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TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning

2011-11-24 LTE Experts Day – Day 2


Evan Lu

For internal use only


1 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Contents
• Background Information & Executive Summary
• TeliaSonera Denmark LTE
• Challenges on LTE1800 Optimisation
• Multi-Radio BTS Planning Aspect & Configurations
• Frequency Refarming with MRBTS
• MRBTS Site Configuration used in TSDK
• Experienced issues with MRBTS
• LTE Optimisation Phase 1 – Golden Cluster Assessment
• LTE 1800 Network Assessment Overview
• Field Measurement Statistics Summary
• Phase 1 Findings and Actions
• LTE Optimisation Phase 2 – Pre-launch Optimisation
• Learning from Pre-launch Optimisation
• IRAT Mobility Parameter Tuning

For internal use only


2 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
TSDK Commercial Information

• Telia’s LTE1800 network was


launched on October 10th.
• Online price: DKK 299 per month
(40 €). Normal price DKK 399 per
month. Data cap of 30GB per
month.
• The competitor TDC launched their
LTE network on the same day as
Telia. Price per month: DKK399,
data cap 25GB.

For internal use only


3 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Field Test: Speedtest.net

For internal use only


4 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Background on LTE in TeliaSonera Denmark

• Telia Denmark launched their LTE network on 2600MHz (20MHz)


with 80 sites in December 2010, most of them are in Copenhagen
& Aarhus.
• NSN is currently doing a swap/modernisation of Telia Denmark’s
GSM network. All existing GSM1800/900 sites are going to be
swapped from Ericsson to Flexi Multi-Radio BTS with10MHz on
LTE1800.
• 100+ cities are covered with Telia’s LTE network, which is
equivalent to more than 50% of Danish population. It is expected to
cover 75% of Danish population by end of this year.
• Number of LTE1800 sites on air
– 2011-11-22: 1050.
– By the end of the swap project: 1600

For internal use only


5 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
TDSK LTE1800 Network Technical Details

• Frequency: 1800MHz
• 10MHz bandwidth
• 2x2 MIMO
• Software: RL20 EP3.2 (GSM: EX4.A_build_061; S14 EP9.1)
• Hardware: Flexi Multi-Radio (FSME + ESMB/C + FXEA)
• Shared antenna with GSM1800
• RET on most sites
• Transmission: 150Mbps per site
• Ericsson EPC
• UE: ZTE MF820/MF820D. Qualcomm chipset, category 3.

For internal use only


6 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Challenges on Telia LTE1800 Optimisation

• RF sharing with GSM1800 means same tilts and azimuth are used
on antenna system.
• GSM1800 network is deployed mainly for voice users while
LTE1800 is targeting on a different segment, the data users. Hence
different user behaviours would be expected. For example, low
mobility users are assumed in early commercial launch phase with
only data dongle usage for packet services.
• There is no pre-launch tuning to review LTE1800 physical radio
network design.
• GSM1800 has GSM900 as safe net for coverage extension in deep
indoor or coverage border. Apart from I-RAT mobility, there is no
safe net for coverage issue on LTE1800 compares to GSM1800.
• Service impacting on 2G if restart on LTE is required.

For internal use only


7 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Recommended Optimisation Steps

1. Physical RF network tuning is needed to get full benefit of further


advanced parameter and feature optimisation; it is also the basis
of end-user experience satisfaction and network performance.
2. Review and fine tuning on the layering strategy to have a
seamless integration of the new technology into existing multi-
layers network.
• 3 technologies, 4 bands, multiple layers. (GSM900/1800, UMTS900/2100,
LTE1800/2600)
• Coverage holes in early rollout phase.
• Unknown traffic pattern / usage & user behaviour (e.g. introduction of HSDPA,
smartphones & Apps)

3. Optimisation based on the performance and areas when


moderate growth on the traffic to certain level in the network.
4. Further optimisation on capacity management to achieve high
utilisation of the resources & capacities.
For internal use only
8 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Contents
• Background Information & Executive Summary
• TeliaSonera Denmark LTE
• Challenges on Telia LTE1800 Optimisation
• Multi-Radio BTS Planning Aspect & Configurations
• Frequency Refarming with MRBTS
• MRBTS Site Configuration used in TSDK
• Experienced issues with MRBTS
• LTE Optimisation Phase 1 – Golden Cluster Assessment
• LTE 1800 Network Assessment Overview
• Field Measurement Statistics Summary
• Phase 1 Findings and Actions
• LTE Optimisation Phase 2 – Pre-launch Optimisation
• Learning from Pre-launch Optimisation
• IRAT Mobility Parameter Tuning

For internal use only


9 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Site Configuration in TSDK Modernisation Project

• Approx 2300 GSM sites to be swapped to NSN Flexi MRBTS.


• 1600 LTE1800 sites to be deployed with RF sharing solution.

