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Waves and Expansion Waves

Shock Waves

The air inlet of some supersonic fighter jet is designed such that a shock

wave at the inlet decelerates the air to subsonic velocities, increasing the

pressure and temperature of the air before it enters the engine.

2

Normal Shock Wave

Normal shock in a Laval nozzle

Fluid crossing a stationary shock front

rises suddenly and irreversibly in

pressure and decreases in velocity.

(to the left) of the shock wave is about 1.3.

Boundary layers distort the shape of the normal

shock near the walls and lead to flow

separation beneath the shock.

nozzle.

3

Shock Waves

A shock wave is a discontinuity in a (partly) supersonic flow fluid.

Fluid crossing a stationary shock front rises suddenly and irreversibly in pressure

and decreases in velocity.

nosed bodies, whether two-dimensional,

axisymmetric, or fully three-dimensional.

A detached oblique shock is seen in front of a

sphere traveling at supersonic speeds.

Shadowgram of a sphere in free flight through air, M = 1.53.

Flow is subsonic behind the part of the bow wave that is ahead

of the sphere and over its surface back to about 45°.

At about 90° the laminar boundary layer separates through an

Photo by A. C. Charters, as found in oblique shock wave and quickly becomes turbulent.

Van Dyke (1982).

Oblique Shock Waves

When the space shuttle travels at supersonic speeds through the

atmosphere, it produces a complicated shock pattern consisting of

inclined shock waves called oblique shocks.

Some portions of an oblique shock are curved, while other portions are

straight.

the space shuttle Orbiter being tested

at Mach 3 in the supersonic wind

tunnel of the Penn State Gas

Dynamics Lab.

Several oblique shocks are seen

in the air surrounding the spacecraft.

Photo by G. S. Settles, Penn State

University. Used by permission.

5

Normal Shock Waves

The shock waves occur in a plane normal to the direction of flow.

For flow through a normal shock, with no direction change, area change, or

work done.

The continuity, momentum, and energy equations are:

Momentum: p1 – p2 = 1u1(u2 – u1)

Energy: h01 = h02 T01 = T02

s2 – s 1 ≥ 0

Subscripts 1 and 2 indicate initial and final states, respectively.

Normal Shocks

Momentum Equation

p1 p2 2u22 1u12 u 2

p

RT

( M a) 2 p

RT

M RT 2

pM 2

p1 p1M p2 p2M

1

2 2

2

p2 1 M 12

p1 1 M 22

Continuity Equation

2 u1 p2 T1 2 ( 1) M 12

1 u2 p1 T2 1 2 ( 1) M 12

Normal Shock

Static temperature ratio

T02 1 2

T01 = T02 T01 1 2 1 M2

1 M1 T2 2

T1 2

1 2

1 M1

T2 2

T1 1 1 M 2

2

2

2 2

T2 p2u2 p2 M 2 a2 p2 M 2 RT2 p2 M 2 T2 p2 M2 p2 T M

2 1

T1 p1u1 p1M 1a1 p1M 1 RT1 p1M 1 T1 p1 M1 p1 T1 M 2

1 2

p2 1 M 12 p2

M1 1 M1

2

p1 1 M 22 p1 1 2

M2 1 M2

2

Normal Shock Wave

( 1) M 12 2

M2

2M 12 1

Stagnation Pressure ratio

Stagnation Temperatures

p increases

T01 = T02 p0 decreases

u decreases

M decreases

T increases

T0 remains constant

increases

s increases

Normal Shock

x: upstream conditions, y: downstream properties

vertical axis to use

when reading chart.

