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Oct 27, 2018

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Cape Physics notes

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Cape Physics notes

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Module 1 – Mechanics

Unit 1

Prepared by Jerene Harris

OBJ. 3. 1 EXPLAIN DISPLACEMENT, SPEED, VELOCITY AND

ACCELERATION

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Displacement

Speed

Velocity

Acceleration

2

OBJ. 3.2 USE GRAPH TO REPRESENT DISPLACEMENT, SPEED,

VELOCITY, AND ACCELERATION IN SINGLE DIMENSION

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Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

3

OBJ. 3.3 USE THE GRADIENT OF AND AREA UNDER MOTION

GRAPHS TO SOLVE PROBLEMS

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Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

Worksheet

4

OBJ. 3.4 DERIVE EQUATIONS REPRESENTING UNIFORMLY

ACCELERATED MOTION IN A SINGLE DIMENSION

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v = u + at

Assumptions

Uniform or constant acceleration

Motion is in a straight line

a = (v-u)/t

at = v – u

v = u + at…. (equation 1)

5

OBJ. 3.4 DERIVE EQUATIONS REPRESENTING UNIFORMLY

ACCELERATED MOTION IN A SINGLE DIMENSION

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Lets examine the velocity-time

graph for the motion of an Area under triangle = ½ t x (v-u)

object p

Area of rectangle = u x t

v

Displacement s= ut + ½t(v-u)

But v = u + at

u

So s = ut + ½ t(u + at- u)

t

S = ut + ½ at2….. Equation 2

The displacement is given by s

and is the area under the v-t

graph 6

OBJ. 3.4 DERIVE EQUATIONS REPRESENTING UNIFORMLY

ACCELERATED MOTION IN A SINGLE DIMENSION

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from equation one t = v-u/a

Therefore s = u (v-u)/a + ½ a [(v-u)/a]2

S = [2u(v-u) + (v-u)2]/2

S = (v2 – u2 )/ 2a

Rearranging gives

v2 = u2 + 2as…… equation 3

7

OBJ. 3.5 USE THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION TO SOLVE

PROBLEMS, ON UNIFORMLY ACCELERATED MOTION

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worksheet

8

OBJ. 3.6 SOLVE PROBLEMS INVOLVING BODIES

UNDERGOING PROJECTILE MOTION

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worksheet

9

PROJECTILE MOTION

• A red marble is dropped off a cliff at the same

time a black one is shot horizontally.

• At any point in time the marbles are at the

same height, i.e., they’re falling down at the

same rate, and they hit the ground at the same

time.

• Gravity doesn’t care that the black ball is

moving sideways; it pulls it downward just the

same.

• Since gravity can’t affect horiz. motion, the

black particle continues at a constant rate.

• With every unit of time, the marbles’ vertical

speed increases, but their horiz. speed remains

the same (ignoring air resistance).

9.8 m/s2 PROJECTILE MOTION

o Gravity’s downward pull is

independent of horiz. motion.

o So, the vertical acceleration of each

marble is -g (for the whole trip),

9.8 m/s2

and the sideways acceleration of

each is zero. (Gravity can’t pull

sideways).

o Whatever horiz. velocity the black

one had when shot is a constant

throughout its trip.

9.8 m/s2

o Only its vertical velocity changes.

(A vertical force like gravity can

only produce vertical acceleration.)

t=0 vy = 0

t=1

PROJECTILE MOTION (CONT.)

vy = 1

• If after one unit of time the marbles

t=2 have one unit of speed downward,

vy = 2 then after two units of time they have

two units of speed downward, etc.

• This follows directly from vf = v0 + at.

Since v0 = 0, downward speed is

t=3 proportional to time.

vy = 3

components of velocity.

• The shot marble has a horizontal

component too (not shown); the

dropped one doesn’t.

t=4 vy = 4

t=0 vx = v

t=1 vx

PROJECTILE MOTION (CONT.)

vy Since the shot black marble experiences

v no horiz. forces (ignoring air), it

vx undergoes no horiz. acceleration.

t=2

Therefore, its horiz. velocity, doesn’t

vy vy change. So, the horiz. vector has a

v constant magnitude, but the vertical

vector gets longer. The resultant (the

net velocity vector in blue) gets longer

vx and points more downward with time.

t=3 When t = 0, v = vx for the shot marble.

v = vy for the dropped marble for the

whole trip.

vy vy

vx continued on next

t=4 slide

PROJECTILE MOTION (CONT.)

v

The trajectory of any projectile is

parabolic. (We’ll prove this

later.) If its initial velocity

vector is horizontal, as with the

v black marble, the launch site is

at the vertex of the parabola.

