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URBAN TERMINOLOGY

CONTEXT

PREARED BY:
VISHWA PATEL
KUNAL PATEL
MANSAVI SATANI
PRASHANT PATEL
CHETAN SHAH
URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8
CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CONTEXT
 Site analysis is a preliminary phase of
CONSEQUENCE TRIANGLE
architectural and urban design processes
dedicated to the study of the climatic,
OWNERS WALLS
geographical, historical, legal, and WORKERS FLOORS
infrastructural context of a specific site. CUSTOMERS CEILINGS
VISITORS STRUCTURE
 The whole situation, background or RENTERS MECHANICAL
environment relevant to some event or MAINTENANCE LIGHTING
product. In our case, the product is the
building.
context
 The result of this analytic process is a
summary, usually a graphical sketch,
which sets in relation the relevant
environmental information with the
morphology of the site in terms of
parcel, topography, and built
environment. This result is then used as
a starting point for the development of
environment-related strategies during
the design process.

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
SITE ANALYSIS

HARD DATA SOFT DATA


Usually relates to physical site Sensory and human aspects of
data which involves no the site that usually involve
judgments value judgments
 SITE LOCATION  VIEWS FROM THE SITE
 DIMENSIONS  VIEWS TO THE SITE
 CONTOURS  BEST APPROACHES TO THE SITE
 ON SITE FEATURES  EXISTENCE OF ODORS
 CLIMATE  EXISTENCE OF NOISE
 EXISTENCE OF HUMAN
 ZONING
ACTIVITY
 VEGETATION  TYPE OF NEIGHBORHOOD
 DEMOGRAPHICS

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
PARAMETER OF SITE IN CONTEXT
 PARAMETER:
 SITE AREA
 TREES
 SET BACK
 CONTOURS
 DRAINAGE
 MAN MADE FEATURES
 UTILITIES

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
PARAMETER OF SITE IN CONTEXT

 PARAMETER:
 VEHICULER CIRCULATION
 PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION
 CLIMATE
 WIND
 SPECIAL REGIONAL CONDITION
 SUN PATH

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
PARAMETER OF SITE IN CONTEXT
 PARAMETER:
 HUMAN CULTURAL
 NEIGHBOURHOOD
 VIEW TO SITE
 VIEW THROUGH SITE
 VIEW FROM SITE
 NOICE

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
ELEMENTS OF CONTEXT:

 Location  Drainage
 Neighborhood  Pedestrians
 Human and cultural  Demographics
 Legal  Setbacks
 Sensory  Easements
 Contours  Climate
 Zoning  Subsurface Features
 Circulation  Vegetation
 Approach  Man-made features
 Noise  Natural physical features
 Traffic  Aesthetic Factors Visual analysis
 Utilities

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
 LOCATION
 CHANDIGARH was the first planned city after independence from
British rule in 1947. It is the capital city of the states of Punjab and
Haryana.
 The city is located at the picturesque junction of foothills of the
Himalayas Mountain range and the Ganges plains.
 It houses a population of 1,054,600 inhabitants (2001) and is one of the
richest cities of the nation.
 American architects Albert Mayer and Mathew Novicki were the first
architects to be appointed for the project. After the death of Novicki
in 1950, Le Corbusier was commissioned.
GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION
It was bound by two seasonal choes, or rivulets, the patiali rao
and the sukhna in the northwest and the south east respectively.
It extends in the northeast right up to the foothills of the shivaliks.

The region experiences extremes in the climate. The temperature


could rise to 45 degrees in summer and drop to freezing point in
winter.

The direction of the prevalent winds is southeast to the northwest


in summer and northwest to the southeast in winter.

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
 HISTORY

INDIA DURING PARTITION


•After the loss of Lahore, the idea of building a new capital for the Indian part of Punjab took form
in 1948.
•Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru said “Let this be a new town, symbolic of freedom of India unfettered by
the traditions of the past….. an expression of the nation’s faith in the future”. The city is a product of
Nehru’s vision.
A need for the capital
Rehabilitating refugees
A centre for governance
A rich cultural legacy like Lahore
A vision of the future
URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8
CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
 It affirmed that town planning is the organizations of functions of collective life – this applies to
both rural and urban settlements
 four functions of any settlement
 dwelling
 work
 recreation
 transportation, which connects the first three with one another.