Normal Shock Wave

Example

A ramjet engine is an air-breathing propulsion device with essentially no rotating

machinery (no rotating compressor blades, turbines, etc). The basic parts of a

conventional ramjet are sketched in the Figure below. The flow, moving from left to

right, enters the engine where it is compressed and slowed down. Compressed air

then enters the combustor at very low subsonic speed, where it is mixed with a fuel

and burned. The hot gas then expands through a nozzle. The net result is the

production of thrust toward the left in Figure. In this figure the ramjet is in a

supersonic freestream with a detached (normal) shock wave attached to the inlet. (A

detached normal shock wave in front of the inlet of a ramjet in supersonic flow is

not ideal; rather, it is desirable that the flow pass through one or more oblique shock

waves before entering the inlet.) After passing through the shock wave, the flow

from point 1 to point 2, located at the entrance of the combustor, is isentropic.

of 10 km, where the air pressure and temperature

are 2.65 x 104 N/m2 and 223.3 K, respectively.

Calculate the air temperature and pressure at point

2 when the Mach number at that point is 0.2.

Total pressure and total temperature of the freestream at M = 2 can be obtained

using isentropic relations or table/chart.

At point (1) behind the normal shock wave, the total pressure is

Flow is (assumed) isentropic between points (1) and (2), hence p0 and T0

are constant between these points.

p0,2 =1.49 x 105 N/m2 T0,2 = 401.9 K

At point 2, where M2 = 0.2, we can calculate static pressure and static

temperature, using isentropic relations or Table in Appendix A.

/( 1)

p0 1 2

1 M

p 2

Note: Air pressure and temperature on the order of 1.42 atm and 399 K entering the

combustor are very tolerable conditions for low-speed subsonic combustion.

Properties across Normal Shock

Properties across Normal Shock

Total Temperature

wave. (Note: flow across a shock wave is adiabatic).

Total Pressure

across a shock and p02/p01 is a function of M only.

Total Properties across a Normal Shock Wave

Normal Shock

Example: Shock Wave in a Converging–Diverging Nozzle (see previous example)

If the air flowing through the converging–diverging nozzle experiences a normal shock

wave at the nozzle exit plane determine the following after the shock: (a) the stagnation

pressure, static pressure, static temperature, and static density; (b) the entropy change

across the shock; (c) the exit velocity; and (d) the mass flow rate through the nozzle.

Assume steady, one-dimensional, and isentropic flow with = 1.4 from the nozzle inlet

to the shock location.

SOLUTION Air flowing through a converging–diverging nozzle experiences a

normal shock at the exit. The effect of the shock wave on various properties

is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Air is an ideal gas with constant specific heats at room temperature. 2

Flow through the nozzle is steady, one-dimensional, and isentropic before the shock

occurs. 3 The shock wave occurs at the exit plane.

Properties The constant-pressure specific heat and the specific heat ratio of air are cp !

1.005 kJ/kg · K and = 1.4. The gas constant of air is 0.287 kJ/kg.K.

Converging–Diverging Nozzles

Solution from previous example

Since the flow is isentropic, stagnation properties are constant. The properties at the

exit plane can also be calculated or obtained by using data from Figure.

M = 2:

/( 1)

pe Te e Ae p 1

0.1278 0.5556 0.2300 1.6875

p0 1 ( 1) M 2

p0 T0 0 A*

2

T 1

pe = 0.1278p0 = (0.1278)(1.0 MPa) =0.1278 MPa

T0 1 ( 1) M 2

2

Te = 0.5556T0 = (0.5556)(800 K) = 444.5 K

1 /( 1)

e = 0.23000 = (0.2300)(4.355 kg/m3) = 1.002 kg/m3 1

0 1 ( 1) M 2

Ae = 1.6875A* = (1.6875)(20 cm2) = 33.75 cm2 2

Normal Shock Wave in a Converging–Diverging Nozzle

( 1) M 12 2 For M1 = 2

M2

2M 12 1

M 2 0.5774

p02

0.7209

p01

p2

4.500

p1

T2

1.6875

T1

2

2.6667

1

2 ( 1) M 12

1 2 ( 1) M 12

For M1 = 2

M 2 0.5774

p02

0.7209

p01

p2

4.500

p1

T2

1.6875

T1

2

2.6667

1

The fluid properties after the shock (denoted by subscript 2) are related to

those before the shock.