The velocity vector at any point

in time is tangent to the

parabolic trajectory. Moreover,

velocity vectors are always

v tangent to the trajectory of any

moving object, regardless of its

shape.

continued on next

slide

t=0

y = 1

t=1

PROJECTILE MOTION (CONT.)

y = 3 x=1 • The vertical displacements

over consecutive units of

t=2

time show the familiar

x=2

ratio of odd numbers that

y = 5 we’ve seen before with

uniform acceleration.

t=3

• Measured from the starting

point, the vertical

x=3 displacements would be 1,

4, 9, 16, etc., (perfect

squares), but the horiz.

y = 7

displacements form a

linear sequence since there

is no acceleration in that

x=4

direction.

t=4 continued on next

PROJECTILE EXAMPLE

A rifle is held perfectly horizontally 1.5 m over level ground. At the instant

the trigger is pulled, a second bullet is dropped from the tip of the barrel. The

muzzle velocity of the gun is 80 m/s.

1. Which bullet hits the ground first? answer: They hit at same time.

Use vf = v0 + at and use vertical info only: v0 = 0, a = -9.8 m/s2,

and t = 0.3 s. We get vy in the pic for each bullet is -2.94 m/s.

Using the Pythagorean theorem for the fired bullet we get

80.054 m/s in a direction tangent to its path.

80 m/s

80 m/s

after 0.3 s after 0.3 s

PROJECTILE EXAMPLE (CONT.)

3. How far away does the fired bullet land (its range)? answer:

• This is the same hang time as the dropped bullet.

• Use y = v0 t + 0.5 a t 2 with only vertical data: -1.5 = (0) t + (0.5) (-9.8) t 2. So, t = 0.5533 s.

• The whole time the bullet is falling it’s also moving to the left at a constant 80 m/s.

• Since horizontally v is constant, we use d = v t with only horiz. info: d = (80 m/s) (0.5533 s)

= 44.26 m.

Note: When a = 0, x = v0 t + 0.5 a t 2 breaks down to d = v t.

80 m/s

1.5 m

PROJECTILES FIRED AT AN ANGLE

projectile fired with speed v0

at an angle .

v0

v0 sin

Step 1: Split the initial

velocity vector into

components.

v0 cos

continued on next

slide

Projectiles Fired at an Angle (cont.)

Step 2: Find hang time. Use y = v0t + ½ a t 2 with only vertical data:

Over level ground, y = 0. Divide through by t:

0 = v0 sin - 4.9 t, and

t = (v0 sin ) / 4.9

Note: If we had shot the projectile from a 100 m cliff, y

would be -100 m.

v0

v0 sin

v0 cos continued on next slide

Projectiles Fired at an Angle (cont.)

Step 3:

Now that we know how long it’s in the air, we know how long it travels horizontally.

(The projectile’s vertical and horizontal movements are completely independent.)

Use x = v0t + ½ a t 2 again, this time with only horizontal data:

This is the same as saying:

v0 horiz. distance = horiz. speed time

In other words, d = v t

v0 cos continued on next slide

Picklemobile Example

• A stuntman drives a picklemobile off a 350 m cliff going

70 mph.

• The angle of elevation of the cliff is 21. He’s hoping to

make it across a 261 m wide river and land on a ledge 82 m

high. Does he make it ?

initial velocity into m/s:

70 mi 1609 m h

• • = 31.2861 m/s

h mi 3600 s

350 m

continued on next slide

261 m

82 m

Picklemobile Example (cont.)

We resolve the initial velocity into components.

(which is the same as if it had been shot

21 straight up at about 11.2 m/s), with y =

29.2081 m/s 82 m - 350 m = -268 m.

-268 = 11.2119 t - 4.9 t 2

4.9 t 2 - 11.2119 t - 268 = 0

t = -6.3394 s or 8.6276 s

350 m

(using quadratic formula or computer)

261 m continued

82 m on next slide

Picklemobile Example (cont.)

We want the positive answer for t. The interpretation of the negative answer is that if the

pickle car had been launched from the height of the ledge, it would have taken about 6.3 s

to reach the edge of the cliff

the air and traveling to the right at about 29

m/s. Therefore, its range is

(29.2081 m/s) (8.6276 s) 252 m < 261 m.

Alas, the poor picklemobile doesn’t make it.

82 m

continued on next slide

Picklemobile Example (cont.)

What max height does the pickle mobile attain?

if it had been shot up at about

11.2 m/s. Since its vertical

velocity is zero at its high pt.,

parabolic we have

trajectory 02 - (11.2119)2 = 2(-9.8) y.

So, y = 6.41 m. Add 350 m

350 m and the max height is 356.41 m.

continued on next slide

82 m

Picklemobile Example (cont.)

What is the impact velocity of the pickle

mobile (the velocity upon splash down)?

The horiz. component is the same at landing as it

was on liftoff. We must find the final vertical

29.2081 velocity: vf2 - (11.2119)2 = 2(-9.8)(-350).

m/s So, vf = -83.5805 m/s. 29.2081 m/s

The Pythag. theorem gives us the

83.5805 m/s

magnitude of the resultant.

= tan-1 (83.5805 / 88.5371) = 70.74.

350 m Thus the impact velocity is about

88.5 m/s at 71 below the horizontal.