Type Configuration Mode


0 900 GSM Dedicated
1 900 GSM + 900 WCDMA Ant Div Share
1.5 1800 GSM Dedicated
2 1800 GSM + 1800 LTE RF Share
3 900 & 1800 GSM + 900 WCDMA & 1800 LTE RF & Ant Div Share
4 900 & 1800 GSM + 1800 LTE RF Share
5 900 & 1800 GSM + 900 WCDMA Ant Div Share

For internal use only


10 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Some facts about Flexi MRBTS RF Module

• Max bandwidth: • Min-Max 99 GSM channels


• Tx 20MHz
• Rx 30MHz (FXEA) / 20MHz (FXDA)

f5 max = f1+98

f3
f1 f2 f4 f5 f4 f5
10MHZ f1 f2 f3 f6
5Mhz 5Mhz

400kHz

• FXEA: (1800 band) • FXDA: (900 band)


• LTE x 1@10MHz + GSM x 4 • WCDMA x 1 + GSM x 5
• WCDMA x 2 + GSM x 4

For internal use only


11 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
LTE1800 Frequency Refarming
Total available channels/frequency = 120 CH / 24 MHz. The max filter bandwidth is 20 MHz.
Rule of Thumb: max(BCCH, TCH) – min(BCCH, TCH) < 100 Channels

768 788 DL EARFCN: 1832 865 885

Required filter bandwidth: 788 – 885 = 98 Channels  OK

Required filter bandwidth: 781 – 865 = 85 Channels  OK

Required filter bandwidth: 769 – 865 = 97 Channels  OK


Bandwidth between Coordinated case Uncoordinated case
LTE 10 MHz, 49 Channels GSM carrier center
frequencies Uplink Downlink Uplink Downlink
BCCH, 14 + 13 = 27 Channels
20 MHz LTE (100RBs) 18.2 MHz 18.6 MHz 18.6 MHz 20.2 MHz
TCH, Freq Hopping Group 1, 13 Channels
15 MHz LTE (75 RBs) 13.6 MHz 14.0 MHz 14.0 MHz 15.2 MHz
TCH, Freq Hopping Group 2, 6 + 7 = 13 Channels
10 MHz LTE (50 RBs) 9.2 MHz 9.6 MHz 9.6 MHz 10.2 MHz
TCH, Freq Hopping Group 3, 13 Channels
5 MHz LTE (25 RBs) 4.6 MHz 5.2 MHz 5.0 MHz 5.2 MHz
Guard band / NANO Cell frequency, 3 Channels
3 MHz LTE (15 RBs) 2.8 MHz 3.2 MHz 3.2 MHz 3.2 MHz
For internal use only
12 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning1.4 MHzLuLTE
/ Evan (6 RBs)
/ 2011-11-02 1.2 MHz 1.6 MHz 1.6 MHz 1.6 MHz
GSM 1800 + LTE 1800 (10MHz 20W MIMO)
TRX Configuration:
1800 1800
1 2+2+3
2 2+2+4
3 2+3+2
4 2+3+3
6 2+3+4
12 2+4+2
1+1 2+4+3
1+2 2+4+4
2+1 3+2+1
2+2 3+2+2
2+3 3+2+3 FXEA x 2
2+4 3+2+4
3+2 3+3+2
3+3 3+3+3
4+2 3+3+4
4+4 3+4+2
1+1+1 3+4+3 FSME x 1
1+1+2 3+4+4 With FTLB
1+2+1 4+2+2
1+2+2 4+2+3
1+3+2 4+3+2
2+1+1 4+3+3 ESMX x 1
2+1+2 4+3+4 With FIQA
3+2+1 4+4+3
2+2+2 4+4+4

For internal use only


13 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Dualband GSM + WCDMA & LTE
TRX Configuration:
1800 900 1800 900 1800 900
1+1+1 1+1+1 2+2+2 3+1+1 3+2+2 1+2+1
FSME x 1
1+1+2 1+1+1 2+2+2 3+2+2 3+2+2 2+1+1 With FTIB
1+2+1 1+1+1 2+2+3 1+1+2 3+2+2 2+1+2
1+2+1 1+2+1 2+2+3 1+2+1 3+2+2 2+2+1
1+2+2 1+1+1 2+2+3 1+2+2 3+2+2 2+2+2
1+2+2 1+2+1 2+2 1 3+2+2 3+2+2 FXDA x 2
1+2+2 1+2+2 2+2 1+1+2 3+2+3 1+1+1
2+1+1 1+1+1 2+2 2+2 3+2+3 2+1+1
2+1+1 2+1+1 2+3+2 1+1+1 3+2+3 2+2+1
2+1+2 1+1+1 2+3+2 1+2+1 3+2+3 2+2+2
2+1+2 2+1+1 2+3+2 1+2+2 3+2+3 3+2+2
2+1+2 2+1+2 2+3+2 1+3+3 3+2+4 1+1+1
2+2+1 1+1+1 2+3+2 2+2+1 3+3+2 1+1+2 FXEA x 2
2+2+1 1+2+1 2+3+2 2+2+2 3+3+3 1+1+1
2+2+1 2+2+1 2+3+3 1+1+1 3+3+3 1+1+2
2+2+2 1 2+3+3 1+1+2 3+3+3 1+2+1
2+2+2 1+1+1 2+3+3 1+2+1 3+3+3 2+1+2
2+2+2 1+1+2 2+3+3 1+2+2 3+3+3 2+2+2
2+2+2 1+2+1 2+3+3 2+1+1 3+4+3 2+1+1
2+2+2 1+2+2 2+3+3 2+2+2 4+2+2 1+2+1 FSME x 1
2+2+2 2+1+1 2 1+1+1 4+2+2 2+2+1 With FTLB
2+2+2 2+1+2 2 1+2 4+3+2 2+2+2
2+2+2 2+2+1 2 2+1+1 4+3+4 2+1+2
2+2+2 2+2+2 3+2+2 1+1+1 4+3+4 2+2+2 ESMX x 1
With FIQA