For M1 = 2

p02 p2 T

M 2 0.5774 0.7209 4.500 2 1.6875 2 2.6667

p01 p1 T1 1

p02 = 0.7209p01 = 0.7207(1 MPa) = 0.721 MPa

p2 = 4.5000p1 = 4.5000(0.1278 MPa) = 0.575 MPa

T2 = 1.6875T1 = 1.6875(444.5 K) =750 K

2 = 2.66671 = 2.6667(1.002 kg/m3) = 2.67 kg/m3

u 2 M 2 RT2 (0.5774) 1.4(287 J / kg .K )(750.1 K ) 317 m / s

24

Properties across Normal Shock

Total Temperature

wave. (Note: flow across a shock wave is adiabatic).

Total Pressure

across a shock and p02/p01 is a function of M only.

Pitot-Static Tube

Pitot-static tubes frequently use (pressure) transducers to

measure the difference between the stagnation and static

pressure (ps - p∞).

In the Pitot-static probe, a pressure

transducer measuring ps-p∞ is connected

to an electronic gage that converts this

measurement into the free-stream

velocity, V.

Pitot-static probe

Pitot-static probe, showing the

stagnation pressure hole and two

of five static circumferential pressure

holes.

fig_03_e06a

Measuring Aircraft Speed

Pitot-static probe

A common application of the Pitot-static tube is to measure

the fight speed of an aircraft relative to the air in which the

aircraft is flying.

The Pitot-static tube is

commonly mounted on the

side of the aircraft near the

nose.

In some small aircraft, it is

mounted on the underside of

the wing (e.g., Cessna 172).

Care is needed to obtain the static and stagnation pressure values accurately.

Pitot-Static Tube

(a) Pitot-static tube on the side of a F-15A Eagle fighter aircraft,

(b) a triad of Pitot-static tubes on the side of a B-1b Lancer

bomber.

Measurement of Velocity in Compressible Flow

Measurement of Velocity in Compressible Flow

The streamline cde crosses the bow shock. Fluid

element moving along streamline cde will first be

decelerated nonisentropically to a subsonic velocity

at point d just behind the shock.

Fluid is then compressed isentropically to zero

velocity at point e. Pressure at point e is not the

total pressure of the freestream but rather the total

pressure behind a normal shock wave, p0,2.

Pressure p0,2 is the Pitot pressure read at the end of the tube.

Because of entropy increase across the shock, there is a loss in total pressure

across the shock, p0,2 < p0,1.

Measurement of Velocity in Compressible Flow

Normal Shock Waves

Measurement of velocity in compressible flow

Example

Air flowing at a Mach number of 2.1 encounters a stationary probe within the flow field

such that a normal shock is generated on the stagnation streamline. The static

temperature and static pressure upstream of the normal shock are 5◦C and 90 kPa,

respectively. Determine (a) the stagnation temperature and pressure upstream of the

shock, (b) the Mach speed, static pressure and static temperature immediately

downstream of the shock. (c) the temperature and pressure at the stagnation point on the

probe.

How would the temperature and pressure downstream of the shock compare with the

temperature and pressure at the stagnation point on the probe? What is the change in

entropy caused by the occurrence of the normal shock?

Measurement of velocity in compressible flow

M1 = 2.1, T1 = 5oC = 278 K, p1 = 90 kPa.

M2 = 0.5613

p2 = 448 kPa

T2 = 492 K

of the shock are 0.561, 448 kPa, and 492 K (= 219 oC).

Stagnation Properties

The stagnation pressure and temperature before the shock, (p01 and

T01) and the stagnation pressure and temperature (p02 and T02) after the

shock can be determined as follows

/( 1)

p01 1 2 p01 = 823 kPa

1 M1 p1 = 90 kPa, M1 = 2.1

p1 2

T0,1 1 2

1 M1 T1 = 278, M1 = 2.1 T01 = 523 K

T1 2

T02 =T01 = 523 K

p02 = 554.9 kPa

Therefore the temperature and pressure at the stagnation point on the (stationary) probe are

523 K (= 250oC) and 555 kPa, respectively, which are both higher than the temperature and

pressure just downstream of the normal shoch (492 K and 448 kPa).

