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Photonic Communications

Systems & Devices

Winter 2006

Instructor: Hamed Majedi

Content

1- Overview of Photonic Communications

2- Optical Fiber: Waveguiding, Propagation Modes

- Single Mode Fiber

- Fiber Materials & Fabrication Procedures

3- Signal Degradation in Optical Fibers

4- Photonic Sources & Transmitters: LED & Laser Diodes

- Single Mode Lasers, Modulation & Noise

5- Laser-Fiber Connections (Power Launching & Coupling)

6- Photodetectors

7- Digital Photonic Receivers & Digital Transmission systems

8- WDM & Photonic Networks

Lab & Computer Simulations

• Lab sessions

- Fiber Attenuation Measurement

- Dispersion Measurement

- Spectral Attenuation Measurements

Suite 1.1 Lite

1- Bit error rate estimation of digital single channel fiber-optic link

2- Influence of fiber dispersion on the bit error rate

3- Fiber dispersion compensation by three different methods

4- Four channel WDM transmission by four wave mixing

5- Comparison of external vs. direct laser modulation for various bit rate

6- Two channel WDM add/drop multiplexer using fiber Bragg gratings

& circulators.

Chapter 1

Overview of Photonic

Communications

Optics

• Optics is an old subject involving the generation, propagation

& detection of light.

• Three major developments are responsible for rejuvenation of

optics & its application in modern technology:

1- Invention of Laser

2- Fabrication of low-loss optical Fiber

3- Development of Semiconductor Optical Device

As a result, new disciplines have emerged & new terms describing them

have come into use, such as:

- Electro-Optics: is generally reserved for optical devices in

which electrical effects play a role, such as lasers, electro-optic

modulators & switches.

Photonics

• Optoelectronics: refers to devices & systems that are

essentially electronics but involve lights, such as LED, liquid

crystal displays & array photodetectors.

• Quantum Electronics: is used in connection with devices &

systems that rely on the interaction of light with matter, such

as lasers & nonlinear optical devices.

• Quantum Optics: Studies quantum & coherence properties of

light.

• Lightwave Technology: describes systems & devices that are

used in optical communication & signal processing.

• Photonics: in analogy with electronics, involves the control of

photons in free space and matter.

Photonic Communications

• Photonics reflects the importance of the photon nature of light. Photonics

& electronics clearly overlap since electrons often control the flow of

photons & conversely, photons control the flow of electrons.

• The scope of Photonics:

1- Generation of Light (coherent & incoherent)

2- Transmission of Light (through free space, fibers, imaging systems,

waveguides, … )

3- Processing of Light Signals (modulation, switching, amplification,

frequency conversion, …)

4- Detection of Light (coherent & incoherent)

• Photonic Communications: describes the applications of

photonic technology in communication devices & systems,

such as transmitters, transmission media, receivers & signal

processors.

Why Photonic Communications?

• Extremely wide bandwidth: high carrier frequency ( a wavelength of

1552.5 nm corresponds to a center frequency of 193.1 THz!) &

consequently orders of magnitude increase in available transmission

bandwidth & larger information capacity.

• Optical Fibers have small size & light weight.

• Optical Fibers are immune to electromagnetic interference (high voltage

transmission lines, radar systems, power electronic systems, airborne

systems, …)

• Lack of EMI cross talk between channels

• Availability of very low loss Fibers (0.25 to 0.3 dB/km), high

performance active & passive photonic components such as

tunable lasers, very sensitive photodetectors, couplers, filters,

• Low cost systems for data rates in excess of Gbit/s.

BW demands in communication systems

Type & Format Uncompressed Compressed

applications

Voice, digital 4 kHz voice 64 kbps 16-32 kbps

telegraphy

Audio 16-24 kHz 512-748 kbps 32-384 kbps

(MPEG, MP3)

Video conferencing 176 144 or 352 2-35.6 Mbps 64 kbps-1.544

288 frames @ 10- Mbps (H.261

30 frames/s coding)

Data transfer, E- 1-10 Mbps

commerce,Video

entertainment

Full-motion 720480frames @ 249 Mbps 2-6Mbps (MPEG-2)

broadcast video 30 frames/s

HDTV 1920 1080 1.6 Gbps 19-38 Mbps

frames@ 30 frames (MPEG-2)

/s

Early application of fiber optic communication

• Digital link consisting of time-division-multiplexing (TDM) of 64 kbps

voice channels (early 1980).

SONET & SDH Standards

• SONET (Synchronous Optical NETwork) is the network standard used in

north America & SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is used in other

parts of the world. These define a synchronous frame structure for sending

multiplexed digital traffic over fiber optic trunk lines.

Transport Signal) with 51.84 Mbps data rate. Higher-rate SONET signals

are obtained by byte-interleaving N STS-1 frames, which are scramble &

converted to an Optical Carrier Level N (OC-N) signal.

Module) with 155.52 Mbps data rate. Higher-rate SDH signals are achieved

by synchronously multiplexing N different STM-1 to form STM-N signal.

SONET & SDH transmission rates

Evolution of fiber optic systems

• 1950s:Imaging applications in

medicine & non-destructive testing,

lighting

• 1960s:Research on lowering the fiber

loss for telecom. applications.

• 1970s:Development of low loss

fibers, semiconductor light sources &

photodetectors

• 1980s:single mode fibers (OC-3 to

OC-48) over repeater sapcings of 40

km.

• 1990s:Optical amplifiers (e.g.

EDFA), WDM (wavelength division

multiplexing) toward dense-WDM.

2000

Operating range of 4 key components in the 3 different

optical windows

Major elements Of typical photonic comm link

Installation of Fiber optics

WDM Concept

Optical Fiber communications, 3rd ed.,G.Keiser,McGrawHill, 2000

Chapter 2

Waveguiding & Fabrication

Theories of Optics

• Light is an electromagentic phenomenon described by the same theoretical

principles that govern all forms of electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell’s

equations are in the hurt of electromagnetic theory & is fully successful in

providing treatment of light propagation. Electromagnetic optics provides

the most complete treatment of light phenomena in the context of classical

optics.

• Turning to phenomena involving the interaction of light & matter, such as

emission & absorption of light, quantum theory provides the successful

explanation for light-matter interaction. These phenomena are described by

quantum electrodynamics which is the marriage of electromagnetic theory

with quantum theory. For optical phenomena, this theory also referred to as

quantum optics. This theory provides an explanation of virtually all

optical phenomena.

• In the context of classical optics, electromagentic radiation propagates in

the form of two mutually coupled vector waves, an electric field-wave &

magnetic field wave. It is possible to describe many optical phenomena

such as diffraction, by scalar wave theory in which light is described by a

single scalar wavefunction. This approximate theory is called scalar wave

optics or simply wave optics. When light propagates through & around

objects whose dimensions are much greater than the optical wavelength,

the wave nature of light is not readily discerned, so that its behavior can be

adequately described by rays obeying a set of geometrical rules. This

theory is called ray optics. Ray optics is the limit of wave optics when the

wavelength is very short.

Quantum Optics

Electromagnetic Optics

Wave Optics

Ray Optics

Engineering Model

physical theory that can handle our problems. Therefore, specially in this

course we will use different optical theories to describe & analyze our

problems. In this chapter we deal with optical transmission through fibers,

and other optical waveguiding structures. Depending on the structure, we

may use ray optics or electromagnetic optics, so we begin our discussion

with a brief introduction to electromagnetic optics, ray optics & their

fundamental connection, then having equipped with basic theories, we

analyze the propagation of light in the optical fiber structures.

Electromagnetic Optics

• Electromagnetic radiation propagates in the form of two mutually coupled

vector waves, an electric field wave & a magnetic field wave. Both are

vector functions of position & time.

• In a source-free, linear, homogeneous, isotropic & non-dispersive media,

such as free space, these electric & magnetic fields satisfy the following

partial differential equations, known as Maxwell’ equations:

E

H [2-1]

t

H

E [2-2]

t

E 0 [2-3]

H 0 [2-4]

• In Maxwell’s equations, E is the electric field expressed in [V/m], H is the

magnetic field expressed in [A/m].

[H/m] : Magnetic permeabili ty

: is divergence operation

: is curl operation

equation, can be easily obtained for monochromatic electromagnetic

wave. All electric & magnetic fields are harmonic functions of time of the

same frequency. Electric & magnetic fields are perpendicular to each other

& both perpendicular to the direction of propagation, k, known as

transverse wave (TEM). E, H & k form a set of orthogonal vectors.

Electromagnetic Plane wave in Free space

Ex

Direction of Propagation k

x

z z

y

By

varying electric and magnetic fields which are perpendicular to each

other and the direction of propagation, z.

S.O.Kasap, optoelectronics and Photonics Principles and Practices, prentice hall, 2001

Linearly Polarized Electromagnetic Plane wave

E e x E 0 x cos(ωt - kz) [2-5]

H e y H 0 y cos(ωt kz) [2-6]

where :

ω 2f : Angular frequency [rad/m] [2-7]

2

:Wavelength [m]

k

E0 x

[] : intrinsic (wave) impedance [2-8]

H0y

1

v [m/s] : velocity of wave propagation [2-9]

E and B have constant phase

in this xy plane; a wavefront

z E

E

k

Propagation

B

Ex

Ex = Eo sin(wt–kz)

A plane EM wave travelling alongz, has the same Ex (or By) at any point in a

given xy plane. All electric field vectors in a givenxy plane are therefore in phase.

The xy planes are of infinite extent in thex and y directions.