Obj. 3. 7 show projectile motion is parabolic

o A projectile is shot horizontally with speed v0 .

o Its horizontal position is given by x = v0 t + ½ (-g) t 2. ( but gravity is zero)

o So time t = v0 /x

o The projectile’s vertical position is given by y = v0 t + ½ (-g) t 2.

o (initial velocity v0 = 0)

o

Given that y = ½ (-g) t 2

Substitute time (t= v/x) in above equation

g

y= x2

2 v02

The equation is parabolic of the form y = ax – bx2

Obj. 3. 7 show projectile motion is parabolic

o A projectile is shot with speed v0 at an angle .

o Its vertical position is given by y = (v0 sin ) t + ½ (-g) t 2.

o Here y is the dependent quantity, and t is the independent quantity.

o Everything else is a constant.

o The projectile’s horizontal position is given by x = (v0 cos ) t. (gravity is zero here)

o Only x and t are variables, and t = x / (v0 cos ). Let’s substitute this for t in the

equation for y:

y = (v0 sin ) t + ½ (-g) t 2

g

y = (tan ) x - x2

2 v02 cos2

The coefficients of x and x 2 are constants. Since the leading coef. is negative, this

is the equation of a parabola opening down.

Symmetry and Velocity

The projectile’s speed is the same at points directly across the parabola

(at the same vertical position). The angle is the same too, but with

opposite orientation. Horizontal speeds are the same throughout the

trajectory. Vertical speeds

are the same only at points of

equal height.

The vert. comp. shrinks The horiz. comp.

then grows in opposite doesn’t change. At

direction at a const. rate the peak, the horiz.

(-g). The resultant comp. equals the

velocity vector’s resultant velocity

orientation and magni- vector.

tude changes, but is

always tangent.

Symmetry and Time

Over level ground, the time at the peak is half the hang time. Notice the

symmetry of times at equal heights relative to the 10 unit mark. The

projectile has covered half its range when it has peaked, but only over

level ground. Note: near the peak the object moves more slowly than

when lower to the ground. It rises

t = 10 3/4 of its max height in only

1/2 of its rising time. (See

t=5 t = 15 if you can prove this for

an arbitrary launch

velocity.)

t=3 t = 17

t=0 t = 20

Max height & hang time depend only on

initial vertical velocity

o Each initial velocity vector below has the a different magnitude (speed) but each

object will spend the same time in the air and reach the same max height.

o This is because each vector has the same vertical component.

o The projectiles will have different ranges, however.

o The greater the horizontal component of initial velocity, the greater the range.

Max Range at 45

o Over level ground at a constant launch speed, what angle maximizes the range, R ?

o First consider some extremes: When = 0, R = 0, since the object is on the ground

from the moment it’s launched.

o When = 90, the object goes straight up and lands right on the launch site, so R = 0

again. The best angle is 45, smack dab between the extremes.

same; only the angle varies.

76

45

38

Range Formula & Max Range at 45

First find the time. Note that y = 0, since the projectile starts and stops at ground level

(no change). y = v0 t + ½ at 2. So, 0 = (v0 sin ) t - ½ g t 2

Since the ground is level we divide through by t giving us t = 2 v0 sin / g. Then,

R = (v0 cos ) t = (v0 cos ) (2 v0 sin / g) = 2 v02 sin cos / g.

By the trig identity sin 2 = 2 sin cos, we get R = v02 sin 2 / g. Since v0 and g are

fixed, R is at a max when sin 2 is at a max. When the angle, 2, is 90, the sine

function is at its maximum of 1. Therefore, = 45.

v0

v0 sin

v0 cos

MAX RANGE WHEN Y 0

When fired from a cliff, or from below ground, a projectile doesn’t

attain its max range at 45.

45is only the best angle when a projectile is fired over level

ground.

When fired from a cliff, a projectile attains max range with a launch

angle less than 45 (see next slide).

When fired from below ground, a projectile attains max range with

a launch angle greater than 45

Range when fired from cliff

45 If ground were

level, the 45

launch would win.

< 45

Launch speeds

are the same.

parabola is flatter it

eventually overtakes

45 parabola.

Ranges at complementary launch angles

An object fired at angle will have the same

75 range as when it’s fired at the same speed at an

angle 90 - .

Reason: R = 2v02 sin cos / g, and the sine

of an angle is the cosine of its complement

(and vice versa).

15 For example, R at 40 is

2v02 sin 40 cos 40 / g

= 2v02 cos 50 sin 50 / g

= R at 50.

50

40

OBJ. 3.8 STATE NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION

28/02/2015

First law

A body at rest stays at rest or if moving continues to move with uniform

velocity unless acted upon by an external force

Second law

The rate of change of momentum is proportional to the applied force

and takes in the direction in which the force acts

Third law

If a body A exerts a force on a body B then body B exerts an equal and

opposite force on body A 36

OBJ. 3.9 EXPLAIN LINEAR MOMENTUM

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Linear momentum is the product of an object mass and velocity

Linear momentum, p = mass, m x velocity, v

p =mv

37

MOMENTUM FACTS

• p = mv

• Momentum is a vector quantity!

• Velocity and momentum vectors point in the same direction.