Measurement of velocity in compressible flow

Entropy Change

The change in entropy on the stagnation streamline across the normal

shock is given by

p01 823

s2 s1 R ln (287.1 J / kg.K ) ln 113 J / kg.K

p02 554.9

The flow downstream of the shock (between shock and probe) is assumed to

be isentropic, the change in entropy on the stagnation streamline between a

point upstream of the shock and the stagnation point is 113 J/kg.K.

Oblique Shock Waves

When the space shuttle travels at supersonic speeds through the

atmosphere, it produces a complicated shock pattern consisting of

inclined shock waves called oblique shocks.

Some portions of an oblique shock are curved, while other portions are

straight.

the space shuttle Orbiter being tested

at Mach 3 in the supersonic wind

tunnel of the Penn State Gas

Dynamics Lab.

Several oblique shocks are seen

in the air surrounding the spacecraft.

Photo by G. S. Settles, Penn State

University. Used by permission.

36

Oblique Shocks

A shock wave can form at an oblique angle to the oncoming supersonic

stream. Such a wave will deflect the stream through an angle , unlike the

normal-shock wave, for which the downstream flow is in the same direction.

when a uniform supersonic flow (M1 > 1)

impinges on a slender, two-dimensional

wedge of half-angle .

through the wedge, it turns suddenly

through an angle called the deflection

angle . Turning angle =

Information about the presence of the wedge cannot travel upstream in a supersonic flow,

the fluid “knows” nothing about the wedge until it hits the nose.

Oblique Shocks

Since the Reynolds number of supersonic flows is typically large, the boundary

layer growing along the wedge is very thin, and we ignore its effects.

=

If we take into account the displacement thickness effect of the boundary layer,

the deflection angle turns out to be slightly greater than wedge half-angle .

An oblique shock of shock angle Velocity vectors through an

formed by a slender, twodimensional oblique shock of shock angle

wedge of halfangle . The flow is turned and deflection angle .

by deflection angle downstream of the

shock, and the Mach number decreases.

subsonic, M2 downstream of an oblique shock can be subsonic, sonic, or

supersonic, depending on the upstream Mach number M1 and the turning angle.

Oblique Shock Waves

If a plane shock is inclined at an angle to the flow, the fluid passing through

suffers not only a sudden rise in pressure and decrease in speed but also a

sudden change of direction.

The Figure below illustrates an oblique shock s-s in one-dimensional flow.

Oblique Shocks

If a plane shock is inclined at an angle to the flow, the fluid passing through

suffers not only a sudden rise in pressure and decrease in speed but also a

sudden change of direction.

The Figure below illustrates an oblique shock s-s in one-dimensional flow.

shock, the fluid is

deflected

Continuity: 1u1n = 2u2n

Momentum parallel to the shock

Continuity: Energy:

1u1n =2u2n T01 = T02

u 2t u1t

Velocity parallel to the shock is

the same on both sides of it.

moving with velocity u1t = u2t. This fact permits us to use the normal shock

equations to calculate oblique shocks.

M 1n M 1 sin

M 2 n M 2 sin( )

Like normal shocks, the Mach number decreases across an oblique shock,

and oblique shocks are possible only if the upstream flow is supersonic.

subsonic, M2 downstream of an oblique shock can be subsonic, sonic, or

supersonic, depending on the upstream Mach number M1 and the turning angle.

All the equations, shock tables, etc., for normal shocks apply to oblique shocks

as well, provided that we use only the normal components of the Mach

Recall Equations for Normal Shock

( 1) M 12 2

M2

2M 12 1

2 ( 1) M 12

1 2 ( 1) M 12

Oblique Shock

( 1) M 2

2 2 ( 1) M 12n

M 2n 1n

2M 12n 1 1 2 ( 1) M 12n

p2 2M 12n 1

p1 1

T2 2 M 1n 1

2

[2 ( 1) M 1n ]

2

T1 ( 1) 2 M 12n

p02 ( 1) M 12n ( 1)

p01 2 ( 1) M 12n 2M 2

1n 1

Given the up-stream Mach number M1 and the wave angle , we could calculate

M1n = M1sin

and subsequently calculate M2nusing:

( 1) M 12n 2

M 2n

2M 12n 1

M 2t M 1t T1 / T2

We note that

2 2M 1n 1

2 Thus, the downstream Mach

T2

[2 ( 1) M 1n ] number M2 and the deflection

T1 ( 1) 2 M 12n angle can be determined.