S.O.Kasap, optoelectronics and Photonics Principles and Practices, prentice hall, 2001

Wavelength & free space

• Wavelength is the distance over which the phase changes by 2 .

v

[2-10]

f

• In vacuum (free space):

10 9

0 [F/m] 0 4 10 7 [H/m]

36 [2-11]

v c 3 10 8 m/s 0 120 []

EM wave in Media

n r r

v velocity of light (EM wave) in medium 0 0

[2-12]

r : Relative magnetic permeability

r : Relative electric permittivity

n r [2-13]

Intensity & power flow of TEM wave

1

• The poynting vector S E H for TEM wave is parallel to the

2

wavevector k so that the power flows along in a direction normal to the

wavefront or parallel to k. The magnitude of the poynting vector is the

intensity of TEM wave as follows:

2

E0

I [W/m 2 ] [2-14]

2

Connection between EM wave optics & Ray

optics

According to wave or physical optics viewpoint, the EM waves radiated by

a small optical source can be represented by a train of spherical wavefronts

with the source at the center. A wavefront is defined a s the locus of all

points in the wave train which exhibit the same phase. Far from source

wavefronts tend to be in a plane form. Next page you will see different

possible phase fronts for EM waves.

When the wavelength of light is much smaller than the object, the

wavefronts appear as straight lines to this object. In this case the light wave

can be indicated by a light ray, which is drawn perpendicular to the phase

front and parallel to the Poynting vector, which indicates the flow of

energy. Thus, large scale optical effects such as reflection & refraction can

be analyzed by simple geometrical process called ray tracing. This view of

optics is referred to as ray optics or geometrical optics.

Wave fronts

(constant phase surfaces) Wave fronts

Wave fronts

k

P E

k r

rays

P

O

z

A perfect plane wave A perfect spherical wave A divergent beam

(a) (b) (c)

S.O.Kasap, optoelectronics and Photonics Principles and Practices, prentice hall, 2001

General form of linearly polarized plane waves

Can be combined into a linearly

Polarized wave. Conversely, any

arbitrary linearly polarized wave

can be resolved into two

independent Orthogonal plane

waves that are in phase.

E e x E0 x cos(ωt kz) e y E0 y cos(ωt kz)

E E E0 x E0 y

2 2

[2-15]

E0 y

tan (

1

)

E0 x

Optical Fiber communications, 3rd ed.,G.Keiser,McGrawHill, 2000

Elliptically Polarized plane waves

E e x Ex e y E y

e x E 0 x cos(ωt kz) e y cos(ωt kz )

2

Ex E y E x E y

2

E0 x E0 y E 0 x E 0 y [2-16]

2 E 0 x E 0 y cos

tan( 2 )

E0 x E0 y

2 2

Circularly polarized waves

Circular polarizati on : E0 x E0 y E0 & [2-17]

2

: right circularly polarized, - : left circularly polarized

Laws of Reflection & Refraction

Total internal reflection, Critical angle

Transmitted

(refracted) light

kt 2 90

2 n2 Evanescent wave

n 1 > n2

1

ki

1 kr c

Critical angle

1 c TIR

Incident Reflected

light light

n2 (c)

(a) sin c (b)

n1

Light wave travelling in a more dense medium strikes a less dense medium. Depending on

the incidence angle with respect to c , which is determined by the ratio of the refractive

indices, the wave may be transmitted (refracted) or reflected. (a)1 c (b) 1 c (c)

1 c and total internal reflection (TIR).

n2

sin c [2-19]

n1

Phase shift due to TIR

• The totally reflected wave experiences a phase shift however

which is given by:

N n 2 cos 2 1 1 p n n 2 cos 2 1 1

tan ; tan [2-20]

2 n sin 1 2 sin 1

n1

n

n2

normal to the plane of incidence respectively.

Optical waveguiding by TIR:

Dielectric Slab Waveguide

Launching optical rays to slab waveguide

n2

sin min ; minimum angle that supports TIR

n1

[2-21]

the Snell’s relation written at the fiber end face.

2 2

[2-22]

Numerical aperture:

NA n sin 0 max n1 n2 n1 2

2 2

[2-23]

n1 n2

[2-24]

n1

Optical rays transmission through dielectric slab

waveguide

n1 n 2 ; c c O

2

For TE-case, when electric waves are normal to the plane of incidence

must be satisfied with following relationship:

n1 d sin m n1 cos n2

2 2 2

tan [2-25]

2 n1 sin

Optical Fiber communications, 3rd ed.,G.Keiser,McGrawHill, 2000

Note

• Home work 2-1) Find an expression for ,considering that the electric

field component of optical wave is parallel to the plane of incidence (TM-

case).

• As you have seen, the polarization of light wave down the slab waveguide

changes the condition of light transmission. Hence we should also consider

the EM wave analysis of EM wave propagation through the dielectric slab

waveguide. In the next slides, we will introduce the fundamental concepts

of such a treatment, without going into mathematical detail. Basically we

will show the result of solution to the Maxwell’s equations in different

regions of slab waveguide & applying the boundary conditions for electric

& magnetic fields at the surface of each slab. We will try to show the

connection between EM wave and ray optics analyses.

EM analysis of Slab waveguide

• For each particular angle, in which light ray can be faithfully transmitted

along slab waveguide, we can obtain one possible propagating wave

solution from a Maxwell’s equations or mode.

• The modes with electric field perpendicular to the plane of incidence (page)

are called TE (Transverse Electric) and numbered as: TE 0 , TE 1 , TE 2 ,...

Electric field distribution of these modes for 2D slab waveguide can be

expressed as:

Em ( x, y, z, t ) e x f m ( y) cos(ωt m z ) [2-26]

wave transmission along slab waveguides, fibers & other type of optical

waveguides can be fully described by time & z dependency of the mode:

cos(ωt m z ) or e j (wt m z )

TE modes in slab waveguide

Em ( x, y, z, t ) e x f m ( y) cos(ωt m z )

m 0,1,2,3 (mode number)

Optical Fiber communications, 3rd ed.,G.Keiser,McGrawHill, 2000

Modes in slab waveguide

• The order of the mode is equal to the # of field zeros across the guide. The

order of the mode is also related to the angle in which the ray congruence

corresponding to this mode makes with the plane of the waveguide (or axis

of the fiber). The steeper the angle, the higher the order of the mode.

• For higher order modes the fields are distributed more toward the edges of

the guide and penetrate further into the cladding region.

• Radiation modes in fibers are not trapped in the core & guided by the fiber

but they are still solutions of the Maxwell’ eqs. with the same boundary

conditions. These infinite continuum of the modes results from the optical

power that is outside the fiber acceptance angle being refracted out of the

core.

• In addition to bound & refracted (radiation) modes, there are leaky modes

in optical fiber. They are partially confined to the core & attenuated by

continuously radiating this power out of the core as they traverse along the

fiber (results from Tunneling effect which is quantum mechanical

phenomenon.) A mode remains guided as long as n2 k n1k

Optical Fibers: Modal Theory (Guided or

Propagating modes) & Ray Optics Theory

n1 n2

Optical Fiber communications, 3rd ed.,G.Keiser,McGrawHill, 2000

n1 n2

Step Index Fiber

Modal Theory of Step Index fiber

• General expression of EM-wave in the circular fiber can be written as:

E (r , , z, t ) Am E m (r , , z, t ) AmU m (r , )e j ( ωt m z )

m m

H (r , , z, t ) Am H m (r , , z, t ) AmVm (r , )e j ( ωt m z )

m m

[2-27]

• Each of the characteristic solutions Em (r, , z, t ) & H m (r , , z, t ) is

called mth mode of the optical fiber.

• It is often sufficient to give the E-field of the mode.

U m (r, )e j (ωt m z ) m 1,2,3...

• The modal field distribution, U m (r , ) , and the mode

propagation constant, m are obtained from solving the

Maxwell’s equations subject to the boundary conditions given

by the cross sectional dimensions and the dielectric constants

of the fiber.

determined by the mode propagation constant, m (ω) , which depends on

the mode & in general varies with frequency or wavelength. This quantity

is always between the plane propagation constant (wave number) of the

core & the cladding media .

• At each frequency or wavelength, there exists only a finite number of

guided or propagating modes that can carry light energy over a long

distance along the fiber. Each of these modes can propagate in the fiber

only if the frequency is above the cut-off frequency, ω c , (or the source

wavelength is smaller than the cut-off wavelength) obtained from cut-off

condition that is:

m (ωc ) n2 k [2-29]

mode regime. In this regime only the lowest order mode (fundamental

mode) can propagate in the fiber and all higher order modes are under cut-

off condition (non-propagating).

• Multi-mode fibers are also extensively used for many applications. In

these fibers many modes carry the optical signal collectively &

simultaneously.

Fundamental Mode Field Distribution

Polarizations of fundamental mode

Ray Optics Theory (Step-Index Fiber)

Skew rays

Each particular guided mode in a fiber can be represented by a group of rays which

Make the same angle with the axis of the fiber.

Different Structures of Optical Fiber

Mode designation in circular cylindrical

waveguide (Optical Fiber)

TE lm modes : The electric field vector lies in transverse plane.

TM lm modes : The magnetic field vector lies in transverse plane.

Hybrid HE lm modes :TE component is larger than TM component.