• SI unit for momentum: kg · m/s (no special name).

• Momentum is a conserved quantity (this will be proven later).

• A net force is required to change a body’s momentum.

• Momentum is directly proportional to both mass and speed.

• Something big and slow could have the same momentum as

something small and fast.

MOMENTUM EXAMPLES

3 m /s 30 kg · m /s

10 kg 10 kg

Note: The momentum vector does not have to be drawn 10 times longer than the

velocity vector, since only vectors of the same quantity can be compared in this

way.

26º

5g

p = 45 kg · m /s

at 26º N of E

OBJ. 3.10 STATE THE PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION OF LINEAR

MOMENTUM

28/02/2015

The principle of conservation of linear momentum states that for

any system, the total momentum before collision is equal to the

total momentum after collision provided that no external forces act

on the system

40

OBJ. 3.11 APPLY THE PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION OF

LINEAR MOMENTUM

28/02/2015

In next slides

41

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM IN 1-D

Whenever two objects collide (or when they exert forces on each other without

colliding, such as gravity) momentum of the system (both objects together) is

conserved. This mean the total momentum of the objects is the same before and

after the collision.

before: p = m1 v1 - m2 v2

v1 v2

m1 m2

m1 v1 - m2 v2 = - m1 va + m2 vb

after: p = - m1 va + m2 vb

va vb

m1 m2

DIRECTIONS AFTER A COLLISION

On the last slide the boxes were drawn going in the opposite direction after colliding. This

isn’t always the case. For example, when a bat hits a ball, the ball changes direction, but

the bat doesn’t. It doesn’t really matter, though, which way we draw the velocity vectors in

“after” picture. If we solved the conservation of momentum equation (red box) for vb and

got a negative answer, it would mean that m2 was still moving to the left after the collision.

As long as we interpret our answers correctly, it matters not how the velocity vectors are

drawn.

v1 v2

m1 m2

m1 v1 - m2 v2 = - m1 va + m2 vb

va vb

m1 m2

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1

35 g

7 kg

700 m/s

v=0

• The bullet penetrates the butter, but while passing through it, the bullet pushes the butter to

the left, and the butter pushes the bullet just as hard to the right, slowing the bullet down.

• If the butter skids off at 4 cm/s after the bullet passes through it, what is the final speed of the

bullet?

(The mass of the rifle matters not.)

35 g

7 kg

v=? 4 cm/s

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1 (CONT.)

Let’s choose left to be the + direction & use conservation of momentum, converting all units to

meters and kilograms.

35 g

p before = 7 (0) + (0.035) (700) 7 kg

700 m/s

= 24.5 kg · m /s

v=0

7 kg

v=? 4 cm/s = 0.28 + 0.035 v

of the bullet in the “after” picture.

35 g

SAMPLE PROBLEM 2 7 kg 700 m/s

v=0

Same as the last problem except this time it’s a block of wood rather than butter,

and the bullet does not pass all the way through it. How fast do they move together

after impact?

v

7. 035 kg

Note:

m/s

Once again we’re assuming a frictionless surface, otherwise there would be a

frictional force on the wood in addition to that of the bullet, and the “system” would

have to include the table as well.

PROOF OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

The proof is based on Newton’s 3rd Law. Whenever two objects collide (or exert forces on each

other from a distance), the forces involved are an action-reaction pair, equal in strength,

opposite in direction. This means the net force on the system (the two objects together) is

zero, since these forces cancel out.

F F

M m

For each object, F = (mass) (a) = (mass) (v / t ) = (mass v) / t = p / t. Since the force

applied and the contact time is the same for each mass, they each undergo the same

change in momentum, but in opposite directions. The result is that even though the

momenta of the individual objects changes, p for the system is zero. The

momentum that one mass gains, the other loses. Hence, the momentum of the

system before equals the momentum of the system after.

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM APPLIES ONLY IN

THE ABSENCE OF EXTERNAL FORCES!

couldn’t simply conserve momentum if friction had been present because, as

the proof on the last slide shows, there would be another force (friction) in

addition to the contact forces. Friction wouldn’t cancel out, and it would be a

net force on the system.

The only way to conserve momentum with an external force like friction is to

make it internal by including the tabletop, floor, or the entire Earth as part of

the system. For example, if a rubber ball hits a brick wall, p for the ball is not

conserved, neither is p for the ball-wall system, since the wall is connected to

the ground and subject to force by it. However, p for the ball-Earth system is

conserved!

SAMPLE PROBLEM 3

An apple is originally at rest and then dropped. After falling a short time,

it’s moving pretty fast, say at a speed V. Obviously, momentum is not

conserved for the apple, since it didn’t have any at first. How can this be?

apple

answer:

m

• Gravity is an external force on the apple, so momentum

V

for it alone is not conserved.

F

• To make gravity “internal,” we must define a system

v that includes the other object responsible for the

gravitational force--Earth.