For internal use only


14 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Dualband GSM + 1800 LTE
TRX Configuration:
1800 900
2+2+2 1
2+2+2 1+1+1
2+2+2 1+2+2
2+2+2 2+1+2 FXDA x 1
2+2+2 2+2+2
2+2+3 2+2+3
2+3+2 1+1+1
2+3 1
2 1+1 FXEA x 2
3+2+3 1+1+1
3+3+3 2+2+2
3+3+4 2+2+2
3+3 1
3 2 FSME x 1
With FTLB

ESMX x 1
With FIQA

For internal use only


15 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Per TRX Power Settings

• Per TRX Power selection • In case of LTE MIMO:


– 10W (1..6 TRX) • LTE takes 20W from
– 12W (1..5 TRX) FXxx1.1_Ant1 and
– 15W (1..4 TRX) FXxx2.1_Ant1
– 20W (1..3 TRX) • For 2G local cell there is total
– 30W (1..2 TRX) of 80W power budget left
– 40W (1 TRX) (40W + 40W)
– 60W (1 TRX) • If 2G cell is 2 TRX we can
• Number of TRX is misleading select ”40W (1 TRX)” instead
• In case of multiple antenna of ”30W (1…2 TRX)”
pipes per local sector • This setting allocates TRX 1
calculate power budget for to radio 1 and TRX 2 to radio
right selection 2

For internal use only


16 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Per TRX Power Settings in 2 TRX Local Sector

60W Powerbudget
• 30W (1..2 TRX)
– 1st TRX mapped to FXxx1.1 20W LTE 30W TRX 2

– 2nd TRX mapped to FXxx2.1


– 10 W per antenna pipe left 20W LTE 30W TRX 1

• 40W (1 TRX)
60W Powerbudget
– 1st TRX mapped to FXxx1.1
– 2nd TRX mapped to FXxx2.1 20W LTE 40W TRX 2

– Full powerbudget used


20W LTE 40W TRX 1

For internal use only


17 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
LTE Cell with 20W MIMO + GSM Cell with 2 TRX
• Per TRX Power selection • Result:
– 30W (1..2 TRX) – 20W+20W for LTE MiMo
– 2 TRX 30W for GSM
– 10W+10W not used

X
• Per TRX Power selection • Result:
– 40W (1 TRX) – 20W+20W for LTE MiMo
– 2 TRX 40W for GSM
– 0W not used

V
For internal use only
18 © Nokia Siemens Networks
TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
LTE Cell with 20W MIMO + GSM Cell with 4 TRX
• Per TRX Power selection • Result:
– 15W (1..4 TRX) – 20W+20W for LTE MiMo
– 4 TRX 15W for GSM
– 10W+10W not used

X
• Per TRX Power selection • Result:
– 20W (1..3 TRX) – 20W+20W for LTE MiMo
– 4 TRX 20W for GSM
– 0W not used

V
For internal use only
20 © Nokia Siemens Networks
TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Hanging Site for CM Operations

• Definition of ”hanging” site: Site stops answering to


management commands, meaning plan provisioning failed
during CM operation. The site needs a recommissioning and
restart in order to perform normally again.
• Restart of LTE1800 sites was difficult because of multiradio
 restarting LTE1800 will also restart GSM1800.
• Most of the problems related to ”hanging” sites was fixed in
RL20 PCD3.4.

For internal use only


21 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Contents
• Background Information & Executive Summary
• TeliaSonera Denmark LTE
• Challenges on LTE1800 Optimisation
• Multi-Radio BTS Planning Aspect & Configurations
• Frequency Refarming with MRBTS
• MRBTS Site Configuration used in TSDK
• Experienced issues with MRBTS
• LTE Optimisation Phase 1 – Golden Cluster Assessment
• LTE 1800 Network Assessment Overview
• Field Measurement Statistics Summary
• Phase 1 Findings and Actions
• LTE Optimisation Phase 2 – Pre-launch Optimisation
• Learning from Pre-launch Optimisation
• IRAT Mobility Parameter Tuning

For internal use only


22 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
LTE 1800 Network Assessment: Scope

• One cluster in Copenhagen area was selected, consists of 14


LTE1800 sites, with total of 30 LTE1800 sites by including
neighbouring sites from surrounding clusters.
• Analysis is based on the field measurement and network design
planning data to:
1. Review of basic RF environment – to determine the coverage footprint from
each cell & tuning recommendation to improve the signal quality by reducing
the interference through antenna retune.
2. Intra-freq handover performance analysis – DT log analysis to identify and
create missing neighbours, down-tilt the overshooting cells to avoid handover
to 2nd/3rd tiers sites, which caused handover failures and call drops.
3. Parameter consistency check – network planning data review to ensure the
planning rules are followed and be implemented correctly.
4. Mobility parameter tuning – un-optimised mobility and handover setting
degrades user throughput and received quality. Suggestions on parameter
tunings to improve the end-user experience.

For internal use only


23 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
LTE 1800 Network Assessment: Challenges

• Continuous changing on radio environment due to 2G swap and


LTE rollout are still on-going.
• RF sharing with GSM limits the tuning options.
• Results from network statistics are not yet reliable due to
insufficient traffic; drive test will be the only input for analysis.
• Optimisation can only base on field measurement with defined
routes and can not cover all the scenarios, e.g. indoor.
• UE capabilities and performance issues: current available ZTE
multi-band data dongle does not support band-locking and Inter-
frequency handover.
• Telia FTP Server performance: fluctuated and low throughput
compare to external server under same radio condition.