Hybrid EH lm modes : TM component is larger than TE component.

y

l= # of variation cycles or zeros in direction. r

m= # of variation cycles or zeros in r direction.

x

z

Linearly Polarized (LP) modes in weakly-guided fibers ( n1 n2 1 )

LP0m (HE 1m ), LP1m (TE 0m TM 0m HE 0m )

Fundamental Mode: LP01 (HE 11 )

Two degenerate fundamental modes in Fibers

(Horizontal & Vertical HE 11 Modes)

Mode propagation constant as a function of frequency

characteristic of an optical fiber, because the field distribution can be easily

written in the form of eq. [2-27].

• In order to find a mode propagation constant and cut-off frequencies of

various modes of the optical fiber, first we have to calculate the

normalized frequency, V, defined by:

2a 2a

V n1 n2

2 2

NA [2-30]

a: radius of the core, is the optical free space wavelength,

n1 & n2 are the refractive indices of the core & cladding.

Plots of the propagation constant as a function of normalized

frequency for a few of the lowest-order modes

Single mode Operation

• The cut-off wavelength or frequency for each mode is obtained from:

2n2 w c n2

lm (ω c ) n2 k [2-31]

c c

V 2.405 [2-32]

Single-Mode Fibers

0.1% to 1% ; a 6 to 12 m ;

V 2.3 to 2.4 @ max frequency or min

has a normalized frequency of V=2.38 at a wavelength 1 micrometer. The

fiber is single-mode for all wavelengths greater and equal to 1 micrometer.

MFD (Mode Field Diameter): The electric field of the first fundamental

mode can be written as:

r2

E (r ) E 0 exp( 2

); MFD 2W0 [2-33]

W0

Birefringence in single-mode fibers

• Because of asymmetries the refractive indices for the two degenerate modes

(vertical & horizontal polarizations) are different. This difference is referred to as

birefringence, B f :

B f n y nx [2-34]

Fiber Beat Length

degenerate modes. As the modal wave travels along the fiber, the

difference in the refractive indices would change the phase difference

between these two components & thereby the state of the polarization of

the mode. However after certain length referred to as fiber beat length, the

modal wave will produce its original state of polarization. This length is

simply given by:

2

Lp [2-35]

kB f

Multi-Mode Operation

• Total number of modes, M, supported by a multi-mode fiber is

approximately (When V is large) given by:

V2

M [2-36]

2

• Power distribution in the core & the cladding: Another quantity of

interest is the ratio of the mode power in the cladding, Pclad to the total

optical power in the fiber, P, which at the wavelengths (or frequencies) far

from the cut-off is given by:

Pclad 4

[2-37]

P 3 M

Chapter 3

Signal Degradation in

Optical Fibers

Signal Attenuation & Distortion in

Optical Fibers

• What are the loss or signal attenuation mechanism in a fiber?

• Why & to what degree do optical signals get distorted as they

propagate down a fiber?

repeaterless separation between optical transmitter & receiver.

• Signal distortion cause that optical pulses to broaden as they

travel along a fiber, the overlap between neighboring pulses,

creating errors in the receiver output, resulting in the limitation

of information-carrying capacity of a fiber.

Attenuation (fiber loss)

• Power loss along a fiber:

Z=0 Z= l

p l

P(0) mW P (l ) P (0)e mw

p z

P( z ) P(0)e [3-1]

example [1/km] or [nepers/km]. A more common unit is [dB/km] that is

defined by:

10 P(0)

[dB/km ] log 4.343 p [1 / km] [3-2]

l P(l )

Fiber loss in dB/km

z=0 Z=l

P(0)[dBm ]

Optical fiber attenuation vs. wavelength

Absorption

1- Impurities in fiber material: from transition metal ions (must

be in order of ppb) & particularly from OH ions with

absorption peaks at wavelengths 2700 nm, 400 nm, 950 nm &

725nm.

2- Intrinsic absorption (fundamental lower limit): electronic

absorption band (UV region) & atomic bond vibration band

(IR region) in basic SiO2.

3- Radiation defects

Scattering Loss

• Small (compared to wavelength) variation in material density, chemical

composition, and structural inhomogeneity scatter light in other directions

and absorb energy from guided optical wave.

• The essential mechanism is the Rayleigh scattering. Since the black body

radiation classically is proportional to 4 (this is true for wavelength

typically greater than 5 micrometer), the attenuation coefficient due to

Rayleigh scattering is approximately proportional to . This seems to me

4

not precise, where the attenuation of fibers at 1.3 & 1.55 micrometer can be

exactly predicted with Planck’s formula & can not be described with

Rayleigh-Jeans law. Therefore I believe that the more accurate formula for

scattering loss is

1

hc

scat 5 exp( )

k B T

h 6.626 10 34 Js, k B 1.3806 10 23 JK -1 , T : Temperatur e

Absorption & scattering losses in fibers

Typical spectral absorption & scattering

attenuations for a single mode-fiber

Bending Loss (Macrobending & Microbending)

curvature of the bend is much

larger than fiber diameter.

Lightwave suffers sever loss due

to radiation of the evanescent

field in the cladding region. As

the radius of the curvature

decreases, the loss increases

exponentially until it reaches at a

certain critical radius. For any

radius a bit smaller than this

point, the losses suddenly

becomes extremely large. Higher

order modes radiate away faster

than lower order modes.

Optical Fiber communications, 3rd ed.,G.Keiser,McGrawHill, 2000

Microbending Loss

• Microbending Loss:

microscopic bends of the fiber

axis that can arise when the

fibers are incorporated into

cables. The power is dissipated

through the microbended fiber,

because of the repetitive

coupling of energy between

guided modes & the leaky or

radiation modes in the fiber.

Dispersion in Optical Fibers

• Dispersion: Any phenomenon in which the velocity of propagation of any

electromagnetic wave is wavelength dependent.

electromagnetic signal propagating in a physical medium is degraded

because the various wave characteristics (i.e., frequencies) of the signal

have different propagation velocities within the physical medium.

1- Material Dispersion

2- Waveguide Dispersion

3- Polarization-Mode Dispersion

Dispersion.

Group Velocity

• Wave Velocities:

• 1- Plane wave velocity: For a plane wave propagating along z-axis in an

unbounded homogeneous region of refractive index n1 , which is

represented by exp( jωt jk1 z) , the velocity of constant phase plane is:

w c

v [3-4]

k1 n1

• 2- Modal wave phase velocity: For a modal wave propagating along z-axis

represented byexp( jωt jz ) , the velocity of constant phase plane is:

ω

vp [3-5]

3- For transmission system operation the most important & useful type of

velocity is the group velocity, V g . This is the actual velocity which the

signal information & energy is traveling down the fiber. It is always less

than the speed of light in the medium. The observable delay experiences by

the optical signal waveform & energy, when traveling a length of l along

the fiber is commonly referred to as group delay.

Group Velocity & Group Delay

• The group velocity is given by:

dω

Vg [3-6]

d

• The group delay is given by:

l d

g l [3-7]

Vg dω

• It is important to note that all above quantities depend both on frequency

& the propagation mode. In order to see the effect of these parameters on

group velocity and delay, the following analysis would be helpful.

Input/Output signals in Fiber Transmission

System

• The optical signal (complex) waveform at the input of fiber of length l is

f(t). The propagation constant of a particular modal wave carrying the

signal is (ω). Let us find the output signal waveform g(t).

w is the optical signal bandwidth.

z-=0 Z=l

w c w

~

f (t )

w

w

f (w )e jwt dw [3-8]

c

w c w

~

g (t )

w

w

f (w )e jwt j (w ) l dw [3-9]

c

If w w c

d 1 d 2

(w ) (w c ) (w w c ) (w w c ) 2 ... [3-10]

dw w w c 2 dw 2

w w c

w c w / 2 w c w / 2 d

j wt j [ ( w c ) (w w c )]l

~ ~ dw

f (w )e

jw t j (w ) l

g (t ) f (w )e dw w w c

dw

w c w / 2 w c w / 2

w c w / 2 d

jw ( t l )

~ dw

e j (w c ) l f (w )e dw

w w c

w c w / 2

j (w c ) l d

e f (t l ) e j (w c )l f (t g )

dw

[3-11]

w w c

d l

g l [3-14]

dw w w c Vg

Intramodal Dispersion

• As we have seen from Input/output signal relationship in optical fiber, the

output is proportional to the delayed version of the input signal, and the

delay is inversely proportional to the group velocity of the wave. Since the

propagation constant, (ω) , is frequency dependent over band width ω

sitting at the center frequency ω c , at each frequency, we have one

propagation constant resulting in a specific delay time. As the output signal

is collectively represented by group velocity & group delay this

phenomenon is called intramodal dispersion or Group Velocity

Dispersion (GVD). This phenomenon arises due to a finite bandwidth

of the optical source, dependency of refractive index on the

wavelength and the modal dependency of the group velocity.

• In the case of optical pulse propagation down the fiber, GVD causes pulse

broadening, leading to Inter Symbol Interference (ISI).

Dispersion & ISI

A measure of information

capacity of an optical fiber for

digital transmission is usually

specified by the bandwidth

distance product BW L

in GHz.km.

For multi-mode step index fiber

this quantity is about 20

MHz.km, for graded index fiber

is about 2.5 GHz.km & for single

mode fibers are higher than 10

GHz.km.

How to characterize dispersion?