Earth • The net force on the apple-Earth system is zero, and

M momentum is conserved for it. During the fall the Earth

F attains a very small speed v. So, by conservation of

momentum:

mV = M v

SAMPLE PROBLEM 4

A crate of raspberry donut filling collides with a tub of lime Kool Aid on

a frictionless surface. Which way on how fast does the Kool Aid

rebound? answer: Let’s draw v to the right in the after picture.

3 (10) - 6 (15) = -3 (4.5) + 15 v v = -3.1 m/s

Since v came out negative, we guessed wrong in drawing v to the right, but

that’s OK as long as we interpret our answer correctly. After the collision the

lime Kool Aid is moving 3.1 m/s to the left.

before

10 m/s 6 m/s

3 kg 15 kg

after

4.5 m/s v

3 kg 15 kg

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM IN 2-D

To handle a collision in 2-D, we conserve momentum in each dimension

separately. Choosing down & right as positive:

before:

m2

m1

2

px = m1 v1 cos1 - m2 v2 cos2

1 v2

v1 py = m1 v1 sin1 + m2 v2 sin2

after:

m1 m2 px = -m1 va cosa + m2 vb cos b

a b

va vb

py = m1 va sina + m2 vb sin b

m1 v1 sin1 + m2 v2 sin 2 = m1 va sina + m2 vb sin b

CONSERVING MOMENTUM W/ VECTORS

B p1

E m2

m1

F 2

1

O p before

p2

R

E p1

p2

pa

A m1 m2

F a b p after

T

E

R pa pb

pb

respective velocity vectors. Note p1 + p 2 = p a + p b and

p before = p after as conservation of momentum demands.

EXPLODING BOMB

Acme

after

before

A bomb, which was originally at rest, explodes and shrapnel flies every

which way, each piece with a different mass and speed. The momentum

vectors are shown in the after picture.

continued on next

slide

EXPLODING BOMB (CONT.)

• Since the momentum of the bomb was zero before the explosion, it

must be zero after it as well.

• Each piece does have momentum, but the total momentum of the

exploded bomb must be zero afterwards.

• This means that it must be possible to place the momentum

vectors tip to tail and form a closed polygon, which means the

vector sum is zero.

If the original

momentum of the bomb

were not zero, these

vectors would add up to

the original momentum

vector.

2-D SAMPLE PROBLEM

152 g

A mean, old dart strikes an innocent mango

before that was just passing by minding its own

40

business. Which way and how fast do they

34 m/s move off together?

5 m/s

0.3 kg Working in grams and taking left & down as + :

152 (34) cos 40 - 300 (5) = 452 v cos

after

Dividing equations : 1.35097 = tan

452 g

= 53.4908

Substituting into either of the first two equations :

v v = 9.14 m/s

40 ALTERNATE SOLUTION

Shown are momentum vectors (in g m/s).

5168 The black vector is the total momentum

before the collision. Because of

p conservation of momentum, it is also the

total momentum after the collisions. We

40 can use trig to find its magnitude and

1500 direction.

Law of Cosines : p2 = 5168 2 + 1500 2 - 2 5168 1500 cos 40

p = 4132.9736 g m/s

Law of Sines : = = 13.4908

1500 4132.9736

OBJ. 3.12 DISTINGUISH BETWEEN INELASTIC AND

PERFECT ELASTIC COLLISION

28/02/2015

During elastic collision energy is conserved

Energy is not conserved in inelastic collision

Sample question

An object of mass 3kg travelling at 6m/s strikes another object of mass

5kg travelling at 1m/s in the same direction. The object sticks together

and move with a velocity v. Calculate v. assume that total momentum

before collision is equal to total momentum after

57

OBJ. 3.12 DISTINGUISH BETWEEN INELASTIC AND

PERFECT ELASTIC COLLISION

28/02/2015

An elastic collision is one in which the total kinetic energy of colliding

bodies is the same before and after, i.e., none of the original kinetic

energy is converted to wasted heat.

A purely inelastic collision occurs when two bodies stick together after

colliding.

An inelastic collision is one in which at least some of the kinetic energy

the bodies have before colliding is converted to waste heat.

In real life almost all collisions are inelastic, but sometimes they can be

approximated as elastic for problem solving purposes.

The collision of air molecules is truly elastic. (It doesn’t really make

sense to say waste heat is generated since the motion of molecules is

58

thermal energy.)

ELASTIC COLLISION

Since no waste heat is created in an elastic collision, we can write equations to

conserve both momentum and energy. (In a closed system--meaning no external

forces--momentum is conserved whether or not the collision is elastic.)

before: after:

v1 v2 vA vB

m1 m2 m1 m2

conservation of momentum:

m1 v1 - m2 v2 = -m1 vA + m2vB

conservation of energy:

½ m1 v12 + ½ m2 v22 = ½ m1 vA2 + ½ m2vB2

(Energy is a scalar, so there is no direction associated with it.)

Elastic Collision

Since no waste heat is created in an elastic collision, we can write

equations to conserve both momentum and energy. (In a closed

system--meaning no external forces--momentum is conserved

whether or not the collision is elastic.)

before: after:

v1 v2 vA vB

m1 m2 m1 m2

conservation of momentum:

m1 v1 - m2 v2 = -m1 vA + m2vB

conservation of energy:

½ m1 v12 + ½ m2 v22 = ½ m1 vA2 + ½ m2vB2

(Energy is a scalar, so there is no direction associated with it.)

