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PENGENALAN

MARINE SURVEY & INSPECTION

Oleh:

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INDRAJAYA GERIANTO 1
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Both global and local forces
in heavy sea

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Deformation of a container ship in
the seaway (deformation magnified)
Ship on
wave crest =
HOGGING

Ship in
wave trough =
SAGGING

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Broken into two – when

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Mechanics of Materials

F = σ·A σ = F/A (N/mm²)

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Strength of Materials
When a force is imposed upon a beam or girder, resulting
in a bending moment, the beam will tend to bend by an
amount that will depend on the magnitude of the
bending moment

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Stress concentration

Cargo hatch Deck

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NOT APPROVED !!

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The ship is like a beam
For the purpose of calculating the
maximum vertical bending stresses
and moment the ship may be
considered as a beam (box girder).
There are then simple formulas for
detecting the maximum stresses.

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Shearing forces & bending
Moment

The hydrostatic lift force due to buoyancy and the weight of the ship
are normally not of equal magnitude in all parts of the ship.
This will give rise to vertical shear and bending forces.
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Tensile stress in deck
and compressive stress
in bottom

Tensile stress in bottom

and compressive stress
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Heavy sea will increase

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Heavy sea will increase

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Torsional Forces

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Racking
Hull deformation in heavy sea

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The structural strength of the hull shall be sufficient for the

draught corresponding to the freeboard assigned.

The ship shall be designed to avoid excessive structural stress.

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WHY DEFECTS IN THE HULL
??????
Due to:

1. Age
2. Wasting
3. Fatigue
4. Lack of maintenance

Check that the wear or wasting of plates and sections, which

constitute the principal parts of the hull and its strength, has not
reached the permissible limit!

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Causes of cracks in the strength deck and in the
shell, determined from 144 damaged ships

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Different types of damages

Wear High forces due to sliding friction

and area loads, compression and/or shear

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Brittle Fractures ( Patah karena
Rapuh)

Under the following conditions there is a potential risk for the

development of brittle fractures in steel:
1. High nominal stress level
2. Low temperature
3. High local stress, i.e. a three dimensional stress at a sufficiently
high level
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HULL SURVEY:
EXTERNAL Above the waterline (incl. deck)
Under the waterline

INTERNAL Tanks
Cargo holds

HULL DETAILS Propeller

Rudder
Anchor
Seawater valves
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External Places of Interest

RUDDER & PROPELLER

Cavitations
Fatigue (vibrations)

SEA WA TER INLETS

Corrosion (difficult to do the maintenance; different materials in
plates/valves/pipes)

WIND- WA TER BEL T

Corrosion
Berthing damages
Ice damages
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Necessary Plate Thickness

RULE VALUE SAFETY MARGIN MINIMUM

for a new ship because of: THICKNESS
Inaccurate to maintain
calculation, sufficient
varying plate strength with
thickness, acceptable
welding influence safety margin
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When limits of wasting are exceeded

New plates

Very localised pitting or corrosion can be built up by

electric welding

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Never accept double plates!

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"NOTHING IS WRONG
IT ONLYLOOKS LIKE IT !"
'Modern shipyard saying

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