Relation between M1, and

1 2 2

21 M 1 sin

2

tan( )

( 1) M 12 sin cos

M 12 sin 2 1

tan 2 cot 2

M

1 ( cos 2 ) 2

Development of Relation between M1, and

u1n 2 tan ( 1) M 1n

2

( 1) M 12 sin 2

2 ( 1) M 12 sin 2 2 ( 1) M 12 sin 2

tan( ) tan

( 1) M 1 sin

2 2

( 1) M 12 sin cos

21 M 1 sin either or , but not both.

2

tan( )

Fig. 3.10 (next slide) is a plot of this equation

( 1) M 12 sin cos for = 1.4.

as:

M 12 sin 2 1

tan 2 cot 2

M

1 ( cos 2 ) 2

FIGURE 3.11 Stagnation pressure ratio versus inlet Mach number, with turning angle as parameter.

Curves above dashed line hold for M2> 1, and curves below hold for M2 < 1. (From Shapiro [1].)

FIGURE 3.12 Exit Mach number

versus inlet Mach number, with

turning angle as parameter [1].

Curves above dashed line

correspond to small and curves

below correspond to large

(From Shapiro [1].)

Oblique Shocks

Example:

Supersonic air at M1 = 2.0 and 75.0 kPa impinges on a twodimensional wedge of half

angle = 10°. Calculate the two possible oblique shock angles, weak and strong, that

could be formed by this wedge. For each case, calculate the pressure and Mach number

downstream of the oblique shock, compare, and discuss.

Assumptions 1 The flow is steady. 2 The boundary layer on the wedge is very thin.

1 2 2

21 M 1 sin

2 M 12 sin 2 1

tan( ) OR tan 2 cot 2

( 1) M 1 sin cos M 1 ( cos 2 ) 2

2

Because The boundary layer on the wedge is very thin

(assumption 2), we approximate the oblique shock deflection

angle to be equal to the wedge half-angle, : M1

= = 10°.

With M1 = 2.0 and = 10°, we solve the following equation

for the two possible values of oblique shock angle :

2 cot ( M 12 sin 2 1)

tan

M 12 ( cos 2 ) 2

M1

2 cot (2 2 sin 2 1)

tan 10 2

o

2 (1.4 cos 2 ) 2

weak = 39.3° and strong = 83.7°. angles formed by a two-

dimensional wedge of half-angle

= 10°.

From these values, we use the following to calculate upstream

normal Mach number M1n,

M 1n M 1 sin M 2 n M 2 sin( )

Weak Shock:

Strong Shock:

Oblique Shocks

We substitute these values of M1n into the following equation to calculate the

downstream normal Mach number M2n.

M 2n

2M 12n 1 Strong shock, M2n = 0.5794.

2(1.4)(1.267 2 ) 1.4 1

p2 (75 kPa) 128 kPa

p2 2M 12n 1 1.4 1

p1 1 p2 (75 kPa)

2(1.4)(1.9882 ) 1.4 1

333 kPa

1.4 1

Downstream Mach number

M 2n 0.8032

Weak Shock: M2 1.64

M 2n sin( ) sin( 39.3 10)

M2

sin( ) Strong Shock: M2

M 2n

0.5794

0.604

sin( ) sin(83.7 10)

The changes in Mach number and pressure across the strong shock are much greater than the changes across the weak shock.

Comments

For both the weak and strong oblique shock cases, M1n is supersonic and M2n is

subsonic.