For internal use only


24 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
LTE 1800 Network Assessment: Results

• The finding from the assessment campaign (on-site tuning):


1. 4 sites were found with cross feeders
2. 2 sites were found with wrong tilts
3. 1 site were found with damaged feeder line (VSWR alarm detected)
4. 5 cells are proposed to have antenna tuning on azimuth & tilts

• The finding from the assessment campaign (parameters):


1. Parameter consistency check and update to align the setting with Gothenburg
configuration.
2. PCI planning was not optimal, the PCI reuse is too close in some sites which
can be avoided.
3. 4 pairs of neighbour relations were not planned as neighbours, causing poor
handover performance.
4. Tuning suggestion on the mobility related parameter tuning to improve quality
during the handover and reduce the possibility of call drop.

For internal use only


25 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Problem Areas Analysis – RSRP Coverage Plot

PA1
PA11
PA2
PA8

PA3
PA7
PA4
PA5

PA9

PA10
PA6

PA solved

For internal use only


26 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Problem Area Tuning Summary
• 11 problem areas were identified.
• 7 problem areas were resolved by tuning and troubleshooting actions.
• The proposal on remaining 5 problem areas require physical antenna
retune, currently under Telia’s evaluation.

For internal use only


27 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Field Measurement Statistic Summary (Cluster 07)
• Known issue with low throughput on Telia FTP server where
troubleshooting is carrying out by Telia.
• 10 dB improvement in coverage with 12.7% improvement in
throughput.
Mobility Test Stationary Test Ping Mobility Test Stationary Test Ping
WK 27 WK 31
FTP DL FTP UL FTP DL FTP UL Test FTP DL FTP UL DL UL Test
Call Attempts 12 82 21 154 Call Attempts 5 48 11 22
Call Setup Fail 0 3 0 1 Call Setup Fail 0 0 0 0
Call Setup SR 100.00% 96.34% 100.00% 99.35% Call Setup SR 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%
Drop Call 0 0 0 0 Drop Call 0 1 0 1
Call Drop Ratio 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% Call Drop Ratio 0 2.08% 0 4.55%
HO Attempt 108 97 N/A N/A HO Attempt 54 73 N/A N/A
HO SR 100.00% 100.00% N/A N/A HO SR 100 100 N/A N/A
Avg. DL RSRP -89.47 -91.27 -69.19 -69.09 Avg. DL RSRP -79.95 -80.76 -62.68 -62.8
Avg. DL SNR 15.61 14.39 26.76 29.13 Avg. DL SNR 16.1 17.07 26.2 27.33
Avg. DL RSRQ -10.46 -7.86 -8.30 -6.58 Avg. DL RSRQ -10.17 -7.17 -8.24 -6.38
Avg. DL CQI 10.58 10.44 13.13 13.65 Avg. DL CQI 10.68 11.49 13.93 14
Modulation - 64QAM 54.75% N/A 99.45% N/A Modulation - 64QAM 52.31% N/A 98.94% N/A
Modulation - 16QAM 36.78% 42.81% 0.20% 99.99% Modulation - 16QAM 43.96% 33.27% 0.32% 99.81%
Modulation - QPSK 8.47% 57.19% 0.34% 0.01% Modulation - QPSK 3.73% 66.73% 0.73% 0.19%
Avg. App. Tput (Mbps) 23.82 6.22 28.16 8.13 Avg. App. Tput (Mbps) 26.85 7.12 36.1 10.49
Appl Tput Sample Counts 13 114 19 154 Appl Tput Sample Counts 4 48 10 22
Ping RTT (ms) 15.45 Ping RTT (ms) 16.23
Ping Sample Counts 2589 Ping Sample Counts 2509

For internal use only


28 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
FTP Throughput Performance
Single FTP DL session
• Maximum of 60Mbps in DL and 16Mbps in UL is observed.

For internal use only


29 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
FTP Throughput Performance
2 simultaneous FTP DL session
• Average Application Throughput 47.6 Mbps
• Peak Application Throughput 70 Mbps

For internal use only


30 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Ping Round Trip Time

• Ping test to the ftp server: ftptest.oranagenet.dk


• The average RTT is 15.45 ms with 32 bytes.
• 90% of samples are below 20 ms.
• 98% of samples are below 23 ms.
• Most of samples are in a range between 14 to 15 ms.

For internal use only


31 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
LTE2600 – Samsung vs. ZTE (FTP DL in cluster 06)
RSRP SINR PDSCH DL Throughput
CPH_06 [dBm] [dB] CQI RI = 2 BLER [%] MCS [Mbps]
Samsung -85.37 13.12 7.68 67.9% 7.21 9.94 20.40
ZTE -85.59 13.24 9.60 73.5% 9.03 15.54 28.03
• A comparison between Samsung and ZTE dongles were performed in
Cluster CPH_06 on LTE2600.
• The purpose is to understand the difference on UE performance with
same network configuration.
• While similar average RSRP and SINR are shown, difference on CQI is
noticed, hence difference on MCS & DL throughput are observed.
• ZTE shows big fluctuation in SINR although the average is comparable to
Samsung.
• Fine tuning on the handover parameter can avoid radio link lost during
handover due to dramatic drop of SINR (signal quality).
• Terminals are having quite huge influence on the performance, in case a
KPI target commitment is required, always take your measurement tool
into consideration.
For internal use only
32 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
RRC Connection Drop – Out of coverage

On LTE2600

On LTE1800

UE was on LTE2600 and went to LTE1800


after a drop call when the radio condition was
extremely poor on LTE2600.
For internal use only
33 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Inter-frequency HO support – ZTE Dongle

With latest FW BD_ZTE_MF820V1.0.0B10


from ZTE, the UE capability info still indicates
the UE does not support IFHO

ZTE confirmed IFHO


is not supported

For internal use only


34 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
RRC connection release with redirect
Connected Mode
• Since ZTE dongle is not supporting Inter-frequency HO, the feature
RRC connection release with redirect need to be configured to
support the moving between LTE2600 and LTE1800.
• Currently, feature not in use, call drops when LTE1800 layer
becomes poor. Activation of the feature is required to avoid drops.
• The UE will lose the connection when moving out of coverage area.
• The usage of the feature ensure:
• The call will not be dragged till drop
• The smooth switch between layers with minimum degradation on end user
experience, for example, the throughput.
• Better inter-working between layers
• Once IFHO capable UE is available to Telia, IFHO feature would be
the preferred solution for layer inter-working.

