlinear motion, the pilot must
experience centripetal acceleration.
• This ac is provided by a combination of
weight and the normal force N.
• mg is constant; N is not.

Nbot

v
continued on next
mg
Top: Normal force and weight team v
up to provide centripetal force: Ntop Ntop
+ mg = mv2 / r. If the pilot were mg
sitting on a scale, it would say she’s
very light.
r
Bottom: Weight works against
normal force, so N must be bigger
down here to provide the same
centripetal force:
Nbot - mg = mv2 / r. (Fc has a constant
magnitude since m, v, and r are Nbot
constants.) Here a scale would say
that the pilot is very heavy.

continued on next mg
The normal force (force on pilot due to
seat) changes throughout the loop. This
case is similar to the simple pendulum
(the only difference being that speed is
constant here). Part of the weight
opposes N, and the net radial force is
the centripetal force:

## N - mg cos = mac = mv2 / r r

mg cos mg sin
We’ve been discussing the
pilot, but what force causes
the plane to turn? mg
The air provides the centripetal force on plane
OBJ. 3. 21 USE NEWTON’S LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION
IN PROBLEMS INVOLVING ATTRACTION BETWEEN MASSES

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 Newton’s law of gravitation states that the force of attraction between

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

any two bodies is directly proportional to the product of their masses
and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them

F = -Gm1m2
 r2
 G is the gravitational constant (6.67 x10-11 Nm2Kg-2)

##  m2 mass of one body /kg

89
 distance between the centers of mass of the two bodies
GRAVITY EXAMPLE

How hard do two planets pull on each other if their masses are
1.23  1026 kg and 5.21  1022 kg and they 230 million kilometers
apart?
FG = G m1 m2
r2

= (6.67 · 10-11 N·m2 / kg2) (1.23 · 1026 kg) (5.21 · 1022 kg)
(230 · 103 · 106 m) 2
= 8.08 · 1015 N

This is the force each planet exerts on the other. Note the denominator is
has a factor of 103 to convert to meters and a factor of 106 to account for
the million. It doesn’t matter which way or how fast the planets are
moving.
OBJ. 3.22 EXPLAIN AND USE THE TERM GRAVITATIONAL
FIELD STRENGTHS (AT THE EARTH SURFACE AND ABOVE)

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 A gravitational field exist around bodies that have mass.

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

 If an object is placed inside this field it experiences a force which is
attractive in nature.
 Field lines are used to represent the gravitational field around the
earth with the spacing of the lines giving an indication of the strength
of the field
 Closer lines mean stronger field, spaced lines mean weak field

 The direction of the field is the direction of the force on a test mass
placed in the field
91
OBJ. 3.22 EXPLAIN AND USE THE TERM GRAVITATIONAL
FIELD STRENGTHS (AT THE EARTH SURFACE AND ABOVE)

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 Gravitational field strength is the force acting per unit mass.
 On the Earth’s surface the gravitational field strength is g = 9.81Nkg-1

 g = F/m

##  If the gravitational field strength at P due to a mass M is g, then the

force exerted on P in terms of the gravitational field strength is F = mg
 mg = -GMm

r2
 g = -GM

r2 92
OBJ. 3.22 EXPLAIN AND USE THE TERM GRAVITATIONAL
FIELD STRENGTHS (AT THE EARTH SURFACE AND ABOVE)

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 g = -GM
r2

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

 From this equation, it can be seen that gravitational field strength at
the point P is dependent on the mass of the object creating the field and
distance from its center of mass.

93
OBJ. 3.22 EXPLAIN AND USE THE TERM GRAVITATIONAL
FIELD STRENGTHS (AT THE EARTH SURFACE AND ABOVE)

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 ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

 When an object is released, it falls to the ground as the force of gravity
acts on the object,
 This force produces an acceleration which is equal to 9.81ms-2.

##  Consider an iron bearing made to fall through a known distance h and

the time t taken is recorded
 s= ut + ½ at2

 s= h, u =0 a =g

##  h= (0)t + ½ gt2 = ½ gt2

94
 g= 2h/t2
OBJ 3.23 SOLVE PROBLEMS INVOLVING CIRCULAR ORBITS

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Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem
 Worksheet

95
OBJ. 3.24 DISCUSS THE MOTION OF GEOSTATIONARY
SATELLITES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

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 When an object is present in a gravitational field, it posses
gravitational potential energy.

## Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

 When a object moves from one point to another in a vertical distance,
it gains gravitational potential energy
 Work is done against the force of gravity which is equal to the
gravitational potential energy
 ∆Ep = mg∆h

##  It was assumed that the gravitational potential energy g remains

constant for a mass moving vertically upwards however as the object
moves further away from the earth surface, g is no longer constant
96