However, M2 is supersonic across the weak oblique shock, but subsonic across

the strong oblique shock.

We could also use the normal shock tables in place of the equations, but with

loss of precision.

Oblique Waves

Example

Air flowing with a Mach number of 2.5 with a pressure of 60 kPa and a

temperature of -20oC passes over a wedge which turns the flow through an angle

of 4o leading to the generation of an oblique chock wave. This oblique shock wave

impinges on a flat wall, which is parallel to the flow upstream of the wedge, and

is “reflected” from it. Find the pressure and velocity behind the reflected shock

wave.

Upstream of the wave:

The condition downstream of the initial wave (region 2) are M1 = 2.5 and = 4o.

Conditions in region 3 are determined by conditions in region 2:

2.334

This gives:

After the reflection, the pressure is 104 kPa and the velocity is 749 m/s.

Detached Shock Wave

For any value of Mach number M > 1, the possible values of range

from = 0° at some value of between 0 and 90°, to a maximum value

= max at an intermediate value of , and then back to = 0° at = 90°.

Example: At M = 1.5, straight oblique shocks cannot exist in air with shock

angle < ~42°, nor with deflection angle greater than about 12°.

the shock becomes curved and detaches M1

from the nose of the wedge, forming what

is called a detached oblique shock or a

bow wave.

A detached oblique shock occurs upstream of a two

dimensional wedge of halfangle when is greater

than the maximum possible deflection angle .

Detached Oblique Shock

When supersonic flow impinges on a blunt body—a body without a

sharply pointed nose, the wedge half-angle at the nose is 90°, and an

attached oblique shock cannot exist, regardless of Mach number.

whether two-dimensional, axisymmetric, or fully three-dimensional. For

example, a detached oblique shock is seen in front of the space shuttle

model in and in front of a sphere.

Shadowgram of a diameter sphere in free flight through air at

M = 1.53. The flow is subsonic behind the part of the bow

wave that is ahead of the sphere and over its surface back to

about 45°. At about 90° the laminar boundary layer separates

through an oblique shock wave and quickly becomes turbulent.

The fluctuating wake generates a system of weak disturbances

that merge into the second “recompression” shock wave.

Photo by A. C. Charters, as found in Van Dyke (1982).

Atmospheric Entry

heat shield.

detachment of an oblique shock

shock from a cone with increasing cone half-angle in air at Mach 3. At (a) =

20° and (b) = 40°, the oblique shock remains attached, but by (c) = 60°, the

oblique shock has detached, forming a bow wave.

Photos by G. S. Settles, Penn State University. Used by permission.

65

Airplane flow patterns as speed increases.

attached to its nose—we may instead have a detached normal shock ahead

of the airplane!

As an airplane accelerates to its supersonic cruising speed the flow will

progress from subsonic, through supersonic with a detached normal shock, to

attached oblique shocks that become increasingly “pressed” against the

airplane’s surface.

Supersonic Airfoils

In contrast to subsonic flow designs, these airfoils must have sharp leading

edges, which form attached oblique shocks or expansion fans.

Rounded supersonic leading edges would cause detached bow shocks, greatly

increasing drag and lowering lift.

Example

A jet aircraft inlet operates at 50,000 ft at M0 = 2.5. If the two-shock inlet has a

wedge angle of 15 degrees such that an oblique shock is established on the

leading edge and normal shock occurs at the inlet as shown below find the air

pressure and temperature behind the normal shock.

Assumptions: Here we assume the flow is uniform with a negligible bounday layer.

Given the geometry we can assume the flow must conform to the wedge shown

after the oblique shock and then pass through the normal shock. The procedures

is similar to the problem above.

1. Determine the shock angle of the oblique shock. a. Using the oblique shock

chart - or - relationships we get 1

2. Use the shock angle to find the Mach number normal to the oblique shock

3. Use the normal shock relations/tables to determine the outlet Mach number

normal to the shock and the pressure (and temperature) ratio(s).