• Group delay per unit length can be defined as:

g d 1 d 2 d

2c d

[3-15]

L dω c dk

• If the spectral width of the optical source is not too wide, then the delay

d

difference per unit wavelength along the propagation path is approximately g

For spectral components which are apart, symmetrical around center d

wavelength, the total delay difference over a distance L is:

d g L d 2 d

2

2

d 2c d d2

d d L d 2

w w L w [3-16]

dw dw V g dw

2

d 2

• 2 is called GVD parameter, and shows how much a light pulse

dw 2

broadens as it travels along an optical fiber. The more common parameter

is called Dispersion, and can be defined as the delay difference per unit

length per unit wavelength as follows:

1 d g d 1

2c 2

D [3-17]

L d d V g

2

• In the case of optical pulse, if the spectral width of the optical source is

characterized by its rms value of the Gaussian pulse , the pulse

spreading over the length of L, g can be well approximated by:

d g

g DL [3-18]

d

• D has a typical unit of [ps/(nm.km)].

Material Dispersion

Input Cladding

v g ( 1 )

Core Output

Emitter v g ( 2 )

Very short

light pulse

Spectrum, ²

Spread, ²

t t

1 o 2 0

spectrum, ² , of wavelengths. Waves in the guide with different free space

wavelengths travel at different group velocities due to the wavelength dependence

of n1. The waves arrive at the end of the fiber at different times and hence result in

a broadened output pulse.

© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)

Material Dispersion

• The refractive index of the material varies as a function of wavelength, n ( )

• Material-induced dispersion for a plane wave propagation in homogeneous

medium of refractive index n:

d 2 d 2 d 2

mat L L L n ( )

dω 2c d 2c d

L dn

n [3-19]

c d

• The pulse spread due to material dispersion is therefore:

d mat L d 2 n

g 2 L Dmat ( ) [3-20]

d c d

Material Dispersion Diagrams

Waveguide Dispersion

• Waveguide dispersion is due to the dependency of the group velocity of the

fundamental mode as well as other modes on the V number, (see Fig 2-18

of the textbook). In order to calculate waveguide dispersion, we consider

that n is not dependent on wavelength. Defining the normalized

propagation constant b as:

/ k n2

2 2 2

/ k n2

b [3-21]

n1 n2

2 2

n1 n2

• Using V number:

V ka(n1 n2 )1/ 2 kan2 2

2 2 [3-23]

Waveguide Dispersion

• Delay time due to waveguide dispersion can then be expressed as:

L d (Vb)

wg n2 n2

dV

[3-24]

c

Waveguide dispersion in single mode fibers

• For single mode fibers, waveguide dispersion is in the same order of

material dispersion. The pulse spread can be well approximated as:

d wg n2 L d 2 (Vb)

wg L Dwg ( ) V [3-25]

d c dV 2

Dwg ( )

Polarization Mode dispersion

Intensity

t

Output light pulse

z

n1 y // y Core Ex

= Pulse spread

Ex Ey

n1 x // x Ey

t

E

Input light pulse

Suppose that the core refractive index has different values along two orthogonal

directions corresponding to electric field oscillation direction (polarizations). We can

take x and y axes along these directions. An input light will travel along the fiber with Ex

and Ey polarizations having different group velocities and hence arrive at the output at

different times

Polarization Mode dispersion

• The effects of fiber-birefringence on the polarization states of an optical are

another source of pulse broadening. Polarization mode dispersion (PMD)

is due to slightly different velocity for each polarization mode because of

the lack of perfectly symmetric & anisotropicity of the fiber. If the group

velocities of two orthogonal polarization modes are vgx and vgy then the

differential time delay pol between these two polarization over a

distance L is

L L

pol [3-26]

v gx v gy

• The rms value of the differential group delay can be approximated as:

Chromatic & Total Dispersion

• Chromatic dispersion includes the material & waveguide dispersions.

[3-28]

ch Dch ( ) L

dispersion types and the total rms pulse spreading can be approximately

written as:

[3-29]

total DtotalL

Total Dispersion, zero Dispersion

Fact 1) Minimum distortion at wavelength about 1300 nm for single mode silica fiber.

Fact 2) Minimum attenuation is at 1550 nm for sinlge mode silica fiber.

Strategy: shifting the zero-dispersion to longer wavelength for minimum attenuation and dispersion.

Optimum single mode fiber &

distortion/attenuation characteristics

Fact 1) Minimum distortion at wavelength about 1300 nm for single mode

silica fiber.

Fact 2) Minimum attenuation is at 1550 nm for sinlge mode silica fiber.

Strategy: shifting the zero-dispersion to longer wavelength for minimum

attenuation and dispersion by Modifying waveguide dispersion by

changing from a simple step-index core profile to more complicated

profiles. There are four major categories to do that:

1- 1300 nm optimized single mode step-fibers: matched cladding (mode

diameter 9.6 micrometer) and depressed-cladding (mode diameter about 9

micrometer)

2- Dispersion shifted fibers.

3- Dispersion-flattened fibers.

4- Large-effective area (LEA) fibers (less nonlinearities for fiber optical

amplifier applications, effective cross section areas are typically greater

than 100 m2 ).

Single mode fiber dispersion

Single mode fiber dispersion

Single mode Cut-off wavelength & Dispersion

2a

• Fundamental mode is HE11 or LP01 with V=2.405 and c n1 n2

2 2

V

• Dispersion: [3-30]

d

D ( ) Dmat ( ) Dwg ( ) [3-31]

d

D( ) L [3-32]

• For dispersion shifted fibers (1500 nm- 1600 nm)

Dispersion for non-dispersion-shifted fibers

(1270 nm – 1340 nm)

S0 0 2 2

( ) 0 ( ) [3-33]

8

• 0 is relative delay minimum at the zero-dispersion wavelength 0 , and S0

2

is the value of the dispersion slope in ps/(nm .km).

dD

S 0 S (0 ) [3-34]

d 0

S0

0 4

D ( ) 1 ( ) [3-35]

4

Dispersion for dispersion shifted fibers (1500

nm- 1600 nm)

S0

( ) 0 ( 0 ) 2 [3-36]

2

Example of dispersion

Performance curve for

Set of SM-fiber

Example of BW vs wavelength for various optical sources for

SM-fiber.

MFD

Bending Loss

Bending effects on loss vs MFD

Bend loss versus bend radius

n n

3.56 10 3 ; 3 2 0.07

n2

Kerr effect

Temporal changes in a narrow optical pulse that is subjected to Kerr nonlinearity in

A dispersive medium with positive GVD.

Optical wave.

First-order Soliton

Temporal changes in a medium with Kerr nonlinearity and negative GVD. Since dispersion tends to broaden the pulse, Kerr

Nonlinearity tends to squeeze the pulse, resulting in a formation of optical soliton.

Chapter 4

Photonic Sources

Contents

• Light Emitting Diode (LED)

- Structure, Material,Quantum efficiency, LED Power,

Modulation

• Laser Diodes

- structure, Modes, Rate Equation,Quantum efficiency,

Resonant frequencies, Radiation pattern

• Single-Mode Lasers

- DFB (Distributed-FeedBack) laser, Distributed-Bragg

Reflector, Modulation

• Light-source Linearity

• Noise in Lasers

Review of Semiconductor Physics

k B 1.38 1023 JK -1

a) Energy level diagrams showing the excitation of an electron from the valence band to the conduction band.

The resultant free electron can freely move under the application of electric field.

b) Equal electron & hole concentrations in an intrinsic semiconductor created by the thermal excitation of

electrons across the band gap

Optical Fiber communications, 3rd ed.,G.Keiser,McGrawHill, 2000

n-Type Semiconductor

b) The ionization of donor impurities creates an increased electron concentration distribution.

p-Type Semiconductor

b) The ionization of acceptor impurities creates an increased hole concentration distribution

Intrinsic & Extrinsic Materials

• Intrinsic material: A perfect material with no impurities.

Eg

n p ni exp( ) [4-1]

2k BT

n & p & ni are the electron, hole & intrinsic concentrat ions respective ly.

pn ni

2 [4-2]

• Minority carriers: holes in n-type or electrons in p-type.

• The operation of semiconductor devices is essentially based on

the injection and extraction of minority carriers.

The pn Junction

creates a barrier potential (electric field)

in the depletion region.

Reverse-biased pn Junction

A reverse bias widens the depletion region, but allows minority carriers to move freely with the applied field.

Forward-biased pn Junction

Lowering the barrier potential with a forward bias allows majority carriers to diffuse across the junction.

Direct Band Gap Semiconductors

Indirect Band Gap Semiconductors

E E E

CB

Indirect Bandgap, Eg

Ec CB

Direct Bandgap Eg Photon CB Ec Er Ec

Ev kcb Phonon

Ev Ev

VB

VB kvb VB

–k k –k k –k k

(a) GaAs (b) Si (c) Si with a recombination center

(a) In GaAs the minimum of the CB is directly above the maximum of the VB. GaAs is

therefore a direct bandgap semiconductor. (b) In Si, the minimum of the CB is displaced from

the maximum of the VB and Si is an indirect bandgap semiconductor. (c) Recombination of

an electron and a hole in Si involves a recombination center .

© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)

Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

with multimode fiber with tens of microwatts, LEDs are usually

the best choice.

• LED configurations being used in photonic communications:

1- Surface Emitters (Front Emitters)

2- Edge Emitters

Cross-section drawing of a typical

GaAlAs double heterostructure light

emitter. In this structure, x>y to provide

for both carrier confinement and optical

guiding.

b) Energy-band diagram showing the

active region, the electron & hole

barriers which confine the charge carriers

to the active layer.

c) Variations in the refractive index; the

lower refractive index of the material in

regions 1 and 5 creates an optical barrier

around the waveguide because of the higher

band-gap energy of this material.

1.240

(m) [4-3]

Eg (eV)

Surface-Emitting LED

to a circular cross section that has an area compatible with the fiber-core end face.