For internal use only


35 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Contents
• Background Information & Executive Summary
• TeliaSonera Denmark LTE
• Challenges on LTE1800 Optimisation
• Multi-Radio BTS Planning Aspect & Configurations
• Frequency Refarming with MRBTS
• MRBTS Site Configuration used in TSDK
• Experienced issues with MRBTS
• LTE Optimisation Phase 1 – Golden Cluster Assessment
• LTE 1800 Network Assessment Overview
• Field Measurement Statistics Summary
• Phase 1 Findings and Actions
• LTE Optimisation Phase 2 – Pre-launch Optimisation
• Learning from Pre-launch Optimisation
• IRAT Mobility Parameter Tuning

For internal use only


36 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
LTE Pre-launch Optimisation Ph2: Scope

• The aim of phase 2 of the LTE optimisation project was to get LTE1800
network ready for launch and monitor the performance right after launch.
• The scope was IRAT mobility parameter optimization for LTE1800, in
particular the interworking between LTE1800 and LTE2600, as well as
interworking between LTE and other technologies (GSM and WCDMA)
– Idle mode and connected mode mobility optimization (cell reselection,
redirection and handover).
• After the project started it was obvious that Telia also needed support in
other areas, such as general consistency checks, implementation of
managed objects and parameter changes, general performance
evaluation and troubleshooting (such as throughput performance).
• Telia wanted to plan and drive the project themselves. The NSN service
consisted of on-site support from one expert for 15 MWD initially, later
extended with 6 MWD.

For internal use only


37 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Missing neighbours

• Analysis of drive test from the first week showed that there
were many missing intra-frequency LTE neighbours.
(ADIPNO object).

For internal use only


38 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Missing neighbours DT analysis from the first week drive
showed that there were many missing
Map plot from drive test - Serving cell PCI intra-frequency LTE neighbours.
(ADIPNO object).

We see from the map that the handovers are not working
as expected. Most of the area is actually served by PCI
186 since it can’t handover to the neighbouring sites due
For internal use only
39 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTEto missing
Optimisation neighbour
Learning relations.
/ Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Missing neighbours
Signalling example from Nemo

UE is sending several
measurement reports for PCI
46, but handover to this cell is
never performed because this
site is not defined as a
neighbour.

UE is starting to
measure on PCI
321, which is defined
as neighbour. HO is
performed right after
this measurement
report

For internal use only


40 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Missing neighbours
Map plot from drive test - Serving cell PCI
Drive test w34 Drive test w35

We can clearly see an improvement in handover by plotting the serving cell PCI. The drive test from
week 34 is showing that the UE is hanging on each cell too long. In the drive test from week 35 we see
the result of the implementation of the missing neighbours  UE is handing over more quickly
For internal use only
41 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Inter-frequency handover

• Inter-frequency handover (handover between LTE1800 and LTE2600)


was supposed to be implemented and tested before commercial launch.
• The feature was enabled on a couple of sites, LNHOIF object and all
relevant parameters were defined, inter-frequency neighbours were
implemented and drive test was performed.
• During the drive test, it seemed like the inter-frequency HO was not
working, but according to the post processing tool (Nemo Analyze), there
were several successful IFHO in the logfiles.
• Two problems
1. There was a bug in Nemo when reporting the successful IFHO. Looking at
the signalling it was evident that the HO had not taken place. Will be fixed in
next Nemo Analyze release.
2. It turned out that IFHO was not supported on the current Qualcomm chipset
SW version (QCT 2.4), will only be possible in later SW version. Next slide
shows the list of new features for QCT 3.0 and 3.3.

For internal use only


42 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Qualcomm QCT3.0 New Features

LTE-to-GERAN reselection
Support for Idle mode cell reselection from LTE-to-GERAN based on SIB7 GERAN neighbor information. UE measures the GERAN neighbors as per the priority in the
SIB and once the reselection criteria is met, transitions to GERAN IDLE mode and performs the necessary NAS procedures on GERAN.

GERAN-to-LTE reselection
Support for Idle mode cell reselection from GERAN-to-LTE based on SI2q LTE neighbor information. UE measures the LTE neighbors as per the priority in the SIs and
once the reselection criteria is met, transitions to LTE IDLE mode and performs the necessary NAS procedures on LTE.

LTE-to-GERAN blind redirection with IP continuity


Support for blind redirection from LTE-to-GERAN via LTE RRC Connection Release message. IP continuity is maintained after UE transitions to GERAN.

GERAN-to-LTE blind redirection with IP continuity


Support for blind redirection from GERAN-to-LTE via GERAN RR Connection Release message. IP continuity is maintained after UE transitions to LTE.
LTE-to-WCDMA Circuit Switch Fall Back (CSFB) (based on blind redirection to WCDMA)
Support for CSFB from LTE-to-WCDMA via LTE RRC Connection Release message. Support for MO/MT CSFB calls in LTE_IDLE and LTE_CONNECTED states. Support to
process the WCDMA SIB container information, if provided in the LTE RRC Connection Release message.