4. Use appropriate relations to find the outlet Mach number

5. For the second shock we only need the normal shock relations .

Oblique Shocks

M1 = 2.5; = 15o; Solve for ; Guess = 40o

M 12 sin 2 1

tan 2 cot 2

M

1 ( cos 2 ) 2

M 2n 0. 7

2M 1n 1

2

2(1.4)1.503 1.4 1

2

p2 2M 12n 1 2(1.4)1.5032 1.4 1

2.468

p1 1 1 .4 1

p02 ( 1) M 12n ( 1)

0.929

p01 2 ( 1) M 12n 2M 1n 1

2

2 2M 1n 1

2

T2

[2 ( 1) M 1n ] 1.322

T1 ( 1) M 1n

2 2

Mach number for flow along the wedge:

M 2n 0.7

M2 1.873

sin( ) sin( 36.95 15)

Finally, the flow must pass through a normal shock wave before

entering the engine inlet:

2 2

M x2

M 22 2

1 1.8732

M 1

2

y

2

M x2 1 M3 1.4 1 0.601

1 2 2(1.4)

M 22 1 1.8732 1

1 1.4 1

py 2 1 p3 2 1 2(1.4) 1.4 1

M x2 M 22 1.873 3.928

px 1 1 p2 1 1 1.4 1 1.4 1

Flow across a normal shock:

1 2 1 2

Ty 1 Mx 1 M2

2 T3 2

1.587

Tx 1 1 M 2 T2 1 1

M 32

y

2 2

/( 1)

1 2

p0 y py 1 2 M y

px 1 1

p0 x

M x2

2

/( 1)

1 2

1

p03 p3

M3

2 0.78

p02 p2 1 1

M 22

2

Final static temperature and pressure are:

T3 T2 p3 p2

p3 p1 2355.51 lb/ft 2

T3 T1 822.6 R p2 p1

T2 T1

p3 16.358 psi

/( 1)

0.724 p01 p1 1

2

M1

28.833 psi

p01 p02 p01

The actual total pressure loss p03 p01 0.724 20.879 psi

p03

e s / R

p01

p03

s R ln 0.022 Btu/(lb.R)

p01

Oblique Shocks

Example

Consider a Mach 3 flow. It is desired to slow this flow to a subsonic speed. Consider

two separate ways of achieving this: (1) the Mach 3 flow is slowed by passing directly

through a normal shock wave; (2) the Mach 3 flow first passes through an oblique

shock with a 40o wave angle, and then subsequently through a normal shock. These two

cases are sketched in Figure 9.14. Calculate the ratio of the final total pressure values

for the two cases, that is, the total pressure behind the normal shock for case 2 divided

by the total pressure behind the normal shock for case 1. Comment on the significance

of the result.

Prandtl–Meyer Expansion Waves

Review: Oblique shock waves occur when supersonic flow is turned

into itself.

Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Wave

Oblique shock waves occur when supersonic flow is turned into itself.

Expansion waves occur when supersonic flow is turned away from itself.

as an infinite number of Mach waves, each making the Mach angle with

the local flow direction.

Mach wave which makes angle 1 sin-1(1/M1)

with upstream flow, and bounded downstream

by another Mach wave which makes angle 2 (=

sin-1 (1/M1) with respect to downstream flow.

Goal:

Develop to calculate the changes in flow properties across expansion waves.

Prandtl–Meyer Expansion Waves

The flow does not turn suddenly, as through a shock, but gradually—each

successive Mach wave turns the flow by an infinitesimal amount.

Since each individual expansion wave is isentropic, the flow across the entire

expansion fan is also isentropic.

The Mach number downstream of the expansion increases (M2 > M1), while

pressure, density, and temperature decrease, just as they do in the supersonic

(expanding) portion of a converging–diverging nozzle.

M2 the local Mach angle .

1 1

1 sin

1

2 sin

1

M1 M2

Prandtl–Meyer Expansion Waves

Consider a situations where supersonic flow is

turned in the opposite direction, such as in the

upper portion of a two-dimensional wedge at an

angle of attack greater than its half-angle .

flow, whereas a flow that produces an oblique

shock may be called a compressing flow.

conserve mass. However, unlike a compressing

flow, an expanding flow does not result in a

shock wave.

an expansion fan appears, composed of an

infinite number of Mach waves called Prandtl–

Meyer expansion waves.