Edge-Emitting LED

lambertian in the plane of junction and highly directional perpendicular to pn junction.

They have high quantum efficiency & fast response.

Optical Fiber communications, 3rd ed.,G.Keiser,McGrawHill, 2000

Light Source Material

• Most of the light sources contain III-V ternary & quaternary

compounds.

• Ga 1x Al x As by varying x it is possible to control the band-gap

energy and thereby the emission wavelength over the range of

800 nm to 900 nm. The spectral width is around 20 to 40 nm.

• In1 x Ga x As y P1 y By changing 0<x<0.47; y is approximately 2.2x,

the emission wavelength can be controlled over the range of

920 nm to 1600 nm. The spectral width varies from 70 nm to

180 nm when the wavelength changes from 1300 nm to 1600

nm. These materials are lattice matched.

Optical Fiber communications, 3rd ed.,G.Keiser,McGrawHill, 2000

Spectral width of LED types

Rate equations, Quantum Efficiency & Power of

LEDs

• When there is no external carrier injection, the excess density

decays exponentially due to electron-hole recombination.

n(t ) n0 e t / [4-4]

: carrier lifetime.

• Bulk recombination rate R:

dn n

R [4-5]

dt

• Bulk recombination rate (R)=Radiative recombination rate +

nonradiative recombination rate

bulk recombinat ion rate ( R 1/τ )

radiative recombinat ion rate ( Rr 1/τ r ) nonradiati ve recombinat ion rate( Rnr 1/τ nr )

With an external supplied current density of J the rate equation for the electron-hole

recombination is:

dn(t ) J n

[4-6]

dt qd

q : charge of the electron; d : thickness of recombinat ion region

In equilibrium condition: dn/dt=0

J

n [4-7]

qd

Internal Quantum Efficiency & Optical Power

Rr nr

int [4-8]

Rr Rnr r nr r

int : internal quantum efficiency in the active region

Optical power generated internally in the active region in the LED is:

I hcI

Pint int h int

q

[4-9]

q

Pint : Internal optical power,

I : Injected current to active region

External Quantum Eficiency

ext [4-10]

# of LED internally generated photons

consider the reflection effects at the surface of the LED. If we

consider the LED structure as a simple 2D slab waveguide, only

light falling within a cone defined by critical angle will be emitted

from an LED.

c

1

ext

4 0

T ( )(2 sin )d [4-11]

4n1n2

T ( ) : Fresnel Transmissi on Coefficien t T (0) [4-12]

(n1 n2 ) 2

1

If n2 1 ext [4-13]

n1 (n1 1) 2

Pint

LED emitted optical powr, P ext Pint [4-14]

n1 (n1 1) 2

Modulation of LED

• The frequency response of an LED depends on:

1- Doping level in the active region

2- Injected carrier lifetime in the recombination region, .

i

3- Parasitic capacitance of the LED

• If the drive current of an LED is modulated at a frequency of w

the output optical power of the device will vary as:

P0

P (w ) [4-15]

1 (w i ) 2

• Electrical current is directly proportional to the optical power,

thus we can define electrical bandwidth and optical bandwidth,

separately.

p(w) I(w)

Electrical BW 10log 20 log I (0)

[4-16]

p ( 0)

p : electrical power, I : electrical current

P(w ) I (w )

Optical BW 10 log 10 log [4-17]

P ( 0) I ( 0)

LASER

(Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation)

amplifier whose output is fed back into its input with matching

phase. Any oscillator contains:

1- An amplifier with a gain-saturated mechanism

2- A feedback system

3- A frequency selection mechanism

4- An output coupling scheme

• In laser the amplifier is the pumped active medium, such as

biased semiconductor region, feedback can be obtained by

placing active medium in an optical resonator, such as Fabry-

Perot structure, two mirrors separated by a prescribed distance.

Frequency selection is achieved by resonant amplifier and by

the resonators, which admits certain modes. Output coupling is

accomplished by making one of the resonator mirrors partially

transmitting.

Pumped active medium

• Three main process for laser action:

1- Photon absorption

2- Spontaneous emission

3- Stimulated emission

Lasing in a pumped active medium

negligible, since the density of electrons in the excited state is

very small, and optical emission is mainly because of the

spontaneous emission. Stimulated emission will exceed

absorption only if the population of the excited states is greater

than that of the ground state. This condition is known as

Population Inversion. Population inversion is achieved by

various pumping techniques.

by injecting electrons into the material to fill the lower energy

states of the conduction band.

Fabry-Perot Resonator

Relative intensity

M1 M2 m=1

A 1 f R ~ 0.8

m=2 R ~ 0.4

m

B

L m=8

m - 1 m m + 1

(a) (b) (c)

Resonant modes : kL m m 1,2,3,..

Schematic illustration of the Fabry-Perot optical cavity and its properties. (a) Reflected

waves interfere. (b) Only standing EM waves, modes, of certain wavelengths are allowed

in the cavity. (c) Intensity vs. frequency for various modes.R is mirror reflectance and

lower R means higher loss from the cavity.

© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)

(1 R) 2

I trans I inc [4-18]

(1 R) 2 4R sin 2 (kL)

R: reflectance of the optical intensity, k: optical wavenumber

Laser Diode

• Laser diode is an improved LED, in the sense that uses stimulated

emission in semiconductor from optical transitions between distribution

energy states of the valence and conduction bands with optical

resonator structure such as Fabry-Perot resonator with both optical

and carrier confinements.

Laser Diode Characteristics

• Spectral width of the order of nm or less

• High output power (tens of mW)

• Narrow beam (good coupling to single mode fibers)

longitudinal, lateral and transverse modes.

longitudinal direction, so by roughening the edges and cleaving

the facets, the radiation can be achieved in longitudinal direction

rather than lateral direction.

DFB(Distributed FeedBack) Lasers

• In DFB lasers, the optical resonator structure is due to the incorporation

of Bragg grating or periodic variations of the refractive index into

multilayer structure along the length of the diode.

Laser Operation & Lasing Condition

• To determine the lasing condition and resonant frequencies, we

should focus on the optical wave propagation along the

longitudinal direction, z-axis. The optical field intensity, I, can be

written as:

I ( z, t ) I ( z )e j (wt z ) [4-19]

possible by virtue of population inversion. Then, stimulated

emission rate into a given EM mode is proportional to the

intensity of the optical radiation in that mode. In this case, the

loss and gain of the optical field in the optical path determine the

lasing condition. The radiation intensity of a photon at energy h

varies exponentially with a distance z amplified by factor g, and

attenuated by factor according to the following relationship:

I ( z) I (0) expg (h ) (h )z [4-20]

R1 n1 R2

Z=0 n2 Z=L

2

n1 n2

α : effective absorption coefficien t, R

n1 n2

Lasing Conditions:

I ( 2 L ) I ( 0)

[4-22]

exp( j 2 L) 1

Threshold gain & current density

1 1

gth ln [4-23]

2 L R1R2

For laser structure with strong carrier confinement, the threshold current

Density for stimulated emission can be well approximated by:

gth J th [4-24]

Optical output vs. drive current

Semiconductor laser rate equations

• Rate equations relate the optical output power, or # of photons per unit

volume, , to the diode drive current or # of injected electrons per

unit volume, n. For active (carrier confinement) region of depth d, the

rate equations are:

d

Cn Rsp

dt ph

Photonratestimulated emission spontaneous emission photon loss [4-25]

dn J n

Cn

dt qd sp

electron rate injection spontaneous recombination stimulated emission

Rsp :rate of spontaneous emission into the lasing mode

ph : photonlife time

J :Injectioncurrent density

Threshold current Density & excess electron density

1

from eq. [4 - 25] Cn / ph 0 n nth [4-26]

C ph

concentration of the excess electron, is found from electron rate

equation under steady state condition dn/dt=0 when the laser is just

about to lase:

J th nth nth

0 J th qd [4-27]

qd sp sp

Laser operation beyond the threshold

J J th

• The solution of the rate equations [4-25] gives the steady state

photon density, resulting from stimulated emission and

spontaneous emission as follows:

ph

s ( J J th ) ph Rsp [4-28]

qd

External quantum efficiency

recombination above threshold, gives us the external quantum

efficiency.

i ( g th )

ext

g th

q dP dP (mW )

0.8065[ m] [4-29]

E g dI dI (mA )

Laser Resonant Frequencies

• Lasing condition, namely eq. [4-22]:

2n

• Assuming the resonant frequency of the mth

mode is:

mc

m m 1,2,3,... [4-30]

2 Ln

c 2

m m1 [4-31]

2 Ln 2 Ln

Spectrum from a laser Diode

( 0 )

g ( ) g (0) exp : spectral width [4-32]

2

2

Laser Diode Structure & Radiation Pattern

lateral modes, stabilizing the gain for lateral modes as well as

lowering the threshold current. These are met by structures that

confine the optical wave, carrier concentration and current flow

in the lateral direction. The important types of laser diodes are:

gain-induced, positive index guided, and negative index

guided.

(a) gain-induced guide (b)positive-index waveguide (c)negative-index waveguide

Laser Diode with buried heterostructure (BH)

Single Mode Laser

• Single mode laser is mostly based on the index-

guided structure that supports only the fundamental

transverse mode and the fundamental longitudinal

mode. In order to make single mode laser we have

four options:

1- Reducing the length of the cavity to the point

where the frequency separation given in eq[4-31] of

the adjacent modes is larger than the laser transition

line width. This is hard to handle for fabrication and

results in low output power.