LTE-to-GERAN CSFB (based on blind redirection to GERAN)


Support for CSFB from LTE-to-GERAN via LTE RRC Connection Release message. Support for MO/MT CSFB calls in LTE_IDLE and LTE_CONNECTED states.
BPLMN
Support for manual PLMN scan and higher priority PLMN scan. Manual PLMN scan presents a list of available PLMNs to the user and HPLMN scan enables UE to move
to a higher priority PLMN (as provisioned in the USIM), when in service on a Visitor PLMN (VPLMN). Both these scans will be performed in the background when UE is in
service.
Inter-frequency Connected mode measurements
Support for Connected mode inter-frequency measurement. UE advertises support for this feature by setting the Feature Group Indicator (FGI) bit to 1 in the UE
capability message. With this support, UE can process RRC Connection Reconfiguration message with inter-frequency measurement configuration and send inter-
frequency reports accordingly.
Inter-frequency handover
Support for inter-frequency handover. UE advertises support for this feature by setting Feature Group Indicator (FGI) bit 13 to 1 in UE capability message. With this
support, UE can process an RRC Connection Reconfiguration message with inter-frequency mobility and perform a handover accordingly. To disable support for this
feature, FGI bit 13 can be set to 0 using FGI EFS. Refer to section
Inter-frequency SON/ANR
Support for inter-frequency SON\ANR. UE advertizes support for this feature by setting Feature Group Indicator (FGI) bit 18 is set to 1 in UE capability message. With
this support, UE can perform periodical measurement reporting for SON/ANR and ANR related inter-freq measurement reporting.

For internal use only


43 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Qualcomm QCT3.3 New Features

WCDMA → LTE redirections with measurements


UE redirection from UMTS Connected Mode to LTE based on LTE measurements during WCDMA compressed mode gaps.
This includes support for the Inter-RAT event reports for LTE cells (Event 3A). Limitation – No support for 10 slots gap pattern

LTE → WCDMA PS Handover


UE does a PS handover under network direction from LTE to UMTS. UE gets a MobilityFromEUTRA command in LTE
connected mode and moves to traffic mode on WCDMA as directed in the MobilityFromEUTRA command message. FGI bit 8
will be set to indicate the support to the network.

Idle Signaling Reduction (ISR)


Feature to reduce UE signaling in idle mode when UE moves between RATs (L/W/G) which improves power consumption and
reduces network traffic and latency for data continuity.

LTE → WDMA CSFB with PS Handover


Feature to provide voice fallback to WCDMA using PS Handover. When UE initiates CSFB call, network can trigger
MobilityFromEUTRA command to transition UE to WCDMA. UE completes the L→W PS handover procedure and the CSFB call
in completed on WCDMA.

LTE → GERAN redirection with SI tunneling


Feature support for tunneling GSM SI during LTE-to-GSM redirection if the LTE network provides the GSM SIs in containers in
the redirection IE in the connection release message. This features helps in reducing the redirection procedure time.

LTE → WCDMA redirections with measurements


UE redirection from LTE connected mode to UMTS based on UMTS measurements during LTE connected mode gaps. This
includes support for the B1/B2 event reports. FGI bits 15 and 22 will be set to indicate the support to the network.
WCDMA/Data features
WCDMA– QICE + MIMO (Multi-Cell)
WCDMA– Rel-8: MIMO + 64QAM (42Mbps)
WCDMA– Rel-7: MIMO + 16QAM (28.8Mbps)
WCDMA– Rel-8 CPC DTX + MIMO
WCDMA– Rel-7: SC DRX
WCDMA– ETWS
Data EAP – SIM
Dual APN TMO requirements

For internal use only


44 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
LTE idle mode mobility parameters

For internal use only


45 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
LTE 2600, absolute priority 7 qrxLevMin = -130 dBm
idle mode reselection
sIntraSearch = 62

sNonIntrSearch = 16

RSRP

-68 -114 -130 -140

When RSRP < -68: start to When RSRP < -114: start to
measure intra-freq neighbours. measure on LTE1800 and WCDMA

Reselection to another 2600 cell Reselection to LTE1800 cell will If no suitable LTE1800 cell is found,
will happen when the neighbour is happen when serving cell is then try WCDMA. Reselection to
3dB better. below -120dBm and the WCDMA will happen when serving
LTE1800 neighbour’s RSRP is cell is below -120 and neighbouring
LNCEL:Qhyst = 3dB better than -109 dBm. WCDMA cell RSCP > -101
IAFIM: qOffestCell = 0dB
LNCEL:threshSrvLow = 10 LNCEL:threshSrvLow = 10
Reselection will happen if UE IRFIM:interFrqThrL = 21 UFFIM:utraFrqThrL = 10 (relative to
camps longer than 1 sec in the UFFIM:qRxLevMinUtra = -111)
serving cell AND condition has to Reselection will happen if UE
be met for a time camps longer than 1 sec in the Reselection will happen if UE
LNCEL:tReselEutr = 1s serving cell AND condition has to camps longer than 1 sec in the
be met for a time serving cell AND condition has to
IRFIM:interTResEutr = 1s be met for a time UFFIM:tResUtra
= 1s
For internal use only
46 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
LTE 1800, absolute priority 6 qrxLevMin = -130 dBm
idle mode reselection
sIntraSearch = 62

sNonIntrSearch = 16

RSRP

-68 -114 -130 -140

When RSRP < -68: start to UE will ”always” (=periodically) When RSRP < -114: start to
measure intra-freq neighbours. measure on 2600 cells because measure on WCDMA
2600 has higher priority