Elastic Collision Example

A 95 g rubber biscuit collides head on with an 18 g superball in an

elastic collision. The initial speeds are given. Find the final speeds.

before: after:

6 m/s 8 m/s vA vB

95 g 18 g

conservation of momentum:

(95 g)(6 m/s) - (18 g)(8 m/s) = -(95 g) vA + (18 g) vB

No conversion to kg needed;

426 = -95 vA + 18 vB grams cancel out.

conservation of energy:

½ (95 g)(6 m/s) 2 + ½ (18 g)(8 m/s) 2 = ½ (95 g)vA2 + ½ (18 g)vB2

continued on

cancel halves: 4572 = 95vA2 + 18vB2 next slide

Elastic Collision Example (cont.)

Both final speeds are unknown, but we have two equations, one

from conserving momentum, and one from conserving energy:

momentum: 426 = -95 vA + 18 vB

energy: 4572 = 95vA2 + 18 vB2

the energy equation, we get:

Expanding, simplifying, and solving the quadratic gives us

vA = -6 m/s or -1.54 m/s. Substituting each of these values into the

momentum equation gives us the corresponding vB’s (in m/s):

{ vA = -6, vB = -8 } or { vA = -1.54, vB = 15.54 }

continued on next slide

Analysis of Results

before: after:

6 m/s 8 m/s vA vB

95 g 18 g

assumed the wrong direction in our after picture. Our first result

tells us that m1 is moving to the right at 6 m/s and m2 is moving at

8 m/s to the left. This means that the masses missed each other

instead of colliding. (Note that when the miss each other both

momentum and energy are conserved, and this result gives us

confidence that our algebra is correct.) The second solution is the

one we want. After the collision m1 is still moving to the right at

1.54 m/s, and m2 rebounds to the right at 15.54 m/s.

{ vA = -6, vB = -8 } or { vA = -1.54, vB = 15.54 }

miss collision

Inelastic Collision Problem

Schmedrick decides to take up archery. He coerces his little brother

Poindexter to stand 20 stand paces away with a kumquat on his head

while Schmed takes aim at the fruit. The mass of the arrow is 0.7 kg,

and when the bow is fully stretched, it is storing 285 J of elastic

potential energy. (Things that can be stretched or compressed, like

springs, can store this type of energy.) The kumquat’s mass is 0.3 kg.

By the time the arrow hits the kumquat, friction and air resistance turn

4% of the energy it originally had into waste heat. Surprisingly,

Schmedrick makes the shot and the arrow goes completely through

the kumquat, exiting at 21 m/s. How fast is the kumquat moving

now?

Inelastic Collision (cont.)

First let’s figure out how fast the arrow is moving when it hits the

fruit. 96% of its potential energy is turned to kinetic:

0.7 kg

0.3 kg

27.9592 m/s v=0 vK 21 m/s

before after

Now we conserve momentum, but not kinetic energy, since this is not

an elastic collision. This means that if we did not know the final

speed of the arrow, we would not have enough information.

0.7 (27.9592) = 0.3 vK + 0.7 (21) vK = 16.2381 m/s

Inelastic Collision (cont.)

How much more of the arrow’s original energy was lost while

plowing its way through the kumquat?

0.7 kg

0.3 kg

27.9592 m/s v=0 16.2381 21 m/s

before m/s

after

Before impact the total kinetic energy of the system is

After impact the total kinetic energy of the system is

Therefore, 79.7 J of energy were converted into thermal energy.

This shows that the collision was indeed inelastic.

Elastic Collision in 2-D

The Norse god Thor is battling his archenemy--the

evil giant Loki. Loki hurls a boulder at some helpless

Scandinavian folk. Thor throws his magic hammer in

Thor order to deflect it and save the humans. Assuming

an elastic collision and that even the gods must obey the laws of

physics, determine the rebound speed of the boulder and the final

velocity of Thor’s hammer.

105 kg 200 kg

41 35

170 m/s 85 m/s

before

after

71

vH vB

continued on next slide

Elastic Collision in 2-D (cont.)

105 kg 200 kg

41 35

170 m/s 85 m/s

before

after

vB

71

vH

horizontal momentum:

105 (170) cos 41 - 200 (85) cos 35 = -105vH cos + 200 vB cos 71

vertical momentum (down is +):

105 (170) sin 41 + 200 (85) sin 35 = 105 vH sin + 200vB sin 71

kinetic energy (after canceling the ½’s):

105 (170) 2 + 200 (85) 2 = 105 vH2 + 200 vB2

continued on next slide

Elastic Collision in 2-D (cont.)

vB

71

vH

The left side of each equation can be simplified, but we have a system

of 3 equations with 3 unknowns with first degree, second degree and

trigonometric terms. This requires a computer. With some help from

Mathematica, we get vH = 94 m/s, = -22.3º, and vB = 133.3 m/s.