2- Vertical-Cavity Surface Emitting laser (VCSEL)

3- Structures with built-in frequency selective grating

4- tunable laser diodes

.

VCSEL

Frequency-Selective laser Diodes:

Distributed Feedback (DFB) laser

2ne

B [4-33]

k

Frequency-Selective laser Diodes:

Distributed Feedback Reflector (DBR) laser

B 2

1

B (m )

2ne Le 2

[4-35]

Output spectrum symmetrically distributed around Bragg wavelength in an idealized DFB laser diode

Frequency-Selective laser Diodes:

Distributed Reflector (DR) laser

Modulation of Laser Diodes

• Internal Modulation: Simple but suffers from non-linear effects.

• External Modulation: for rates greater than 2 Gb/s, more

complex, higher performance.

• Most fundamental limit for the modulation rate is set by the

photon life time in the laser cavity:

1 c 1 1 c

ln g th

ph

[4-36]

n 2L R1 R2 n

• Another fundamental limit on modulation frequency is the

relaxation oscillation frequency given by:

1/ 2

1 1 I

f 1 [4-37]

2 sp ph I th

Relaxation oscillation peak

Pulse Modulated laser

• In a pulse modulated laser, if the laser is completely turned off

after each pulse, after onset of the current pulse, a time

t d delay,

given by:

Ip

t d ln [4-38]

I p ( I B I th )

I B : Bias current

Temperature variation of the threshold

current

I th (T ) I z e T / T0

Linearity of Laser

electrical signal s(t) modulator

P(t)=P[1+ms(t)]

Nonlinearity

x(t ) A cos wt

y (t ) A0 A1 cos wt A2 cos 2wt ...

An

20 log

A1

Intermodulation Distortion

y (t ) Bmn cos( mw1 nw 2 )t m,n 0,1,2,...

m,n

nw1 , mw 2

Harmonics:

Intermodulated Terms:

Laser Noise

energy among various modes.

• Mode partition Noise: Intensity fluctuations in the longitudinal

modes of a laser diode, main source of noise in single mode

fiber systems.

• Reflection Noise: Light output gets reflected back from the fiber

joints into the laser, couples with lasing modes, changing their

phase, and generate noise peaks. Isolators & index matching

fluids can eliminate these reflections.

Chapter 4

Photonic Sources

Contents

• Light Emitting Diode (LED)

- Structure, Material,Quantum efficiency, LED Power,

Modulation

• Laser Diodes

- structure, Modes, Rate Equation,Quantum efficiency,

Resonant frequencies, Radiation pattern

• Single-Mode Lasers

- DFB (Distributed-FeedBack) laser, Distributed-Bragg

Reflector, Modulation

• Light-source Linearity

• Noise in Lasers

Review of Semiconductor Physics

k B 1.38 1023 JK -1

a) Energy level diagrams showing the excitation of an electron from the valence band to the conduction band.

The resultant free electron can freely move under the application of electric field.

b) Equal electron & hole concentrations in an intrinsic semiconductor created by the thermal excitation of

electrons across the band gap

Optical Fiber communications, 3rd ed.,G.Keiser,McGrawHill, 2000

n-Type Semiconductor

b) The ionization of donor impurities creates an increased electron concentration distribution.

p-Type Semiconductor

b) The ionization of acceptor impurities creates an increased hole concentration distribution

Intrinsic & Extrinsic Materials

• Intrinsic material: A perfect material with no impurities.

Eg

n p ni exp( ) [4-1]

2k BT

n & p & ni are the electron, hole & intrinsic concentrat ions respective ly.

pn ni

2 [4-2]

• Minority carriers: holes in n-type or electrons in p-type.

• The operation of semiconductor devices is essentially based on

the injection and extraction of minority carriers.

The pn Junction

creates a barrier potential (electric field)

in the depletion region.

Reverse-biased pn Junction

A reverse bias widens the depletion region, but allows minority carriers to move freely with the applied field.

Forward-biased pn Junction

Lowering the barrier potential with a forward bias allows majority carriers to diffuse across the junction.

Direct Band Gap Semiconductors

Indirect Band Gap Semiconductors

E E E

CB

Indirect Bandgap, Eg

Ec CB

Direct Bandgap Eg Photon CB Ec Er Ec

Ev kcb Phonon

Ev Ev

VB

VB kvb VB

–k k –k k –k k

(a) GaAs (b) Si (c) Si with a recombination center

(a) In GaAs the minimum of the CB is directly above the maximum of the VB. GaAs is

therefore a direct bandgap semiconductor. (b) In Si, the minimum of the CB is displaced from

the maximum of the VB and Si is an indirect bandgap semiconductor. (c) Recombination of

an electron and a hole in Si involves a recombination center .

© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)

Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

with multimode fiber with tens of microwatts, LEDs are usually

the best choice.

• LED configurations being used in photonic communications:

1- Surface Emitters (Front Emitters)

2- Edge Emitters

Cross-section drawing of a typical

GaAlAs double heterostructure light

emitter. In this structure, x>y to provide

for both carrier confinement and optical

guiding.

b) Energy-band diagram showing the

active region, the electron & hole

barriers which confine the charge carriers

to the active layer.

c) Variations in the refractive index; the

lower refractive index of the material in

regions 1 and 5 creates an optical barrier

around the waveguide because of the higher

band-gap energy of this material.

1.240

(m) [4-3]

Eg (eV)

Surface-Emitting LED

to a circular cross section that has an area compatible with the fiber-core end face.

Edge-Emitting LED

lambertian in the plane of junction and highly directional perpendicular to pn junction.

They have high quantum efficiency & fast response.

Optical Fiber communications, 3rd ed.,G.Keiser,McGrawHill, 2000

Light Source Material

• Most of the light sources contain III-V ternary & quaternary

compounds.

• Ga 1x Al x As by varying x it is possible to control the band-gap

energy and thereby the emission wavelength over the range of

800 nm to 900 nm. The spectral width is around 20 to 40 nm.

• In1 x Ga x As y P1 y By changing 0<x<0.47; y is approximately 2.2x,

the emission wavelength can be controlled over the range of

920 nm to 1600 nm. The spectral width varies from 70 nm to

180 nm when the wavelength changes from 1300 nm to 1600

nm. These materials are lattice matched.

Optical Fiber communications, 3rd ed.,G.Keiser,McGrawHill, 2000

Spectral width of LED types

Rate equations, Quantum Efficiency & Power of

LEDs

• When there is no external carrier injection, the excess density

decays exponentially due to electron-hole recombination.

n(t ) n0 e t / [4-4]

: carrier lifetime.

• Bulk recombination rate R:

dn n

R [4-5]

dt

• Bulk recombination rate (R)=Radiative recombination rate +

nonradiative recombination rate

bulk recombinat ion rate ( R 1/τ )

radiative recombinat ion rate ( Rr 1/τ r ) nonradiati ve recombinat ion rate( Rnr 1/τ nr )

With an external supplied current density of J the rate equation for the electron-hole

recombination is:

dn(t ) J n

[4-6]

dt qd

q : charge of the electron; d : thickness of recombinat ion region

In equilibrium condition: dn/dt=0

J

n [4-7]

qd

Internal Quantum Efficiency & Optical Power

Rr nr

int [4-8]

Rr Rnr r nr r

int : internal quantum efficiency in the active region

Optical power generated internally in the active region in the LED is:

I hcI

Pint int h int

q

[4-9]

q

Pint : Internal optical power,

I : Injected current to active region

External Quantum Eficiency

ext [4-10]

# of LED internally generated photons

consider the reflection effects at the surface of the LED. If we

consider the LED structure as a simple 2D slab waveguide, only

light falling within a cone defined by critical angle will be emitted

from an LED.

c

1

ext

4 0

T ( )(2 sin )d [4-11]

4n1n2

T ( ) : Fresnel Transmissi on Coefficien t T (0) [4-12]

(n1 n2 ) 2

1

If n2 1 ext [4-13]

n1 (n1 1) 2

Pint

LED emitted optical powr, P ext Pint [4-14]

n1 (n1 1) 2

Modulation of LED

• The frequency response of an LED depends on:

1- Doping level in the active region

2- Injected carrier lifetime in the recombination region, .

i

3- Parasitic capacitance of the LED

• If the drive current of an LED is modulated at a frequency of w

the output optical power of the device will vary as:

P0

P (w ) [4-15]

1 (w i ) 2

• Electrical current is directly proportional to the optical power,

thus we can define electrical bandwidth and optical bandwidth,

separately.

p(w) I(w)

Electrical BW 10log 20 log I (0)

[4-16]

p ( 0)

p : electrical power, I : electrical current

P(w ) I (w )

Optical BW 10 log 10 log [4-17]

P ( 0) I ( 0)

Chapter 5

Laser-Fiber Connection

Content

• Fiber-to-Fiber coupling

• Fiber Splicing and connectors

Coupling Efficiency

[5-1]

Ps PF

Source Optical Fiber

Radiance (Brightness) of the source

unit solid angle [watts/(square centimeter per stradian)]

Surface emitting LEDs have a Lambertian pattern:

Edge emitting LEDs and laser diodes radiation pattern

1 sin cos

2 2

[5-3]

T L

Power Coupled from source to the fiber

PF B( As , s )d s dAs

A f and f : area and Af

f [5-4]

solid acceptance angle of fiber rm 2

2 0 max

B( , ) sin dd d s rdr

0 0 0 0

Power coupled from LED to the Fiber

0 max

rs 2

P 2B0 cos sin d d s rdr

0 0

0

rs 2

B0 0 max d s rdr

sin 2

0 0

rs 2 2

B0 NA d rdr

s

0 0

PLED,step rs B0 ( NA) 2 rs B0 n1

2 2 2 2 2 2

[5-5]

Power coupling from LED to step-index fiber

2 / 2

Ps As

0 0

B( , ) sin dd

/2

Ps rs 2B0

2 2 2

cos sin d rs B0 [5-6]

0

Ps ( NA) 2 if rs a

PLED,step a 2 [5-7]

s P ( NA) 2

if rs a

rs

Equilibrium Numerical Aperture

Examples of possible lensing schemes used to improve optical source-to-fiber coupling

efficiency

Laser diode to Fiber Coupling

Fiber-to-Fiber Joint

1- Splice (permanent bond)

2- Connector (demountable connection)

Different modal distribution of the optical beam emerging from a fiber lead to different degrees of

coupling loss. a) when all modes are equally excited, the output beam fills the entire output NA.

b) for a steady state modal distribution, only the equilibrium NA is filled by the output beam.