Reselection to another 1800 cell Reselection to WCDMA will happen


will happen when the neighbour is when serving cell is below -120 and
Reselection to 2600 cell will
3dB better. neighbouring WCDMA cell RSCP >
happen when 2600 cell is better
-101
than -109.
LNCEL:Qhyst = 3dB
IAFIM: qOffestCell = 0dB LNCEL:threshSrvLow = 10
IRFIM:interFrqThrH = 21
UFFIM:utraFrqThrL = 10 (relative to
Reselection will happen if UE UFFIM:qRxLevMinUtra = -111)
Reselection will happen if UE
camps longer than 1 sec in the
camps longer than 1 sec in the
serving cell AND condition has to Reselection will happen if UE
serving cell AND condition has to
be met for a time camps longer than 1 sec in the
be met for a time
LNCEL:tReselEutr = 1s serving cell AND condition has to
IRFIM:interTResEutr = 1s
be met for a time UFFIM:tResUtra
= 1s

For internal use only


47 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Intra frequency cell reselection

• The UE will rank the measured cells according to the


following rule:
– Rankserving cell = Measured RSRPserving cell + LNCEL:Qhyst
– Rankneighbour cell = Measured RSRPneighbour cell – IAFIM:qOffsetCell

For internal use only


48 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
When RSRP < -68: start to
Intra frequency cell reselection measure intra-freq neighbours.

examples

• Default: LNCEL: qHyst = 1dB and IAFIM: qOffsetCell = 2 dB.


• Issue:
– qOffsetCell is in the IAFIM object, where IAFIM is optional. Is 1dB
enough to avoid ping-pong if IAFIM is not defined?
– qOffsetCell is better to be used for specific case, for example, indoor
cells, instead of generic offset to avoid ping-pong. Otherwise, this will
make the DB maintenance & consistency more difficult, because:
 All possible neighbours need to be defined in IAFIM, otherwise any ”missing”
neighbours” will be better-off by x dB (set by qOffsetCell) compare to a
measured PCI which is defined in IAFIM.
 IAFIM neighbour review is needed whenever a new sites is deployed.
 When make a new PCI plan, you have to change the PCIs in all the IAFIM
objects also.
• Solution:
– Instead of having the default, change qHyst to 3 dB and qOffsetCell to 0
(or don’t define the IAFIM at all. See next slide for details)
For internal use only
49 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Intra frequency cell reselection
examples

• The IAFIM is optional, meaning that if you want to set


qOffsetCell to 0 and you don’t want to blacklist any cells, you
should not define the IAFIM.
• However, there is one reason to have IAFIM. For certain
Huawei UEs, it has been seen that they crash if they don’t
receive the SIB4 (where the IAFIM parameters are carried).
Therefore it is recommended to have the SIB4 and just define
a ”dummy” PCI in the IAFIM and set the qOffsetCell to 0.

For internal use only


50 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Intra frequency cell reselection
examples

• In the Telia Denmark network, LNCEL:qHyst was set to 1 dB, and


IAFIM:qOffsetCell was set to 2dB, but it was only defined for intra-site
neighbours.
• This means that when reselecting to intra-site neighbours, the total margin
is 3 dB (2+1). However, since there was no IAFIM defined for the other
neighbouring cells, there would be only 1 dB of hysteresis, which is too
little, results too many reselections between sites & cells.

List only contains offset for two neighbours

For internal use only


51 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Intra frequency cell reselection
Idle mode PCI plot

Before parameter change, cell After parameter change, less


reselections happening too often ping pong between cells

For internal use only


52 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Idle mode mobility
Intra LTE inter-frequency cell reselection

• Telia have 20MHz BW on LTE2600 and 10MHz BW on LTE1800. For this


reason, they want the UE to camp on LTE2600 whenever it is available
since the peak throughputs will be higher on LTE2600 compared to
LTE1800.
• The idle mode parameters were set such that LTE2600 has higher priority
than LTE1800.
– For LTE2600 cells
 Priority of serving layer defined in LNCEL:cellReSelPrio. Set to 7 (7 is highest priority,
0 is lowest.)
 Priority of neighbouring layer frequency 1832 (LTE1800) IRFIM:eutCelResPrio. Set to
6.
– For LTE1800 cells, opposite. (priority of serving layer set to 6, priority of
LTE2600 layer set to 7).
• When on LTE1800, the UE should ”constantly” (periodically) do
measurements on LTE2600 and reselect to this layer if the coverage is
sufficient (Srxlevneighbour > IRFIM:interFrqThrH for a period longer than
IRFIM:interTResEut ).

For internal use only


53 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Idle mode mobility
Intra LTE inter-frequency cell reselection

Red/brown: UE is
camping on LTE2600
Blue: UE is camping on
LTE1800

Pink sites: LTE2600


Green sites: LTE1800

The inter-frequency cell


reselection is working,
but it seems like the UE
is not always preferring
LTE2600 although the
LTE2600 coverage is
good.