Since is measured below the horizontal, the negative sign means

the hammer bounced back up, which makes sense because Thor’s

magic hammer always returns to him.

94 m/s

22.3º

71

133.3 m/s

OBJ. 3.12 DISTINGUISH BETWEEN INELASTIC AND

PERFECT ELASTIC COLLISION

28/02/2015

Sample question

A stationary nucleus of mass 3.65 x10-25kg decays to produce two

particles A and B. The particles then move off in opposite directions.

70

OBJ. 3.13 EXPLAIN AND USE THE CONCEPT OF THE

IMPULSE OF A FORCE

28/02/2015

Impulse is the product of force and time. The unit of impulse is Ns.

If a body is moving with a velocity u experiences a force which causes

its velocity to increase to v, then according to Newton’s second law

Ft = mv- mu

momentum of an object can be represented as ∆p which is equivalent to

the impulse.

71

IMPULSE - MOMENTUM EXAMPLE

A 1.3 kg ball is coming straight at a 75 kg soccer player at 13 m/s who

kicks it in the exact opposite direction at 22 m/s with an average force of

1200 N. How long are his foot and the ball in contact?

changes direction, p = m v = m (vf - v0)

= 1.3 [22 - (-13)] = (1.3 kg) (35 m/s)

= 45.5 kg · m /s. Thus, t = 45.5 / 1200

= 0.0379 s, which is just under 40 ms.

During this contact time the ball compresses substantially and then

decompresses. This happens too quickly for us to see, though. This

compression occurs in many cases, such as hitting a baseball or golf

ball.

OBJ. 3.14 DRAW AND INTERPRET F-T GRAPHS

28/02/2015

A force-time graph illustrates how a force varies over a period of time

as it acts on an object.

The area under a force time graph represents the change in momentum

of the object in question

73

OBJ. 3.14 DRAW AND INTERPRET F-T GRAPHS

28/02/2015

Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

Get samples of graph to place here

74

OBJ. 3. 15 SOLVE PROBLEMS RELATED TO NEWTON’S LAWS

OF MOTION

28/02/2015

Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

Assign worksheet to students

75

CIRCULAR MOTION

28/02/2015

speed.

It is important to note that although the speed is constant, the velocity

is not since velocity is a vector quantity having both magnitude and

direction.

tangential to the circle.

76

v

v

CIRCULAR MOTION

28/02/2015

Frequency: number of rotation per second

Calculating period

• period = time / number of revolution

Calculating frequency

•Frequency = number of revolution/ time taken

OBJ. 3.16 EXPRESS ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT IN RADIANS

The radian is defined as the ratio of the arc-length swept out in time

28/02/2015

to the radius of the circle. This radian is an angle and can be

represented by the following equation

θ = s/r

is given by

C=2π r

Therefore for one complete revolution ,the angle θ (in radian) is given

by

θ = s/r which equates to θ = 2 π r/r

θ = 2 π radians 78

OBJ. 3.17 APPLY THE CONCEPT OF ANGULAR VELOCITY TO

PROBLEMS INVOLVING CIRCULAR MOTION

28/02/2015

w = ∆θ/ ∆t

w = θ/ t

So w = 2 π / T………….. ie T = 2 π/ w

But wt = s/r

79

0BJ. 3.19 USE EQUATIONS FOR CENTRIPETAL ACCELERATION

AND CENTRIPETAL FORCE

28/02/2015

Centripetal Force Centripetal accelerations

of velocity law

a = ∆v/∆t F = ma

If change in time is very small But a =v2/r

then change is angle is also So F =mv2/r

small so Since a =w2r, the centripetal

∆v = θ ∆v acceleration can also ne

a = ∆v θ /∆t written as F = mw2r

a = vw

But v= rw so a= rw2 80

s

If is in radians, then the arc

length, s, is times r. This

follows directly from the definition

r of a radian. One radian is the

angle made when the radius of a

circle is wrapped along the circle.

radius, the angle subtended is one

r

radian. (A radian is really

dimensionless, since it’s found by

dividing a length by a length.)

OBJ. 3.19 USE EQUATIONS FOR CENTRIPETAL ACCELERATION

AND CENTRIPETAL FORCE

28/02/2015

From F = ma, we get Fc = mac = mv2 / r.

• If a body is turning, look at all forces acting on it, and find the net

force.

• The component of the net force that acts toward the center of

curvature (perpendicular to the body’s motion) is the centripetal

force.

• The component that acts parallel to its motion (forward or

backwards) is the tangential component of the net force.

82

OBJ. 20 USE THE EQUATIONS OF CIRCULAR MOTION TO SOLVE

PROBLEMS

28/02/2015

Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

See part b of notes for questions and other examples

83

CONICAL PENDULUM

• Consider an • The vertical

object of mass component of T

m attached to a balances mg.

string of length •

l and made to • The horizontal

rotate in an component of T

horizontal is the centripetal T

circle of radius T

force.

r

ac ac

m m v

v

mg

mg

OBJ. 3.20… CONICAL PENDULUM (CONT.)

path, there must be centripetal force

acting towards the center of circle

T cos • The horizontal component of tension, T

sin, provides the centripetal force.