Mechanical misalignment losses

Mechanical loss.

1/ 2

d d

2

Acomm 2 d

F ,step arccos 1 [5-9]

a 2

2a a 2a

Longitudinal offset effect

of the fibers

aR

LF (a) 10 log( ) for a R a E

aE [5-10]

NA R

LF (a) 20 log( ) for NA R NA E

NA E

E & R subscripts refer to emitting and receiving fibers.

Experimental comparison of Loss as a function

of mechanical misalignment

Fiber end face

Fiber splicing

Fusion Splicing

V-groove optical fiber splicing

Optical Fiber Connectors

• Some of the principal requirements of a good connector design are as

follows:

1- low coupling losses

2- Interchangeability

3- Ease of assembly

4- Low environmental sensitivity

5- Low-cost and reliable construction

6- Ease of connection

Connector Return Loss

Chapter 6

Photodetectors

Content

• Physical Principles of Photodiodes

• pin, APD

• Photodetectors characteristics (Quantum efficiency,

Responsivity, S/N)

• Noise in Photodetector Circuits

• Photodiode Response Time

• Photodiodes structures

pin Photodetector

The high electric field present in the depletion region causes photo-generated carriers to

Separate and be collected across the reverse –biased junction. This give rise to a current

Flow in an external circuit, known as photocurrent.

Energy-Band diagram for a pin photodiode

Photocurrent

• Optical power absorbed,P (x )in the depletion region can be written in terms

of incident optical power, P0 :

s ( ) x

P( x) P0 (1 e ) [6-1]

wavelength cutoff for any semiconductor can be determined by its energy

gap as follows:

1.24

c ( m) [6-2]

E g (eV)

• Taking entrance face reflectivity into consideration, the absorbed power in

the width of depletion region, w, becomes:

(1 R f ) P(w) P0 (1 e s ( ) w )(1 R f )

Optical Absorption Coefficient

Responsivity

• The primary photocurrent resulting from absorption is:

q

Ip P0 (1 e s ( ) w )(1 R f ) [6-3]

h

• Quantum Efficiency:

# of incident photons

[6-4]

IP / q

P0 / h

• Responsivity:

IP q

[A/W] [6-5]

P0 h

Responsivity vs. wavelength

Avalanche Photodiode (APD)

APDs internally multiply the

primary photocurrent before it

enters to following circuitry.

In order to carrier multiplication

take place, the photogenerated

carriers must traverse along a

high field region. In this region,

photogenerated electrons and

holes gain enough energy to

ionize bound electrons in VB

upon colliding with them. This

multiplication is known as Optical radiation

impact ionization. The newly

created carriers in the presence of Reach-Through APD structure (RAPD)

high electric field result in more showing the electric fields in depletion

ionization called avalanche region and multiplication region.

effect.

Responsivity of APD

• The multiplication factor (current gain) M for all carriers generated in the

photodiode is defined as:

IM

M [6-6]

Ip

• Where I M is the average value of the total multiplied output current & I P

is the primary photocurrent.

as:

q

AP D M 0 M [6-7]

h

Current gain (M) vs. Voltage for different optical

wavelengths

Photodetector Noise & S/N

signal requires that the

photodetector and its

following amplification

circuitry be optimized for a

desired signal-to-noise

ratio.

• It is the noise current

which determines the

minimum optical power

level that can be detected.

This minimum detectable

optical power defines the

sensitivity of

photodetector. That is the S signal power from photocurre nt

optical power that

N photodetec tor noise power amplifier noise power

generates a photocurrent

with the amplitude equal to

that of the total noise

current (S/N=1)

Signal Calculation

• Consider the modulated optical power signal P(t) falls on the photodetector

with the form of:

P(t ) P0 [1 ms(t )] [6-8]

Therefore the primary photocurrent is (for pin photodiode M=1):

q

iph MP (t ) I P [DC value ] i p (t )[ AC current ] [6-9]

h

ip M s

2 2 2 2 [6-9]

is

m 2 I P2

p

2 2

ip for sinusoidal signal [6-10]

2

Noise Sources in Photodetecors

• The principal noises associated with photodetectors are :

1- Quantum (Shot) noise: arises from statistical nature of the production

and collection of photo-generated electrons upon optical illumination. It has

been shown that the statistics follow a Poisson process.

2- Dark current noise: is the current that continues to flow through the

bias circuit in the absence of the light. This is the combination of bulk

dark current, which is due to thermally generated e and h in the pn

junction, and the surface dark current, due to surface defects, bias voltage

and surface area.

• In order to calculate the total noise presented in photodetector, we should

sum up the root mean square of each noise current by assuming that those

are uncorrelated.

current noise + surface current noise

Noise calculation (1)

• Quantum noise current (lower limit on the sensitivity):

Q 2qI P BM F (M )

2 2 2

iQ [6-11]

x

•

DB 2qI D BM 2 F ( M )

2 2

i DB [6-12]

I D is bulk dark current

M 2 F (M ) 1

• Surface dark current noise: IL is the surface current.

DS 2qI L B

2 2

i DS [6-13]

Noise calculation (2)

• The total rms photodetector noise current is:

N iQ i DB i DS

2 2 2 2 2

iN

2q( I P I D ) BM 2 F ( M ) 2qI L B [6-14]

4k BTB

T

2 2

iT [6-15]

RL

S/N Calculation

• Having obtained the signal and total noise, the signal-to-noise-ratio can be

written as:

2

S iP M 2

[6-16]

N 2q( I P I D ) BM 2 F ( M ) 2qI L B 4k BTB / RL

• Since the noise figure F(M) increases with M, there always exists an

optimum value of M that maximizes the S/N. For sinusoidally modulated

signal with m=1 and F ( M ) M x :

x2 2qI L 4k BT / RL

[6-17]

M

xq( I P I D )

opt

Photodetector Response Time

• The response time of a photodetector with its output circuit depends mainly

on the following three factors:

1- The transit time of the photocarriers in the depletion region. The transit

time t ddepends on the carrier drift velocity v d and the depletion layer

width w, and is given by:

w

td [6-18]

vd

2- Diffusion time of photocarriers outside depletion region.

3- RC time constant of the circuit. The circuit after the photodetector acts

like RC low pass filter with a passband given by:

1

B [6-19]

2RT CT

RT Rs || RL and CT Ca Cd

Photodiode response to optical pulse

photodiode that is not fully depleted

Various optical responses of photodetectors:

Trade-off between quantum efficiency & response time

• To achieve a high quantum

efficiency, the depletion layer

width must be larger than 1 / s

(the inverse of the absorption

coefficient), so that most of the

light will be absorbed. At the

same time with large width, the

capacitance is small and RC

time constant getting smaller,

leading to faster response, but

wide width results in larger

transit time in the depletion

region. Therefore there is a

trade-off between width and

QE. It is shown that the best

is:

1/ s w 2 / s

Structures for InGaAs APDs

• Separate-absorption-and multiplication (SAM) APD

light

InP substrate

InP buffer layer

INGaAs Absorption layer

Metal contact

of several layers of InAlGaAs quantum wells separated by InAlAs barrier

layers.

Temperature effect on avalanche gain

Comparison of photodetectors

Chapter 7

Photonic Transmission

Systems (Digital & Analog)

Content

• Digital Photonic Receiver (BER, Quantum Limit)

• Analog Photonic Transmission System

• Photonic Digital Link Analysis & Design

- Link Loss budget, Link Power budget, Rise Time budget

• System Rise Time and Information Rate

Digital Transmission System (DTS)

• The design of optical receiver is much more complicated than that of optical transmitter

because the receiver must first detect weak, distorted signals and the n make decisions

on what type of data was sent.

Error Sources in DTS

N

h 0

P (t ) dt

h

E [7-1]

e N

Pr (n) Nn

[7-2]

n!

N is the average number of electron-hole pairs in photodetector,

is the detector quantum efficiency and E is energy received in a time

interval and h is photon energy, where Pr (n) is the probability

that n electrons are emitted in an interval .

InterSymbol Interference (ISI)

leads to ISI. Some fraction of energy remaining in appropriate time slot

is designated by , so the rest is the fraction of energy that has spread

Into adjacent time slots.

Receiver Configuration

The binary digital pulse train incident on the photodetector can be written in the

following form:

P(t ) b h

n

n p (t nTb ) [7-3]

and h p (t )is the received pulse shape which is positive for all t.