For internal use only


54 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Idle mode mobility
Intra LTE inter-frequency cell reselection

• It turned out that although the priorities and parameters for inter-frequency
cell reselection were set correctly, the UE sometimes has ”a mind of its
own” and does not want to camp on LTE2600 although the coverage is
excellent.
• ZTE was asked to give an explanation of why the UE does not follow the
network priorities and to explain the algorithm for LTE layer selection, and
this was their (slightly confusing) answer:
– The truth is the UE will scan the band 1(1800MHZ) first when it power on, if the attach procedure fails
by some reason, then UE will try to attach to the band 3(2600MHZ). If the UE can attach to band 1
successful, and then when they power on at the next time, UE will try to attach to the band which
attached successfully at the previous time, that means if the UE have the scanning records with
1800MHZ and attached successful at previous time, and then you put in it under the band mixed
environment now, they will try to attach to 1800MHZ first, if they is no reject from NW, UE will never
trying to attach to 2600. Because they work fine on the 1800MHZ, otherwise there are some thing goes
wrong with 1800MHZ NW, then UE will skip the attach request to 1800MHZ, and trying to attach to
2600MHZ NW.

For internal use only


55 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
DL throughput degradation troubleshooting
Overview

• Drive tests from two different weeks were showing


considerably degradation in both peak and average DL
throughput values.
• Drive test PC was the same, UE was the same, FTP server
was the same for the two drive tests.
• No significant parameters were changed in this time period.
• Static test was performed in good radio conditions to see the
radio performance.

For internal use only


56 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
DL Throughput degradation troubleshooting
comparison of throughput distribution week 38 and 39

Avg. = 17,4 Mbps


Avg. = 23,3 Mbps
Peak = 36,8 Mbps
Peak = 54,3 Mbps

Week 38 Week 39

We can clearly see that the throughput distribution has changed from week 38 to week 39. In week
39 there seems to be something which is limiting the thoughput to around 35 Mbps.

For internal use only


57 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
DL Throughput degradation troubleshooting
RF details – static test in good radio conditions

Everything looks fine on


the radio interface.

RI is 2 93,7 % of the time


MCS is constantly 27.
64QAM 99,8% of the time

For internal use only


58 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
DL Throughput degradation troubleshooting
Conclusion

• After detailed testing it was clear that the limitation was not on
the radio interface. It was also clear that the degradation
happened in week 38.
• When looking for all changes made in the network in this
week, we found that Ericsson had implemented DPI (Deep
Packet Inspection) in the core. When testing on a test-SIM
without the DPI, we got the high throughput values again. It
turned out that the throughput degradation was due to a
wrong implementation of the DPI.

For internal use only


59 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
ADJL – AdjLMeasBw Modification

The change is discarded by CM as


the parameter is specified as Not
Modifiable in CM editor.
Workaround: using consistency
check function in CM Analyser.
For internal use only
60 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
LTE Performance Monitoring after launch
Redirect failure due to UE Network Mode setting

For internal use only


61 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Redirect failure due to UE Network Mode setting

Problem summary:
– High RRC and E-RAB Drop Ratio in live TeliaSonera LTE1800 Network
120.00

100.00

80.00

60.00

40.00

20.00

0.00
02/10/2011

03/10/2011
29/09/2011

30/09/2011

01/10/2011

04/10/2011

05/10/2011

06/10/2011

07/10/2011

08/10/2011

09/10/2011

10/10/2011

11/10/2011

12/10/2011

13/10/2011

14/10/2011

15/10/2011

16/10/2011
LTE_5237a E-RAB Release Failure Ratio, EPC init RNL (%) LTE_5090a E-RAB Release Failure Ratio, eNB init RNL (%)

For internal use only


62 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Redirect failure due to UE Network Mode setting

Parameter settings for Redirect in live TeliaSonera LTE1800 Network:


According to drive test results performed at the beginning of October, ZTE UE is performing
very unstable under lower threshold settings.

RSRP Serving Cell RSRP

reporting condition met


A2 condition met after Time To Trigger
-110dBm
threshold4=30

threshold4
LNCEL; 0..97dB; 1dB; -
Baseline is -140dBm
a2TimeToTriggerRedirect

-140 dBm time


Measurement
Report

For internal use only


63 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Redirect failure due to UE Network Mode setting

Failure scenario in TeliaSonera live LTE1800 Network:

RRC: MEASUREMENT REPORT

event A2
for redirection
RRC: RRC CONNECTION RELEASE
(Serving LTE Cell
cause: other RSRP falls below -
(no target RAT 110dBm)
Indicated!!!)

UE Context Release: due to eutran generated reason

For internal use only


64 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Redirect failure due to UE Network Mode setting

Analysis Results:
– According to eNB traces collected from most affected sites, the drops occur in case when
conditions for RRC connection release with redirect are met on UE side
– The redirect failure is due to “LTE only” Network mode setting of UE by end user. In this
mode UE does not provide any IRAT capabilities to the eNB within “UE Radio Capability”
IE so eNB decides that redirect to 3G WCDMA is not supported by UE and releases the
call after Measurement Report A2.

Solution Options:
– eNB SW RL20 EP4.0 - No A2 triggered RRC Connection Release without redirect in case
target frequency layer or IRAT for redirect is not supported by UE according to “UE Radio
Capability” IE
– Change threshold4 from -110dBm to -120? -126? -130? Risk of quality degradation to all
LTE end users in whole network.
– Inform end users to change UE Network Mode setting from 4G only to 4G preferred

For internal use only


65 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Data Radio Bearer

Commercial Launched Threshold4 Tuning

Improved

For internal use only


66 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
E-RAB Release/Drop

Commercial Launched Threshold4 Tuning

60% drop rate

15% drop rate

For internal use only


67 © Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02