T

T cos = mg

m T sin T sin = mv2 / r

See it in

tan = v2 / rg

mg

action Dividing equations:

OBJ. 20 USE THE EQUATIONS OF CIRCULAR MOTION TO SOLVE

PROBLEMS

• Lets imagine a plane flying in a vertical

v circle

Ntop

• Its speed is constant, but because of its

mg

nonlinear motion, the pilot must

experience centripetal acceleration.

• This ac is provided by a combination of

weight and the normal force N.

• mg is constant; N is not.

Nbot

v

continued on next

mg

Top: Normal force and weight team v

up to provide centripetal force: Ntop Ntop

+ mg = mv2 / r. If the pilot were mg

sitting on a scale, it would say she’s

very light.

r

Bottom: Weight works against

normal force, so N must be bigger

down here to provide the same

centripetal force:

Nbot - mg = mv2 / r. (Fc has a constant

magnitude since m, v, and r are Nbot

constants.) Here a scale would say

that the pilot is very heavy.

continued on next mg

The normal force (force on pilot due to

seat) changes throughout the loop. This

case is similar to the simple pendulum

(the only difference being that speed is

constant here). Part of the weight

opposes N, and the net radial force is

the centripetal force:

mg cos mg sin

We’ve been discussing the

pilot, but what force causes

the plane to turn? mg

Answer:

The air provides the centripetal force on plane

OBJ. 3. 21 USE NEWTON’S LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION

IN PROBLEMS INVOLVING ATTRACTION BETWEEN MASSES

28/02/2015

Newton’s law of gravitation states that the force of attraction between

any two bodies is directly proportional to the product of their masses

and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them

F = -Gm1m2

r2

G is the gravitational constant (6.67 x10-11 Nm2Kg-2)

89

distance between the centers of mass of the two bodies

GRAVITY EXAMPLE

How hard do two planets pull on each other if their masses are

1.23 1026 kg and 5.21 1022 kg and they 230 million kilometers

apart?

FG = G m1 m2

r2

= (6.67 · 10-11 N·m2 / kg2) (1.23 · 1026 kg) (5.21 · 1022 kg)

(230 · 103 · 106 m) 2

= 8.08 · 1015 N

This is the force each planet exerts on the other. Note the denominator is

has a factor of 103 to convert to meters and a factor of 106 to account for

the million. It doesn’t matter which way or how fast the planets are

moving.

OBJ. 3.22 EXPLAIN AND USE THE TERM GRAVITATIONAL

FIELD STRENGTHS (AT THE EARTH SURFACE AND ABOVE)

28/02/2015

A gravitational field exist around bodies that have mass.

If an object is placed inside this field it experiences a force which is

attractive in nature.

Field lines are used to represent the gravitational field around the

earth with the spacing of the lines giving an indication of the strength

of the field

Closer lines mean stronger field, spaced lines mean weak field

The direction of the field is the direction of the force on a test mass

placed in the field

91

OBJ. 3.22 EXPLAIN AND USE THE TERM GRAVITATIONAL

FIELD STRENGTHS (AT THE EARTH SURFACE AND ABOVE)

28/02/2015

Gravitational field strength is the force acting per unit mass.

On the Earth’s surface the gravitational field strength is g = 9.81Nkg-1

g = F/m

force exerted on P in terms of the gravitational field strength is F = mg

mg = -GMm

r2

g = -GM

r2 92

OBJ. 3.22 EXPLAIN AND USE THE TERM GRAVITATIONAL

FIELD STRENGTHS (AT THE EARTH SURFACE AND ABOVE)

28/02/2015

g = -GM

r2

From this equation, it can be seen that gravitational field strength at

the point P is dependent on the mass of the object creating the field and

distance from its center of mass.

93

OBJ. 3.22 EXPLAIN AND USE THE TERM GRAVITATIONAL

FIELD STRENGTHS (AT THE EARTH SURFACE AND ABOVE)

28/02/2015

ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY

When an object is released, it falls to the ground as the force of gravity

acts on the object,

This force produces an acceleration which is equal to 9.81ms-2.

the time t taken is recorded

s= ut + ½ at2

s= h, u =0 a =g

94

g= 2h/t2

OBJ 3.23 SOLVE PROBLEMS INVOLVING CIRCULAR ORBITS

28/02/2015

Compiled by J R Harris_ STGC_Chem

Worksheet

95

OBJ. 3.24 DISCUSS THE MOTION OF GEOSTATIONARY

SATELLITES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

28/02/2015

When an object is present in a gravitational field, it posses

gravitational potential energy.

When a object moves from one point to another in a vertical distance,

it gains gravitational potential energy

Work is done against the force of gravity which is equal to the

gravitational potential energy

∆Ep = mg∆h

constant for a mass moving vertically upwards however as the object

moves further away from the earth surface, g is no longer constant

96

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