• In writing down eq. [7-3], we assume the digital pulses with amplitude V

represents bit 1 and 0 represents bit 0. Thus bn can take two values

corresponding to each binary data. By normalizing the input pulse h p (t ) to

the photodiode to have unit area

h

p (t )dt 1

the mean output current from the photodiode at time t resulting from pulse

train given in eq. [7-3] is (neglecting the DC components arising from dark

current noise):

q

i (t ) MP (t ) o M bn h p (t nTb ) [7-4]

h n

Bit Error Rate (BER)

# of error over a certain ti me interval t

[7-5]

Ne Ne

B 1 / Tb

Nt Bt

less than the threshold when a 1 is sent + probability that the

output voltage is more than the threshold when a 0 has been

sent.

vth

the different widths of the two distributions are caused by various signal

distortion effects.

v

P1 (v) p( y | 1)dy

probablity that the equalizer output vol tage is less than v, if 1 transmitt ed

[7-6]

P0 (v) p( y | 0)dy probablity that the equalizer output vol tage exceeds v, if 0 transmitt ed

v

Pe q1 P1 (vth ) q 0 P0 (vth )

vth [7-7]

q1 p( y | 1)dy q p( y | 1)dy

0

vth

• Where q1 and q0 are the probabilities that the transmitter sends 0 and 1

respectively. q 1 q

0 1

Gaussian Distribution

vth

1

vth

(v bon ) 2

P1 (vth ) p( y | 1)dy

2 on

exp

2 on

2 dv

[7-8]

1 (v boff ) 2

P0 (vth ) p( y | 0)dy

vth 2 off

exp

vth 2 off

2 dv

mean

mean

• If we assume that the probabilities of 0 and 1 pulses are equally likely, then

using eq [7-7] and [7-8] , BER becomes:

1 1 Q

BER Pe (Q ) exp( x )dx 1 erf (

2

)

Q/ 2 2 2

1 exp(- Q 2 /2)

[7-9]

2 Q

Q [7-9]

off on

x

2

erf ( x) 2

exp( y )dy [7-10]

0

Approximation of error function

Variation of BER vs Q,

according to eq [7-9].

Special Case

In special case when:

From eq [7-29], we have: vth V / 2

Eq [7-8] becomes:

1 V

Pe ( ) 1 erf ( )

2 2 2

V [7-11]

is peak signal - to - rms - noise ratio.

Quantum Limit

• Minimum received power required for a specific BER assuming that the

photodetector has a 100% quantum efficiency and zero dark current. For

such ideal photo-receiver,

optical pulse energy is E and given by eq [7-1] with 100% quantum

efficiency ( 1) .

• Eq [7-12] can be derived from eq [7-2] where n=0.

than quantum limit because of various nonlinear distortions and noise

effects in the transmission link.

Analog Transmission System

system the performance of the system

is mainly determined by signal-to-

noise ratio at the output of the

receiver. I

• In case of amplitude modulation the

m

IB

transmitted optical power P(t) is in

the form of:

P(t ) Pt [1 ms(t )]

where m is modulation index, and s(t)

is analog modulation signal.

• The photocurrent at receiver can be

expressed as:

• By calculating mean square of the signal and mean square of the total

noise, which consists of quantum, dark and surface leakage noise currents

plus resistance thermal noise, the S/N can be written as:

S i s2 (1 / 2)( 0 MmPr ) 2

2

N iN 2q ( 0 Pr I D ) M 2 F ( M ) B ( 4k B TB / Req ) Ft

2 [7-14]

(1 / 2)( MmI P )

2q ( I P I D ) M 2 F ( M ) B ( 4k B TB / Req ) Ft

I L : Surface - leakage current; F ( M ) : excess photodiode noise factor M x

B : effective noise bandwidth; Req : equivalent resistance of photodetec tor load and amplifier

Ft : noise figure of baseband amplifier; Pr : average received optical power

pin Photodiode S/N

• For pin photodiode, M=1:

(1 / 2)m 2 0 Pr

2 2

S (1 / 2)( I P m) 2

Low input signal level [7-15]

S m 2

0 Pr

Large signal level [7-16]

N 4qB

SNR vs. optical power for photodiodes

Photonic Digital Link Analysis & Design

- Data Rate

- BER

- Distance

- Cost & Complexity

• Analysis Methods:

- Link loss & S/N analysis (link power budget analysis and loss

allocation) for a prescribed BER

- Dispersion (rise-time) analysis (rise-time budget allocation)

System Design Choices:

Photodetector, Optical Source, Fiber

• Photodetectors: Compared to APD, PINs are less expensive

and more stablewith temperature. However PINs have lower

sensitivity.

• Optical Sources:

1- LEDs: 150 (Mb/s).km @ 800-900 nm and larger than 1.5

(Gb/s).km @ 1330 nm

2- InGaAsP lasers: 25 (Gb/s).km @ 1330 nm and ideally around

500 (Gb/s).km @ 1550 nm. 10-15 dB more power. However

more costly and more complex circuitry.

• Fiber:

1- Single-mode fibers are often used with lasers or edge-emitting

LEDs.

2- Multi-mode fibers are normally used with LEDs. NA and

should be optimized for any particular application.

Link Power/Loss Analysis

Receiver Sensitivities vs. Bit Rate

9

The Si PIN & APD and InGaAsP PIN plots for BER= 10 . The InGaAs APD plot is for

BER= 10 .11

Link Loss Budget [Example 8.1]

Link Power Budget Table [Example 8.2]

• Example: [SONET Component/loss Output/sensitivity Power margin

OC-48 (2.5 Gb/s) parameter /loss (dB)

link] Laser output 3 dBm

Transmitter: 3dBm

APD Sensitivity -32 dBm

@ 1550 nm;

@ 2.5 Gb/s

Receiver: InGaAs

APD with -32 dBm Allowed loss 3-(-32) dBm 35

sensitivity @ 2.5 Source connector 1 dB 34

Gb/s; loss

Fiber: 60 km long Jumper+Connect 3+1 dB 30

with o.3 dB/km or loss

attenuation; jumper Cable attenuation 18 dB 12

cable loss 3 dB each,

connector loss of 1 Jumper+Connect 3+1 dB 8

dB each. or loss

Receiver 1 dB 7(final margin)

Connector loss

Dispersion Analysis (Rise-Time Budget)

t sys [ttx t mod tGVD t rx ]

2 2 2 2 1/ 2

2 1/ 2

2 440 Lq 350

2

ttx D L

2 2 2

B0 Brx

Brx [ MHz ]:3dB Electrical BW L[ km ]:Length of the fiber B0 [ MHz ]:BW of the 1 km of the fiber;

Two-level Binary Channel Codes

System rise-Time & Information Rate

bit rate of the system according to the following criteria:

t sys 35% of RZ bit period

Example

• Laser Tx has a rise-time of 25 ps at 1550 nm and spectral

width of 0.1 nm. Length of fiber is 60 km with dispersion 2

ps/(nm.km). The InGaAs APD has a 2.5 GHz BW. The rise-

time budget (required) of the system for NRZ signaling is 0.28

ns whereas the total rise-time due to components is 0.14 ns.

(The system is designed for 20 Mb/s).

Example: Transmission Distance for MM-Fiber

• NRZ signaling, source/detector: 800-900 nm LED/pin or AlGaAs

laser/APD combinations. BER 10;9 LED output=-13 dBm;fiber loss=3.5

dB/km;fiber bandwidth 800 MHz.km; q=0.7; 1-dB connector/coupling loss

at each end; 6 dB system margin, material dispersion ins 0.07 ns/(km.nm);

spectral width for LED=50 nm. Laser ar 850 nm spectral width=1 nm; laser

ouput=0 dBm, Laser system margin=8 dB;

Example:Transmission Distance for a SM Fiber

• Communication at 1550 nm, no modal dispersion, Source:Laser;

Receiver:InGaAs-APD (11.5 log B -71.0 dBm) and PIN (11.5log B-60.5

dBm); Fiber loss =0.3 dB/km; D=2.5 ps/(km.nm): laser spectral width 1

and 3.5 nm; laser output 0 dBm,laser system margin=8 dB;

Chapter 8

Photonic Networks

Contents

• Basic Networks

• SONET/SDH Standards

• Broadcast & Select WDM Networks

• Wavelength-Routed Networks

Basic Networks

• Stations or Data Equipment Terminal (DAT)

• Networks

- Local Area Networks (LAN)

- Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

- Wide Area Network (WAN)

• Node

• Topology

- Linear Bus

- Ring

- Star

• Switching

• Routing

• Protocol

• Router

3 Network Topologies

Bus Topology

Ring Topology

Star Topology

Passive Linear Bus Topology

Liner bus versus star coupler

SONET/SDH

with 51.84 Mb/s

(125 microsecond/frame)=51.84 Mb/s

with 51.84N Mb/s

N=1,3,12,24,48,192

SONET/SDH

Technical Information

receiver sensitivity, optical wavelength for various data rate, look at:

• http://www.itu.int (International Communication Union)

• ITU-T Recommendations G.652, G.653, G.655, G.957, G.691,

G.692

• Tables 12-3, 12-4, 12-5 in the text book give you an idea about ITU

recommendations for different photonic network configurations,

standards, and interfaces.

SONET/SDH Ring

2-Fiber UPSR (Unidirectional Path Switched Ring)

with counter-rotating protection path.

from node 1 to node 3.

SONET/SDH Networks

Add/Drop Multiplexer

WDM Network

Broadcast & Select Networks

Bus

Star

Wavelength-Routed Networks

(Wavelength reuse, wavelength conversion & optical switching)

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