80

Prandtl–Meyer expansion waves

The flow does not turn suddenly, as through a shock, but gradually—each

successive Mach wave turns the flow by an infinitesimal amount.

Since each individual expansion wave is isentropic, the flow across the entire

expansion fan is also isentropic.

The Mach number downstream of the expansion increases (M2 > M1), while

pressure, density, and temperature decrease, just as they

do in the supersonic (expanding) portion of a converging–diverging nozzle.

the local Mach angle .

1 1

1 sin

1

2 sin

1

M1 M2

Prandtl–Meyer expansion waves

Determination of M2

The turning angle across the expansion fan can be calculated by integration,

making use of the isentropic flow relationships.

v( M 2 ) v( M 1 )

v( M )

1 1 1 2

1

tan

( M 1) tan 1 M 2 1

1

Expansion Wave

Example

Supersonic air at M1 = 2.0 and 230 kPa flows parallel to a flat wall that

suddenly expands by = 10°. Ignoring any effects caused by the boundary

layer along the wall, calculate downstream Mach number M2 and pressure p2.

Assumptions: Flow is steady; Boundary layer on the wall is very thin.

= =10o

v( M )

1 1 1 2

1

tan

( M 1) tan 1 M 2 1

1

v ( M 1 2)

1. 4 1

1. 4 1

1.4 1

tan 1

(2.0 2 1) tan 1 2.0 2 1 26.38o

1.4 1

v( M 2 ) 36.38o

36.38

1 1 1 2

o

1

tan

( M 2 1) tan 1 M 22 1

1

M2 = 2.385

We use the isentropic relations to calculate the downstream pressure

/( 1)

p0 1 2

1 M

p 2

/( 1)

1 2

p 2 p0 1 2 M 1

p2 p1 p

/( 1) 1

p0 p1 1 2

1 2 M 2 Since this is an expansion, Mach

number increases, pressure decreases.

[1 (0.2)2.0 2 ]3.5

p2 (230 kPa) 126 kPa

[1 (0.2)2.3852 ]3.5

We could solve for downstream temperature, density, etc., using the isentropic relations.

Expansion Wave

Example: Expansion Wave on a Supersonic Airfoil

An airplane travels at a speed of 600 m/s in air at 4°C and 100 kPa. The

airplane airfoil has a sharp leading edge with included angle = 6° and an angle

of attack = 6°. Find the pressures on the upper and lower surfaces of the

airfoil immediately after the leading edge.

(a) Upper surface—isentropic expansion

a RT

u 600m / s

M1 1.80

a 334m / s

v( M )

1 1 1 2

1

tan

( M 1) tan 1 M 2 1

1

v1 ( M 1.80)

1.4 1

1.4 1

1.4 1

tan 1

(1.80 2 1) tan 1 1.80 2 1 20.7 o

1.4 1

The Prandtl-Meyer function value on the upper surface, is then

vu ( M )

1 1 1 2

1

tan

( M 2,upper 1) tan 1 M 22,upper 1

1

/( 1)

p0 1 2

/( 1) p2,upper 1 2

1 M p2,upper p0 p0 1 M1 p1

p 2 p 0 2

/( 1)

1 2

p2,upper p0 1 2 M 1 [1 (0.2)1.80 2 ]3.5

p2,upper p1 p1 p2,upper 100kPa 85.8 kPa

p0 p1 1 2

/( 1) [1 (0.2)1.90 2 ]3.5

1 M 2 , upper

2

p2,upper = 85.8 kPa

(b) Lower surface—oblique shock

2 cot ( M 12 sin 2 1)

tan => l = 42.8o

M 12 ( cos 2 ) 2

p2,lower 2 1

M 12n ,lower

p1 1 1

(1.2232 1.58

p1 1.4 1 1.4 1

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