 It resulted in the publication of ‘The Three Human Establishments’. The examination of working
conditions in a mechanistic society led to the recognition of the utility and necessity of three unit
establishments indispensable for human activity :
 The Farming unit – the cooperative village : a unit for agricultural production
 The linear industrial city
 The radio concentric city - same as Radiant city (Ville Radieuse) for the exchange of goods
and services.

City for 3 million people was proposed by Le corbusier in 1922,


which was based on four principles :
Decongestion of the centre of the cities
Augmentation of the density
Enlargement of the means of circulation
Increase in the number of parks and open spaces

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
 BASIC CONCEPTS
The city plan was conceived as post war ‘Garden City’ wherein vertical and high rise buildings were
ruled out, keeping in view the living habits of the people.

Le Corbusier conceived the master plan of Chandigarh as analogous to human body, with a clearly
defined
Head (the Capitol Complex, Sector 1),
Heart (the City Centre Sector-17),
Lungs (the leisure valley, innumerable open
spaces and sector greens),
Intellect (the cultural and educational
institutions),
Circulatory system (the network of roads, the 7Vs)
and
Viscera (the Industrial Area).

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
 INITIAL PROPOSALS

Fan-shaped Master Plan proposed by Grid-Iron Master Plan proposed by


Albert Mayer Le Corbusier
URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8
CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
LE CORBUSIER PLANNING
STRATEGIES

• Planned with focus on urban


design , architectural
aesthetics , preservation of
natural environment ,
conservation of buildings
and open spaces ,
hierarchical road network
• Divided the human
functions into circulation ,
living , working , care body
and spirit with strict zoning
• City planning was against
the traditional Indian cities.
• Replaced the native Indian
town plan into superblocks.

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
 ZONING

ANALYSIS OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF SOCIAL


GROUPS IN CHANDIGARH IN 1998.
THREE ZONES
 CENTRAL CITY
 SECTOR
 PROTECTED GREEN BELT
 LINEAR INDUSTRIAL CITY

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
SERIES OF DEVELOPMENT

LAYER 1(SECTORS)

•Divided in sectors

Industrial

Residential

Public

LAYER 2 (ROAD PATTERN)

•Transport interchange nodes

•Road connectivity

•Division of spaces

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
LAYER 3

• Railway station

• International airport

LAYER 4 (PERIPHERAL)

• land for industries

• distributive trade

•Transport routes

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
LAYER 5 (AGRICULTURAL)

• New development nodes identified


• 8km agricultural belt was created ( to prevent
unregulated development around the master plan)
•The belt was built for planned future extension of
the city.

LAYER 6 (STATE)

• Other city nodes identified for development

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
THE CAPITOL COMPLEX

• Based on the design of a grate


cross axis.
• The artificial hills in the front of the
secretariat have not been
created and laid out in
accordance with le corbusier’s
conceptions.
• Designed as the great pedestrain
plaza with motor traffic
seperated into suken trenches
leading to parking areas.
• Consists of
• Parliament
• Secretariat
• Governor’s palace
• High court
• Truncated pyramid
• Monument for the victims
• Open hand

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
THE SECTOR
• The primary module of the city ‘s
design is a sector , neighborhood unit
of size 800mtrs×1200mtrs

• Each sector is a self sufficient unit


having shops ,school , health centers
and places of recreations and worship

• The population of a sector varies


between 3000and 2000 depending
upon the sizes of plots and the
topography of the area

• Convenient walking distance for social


services like schools and shopping
centers

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
• The basic planning of the city is a sector

• to accommodate 3,000 to 25,000 persons

• 30 sectors in Chandigarh

• 24 are residential

• The sectors surrounded by high speed roads

• Bus stops every 400m

• The main principle of the sector is that never


a door will open on the surrounding of fast
vehicular road

• The size of the sector is based on the


concept of no pedestrian need to walk for
more than 10min.

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
LINEAR INDUSTRIAL CITY
 Leaving the ‘evils of the sprawling
town’, the new industrial
communities are located along the
main arteries of transportation –
water, rail and highway
connecting the existing cities.
 Factories are placed along the
main arteries, separated from
the residential section by the
highway and a green strip

 The residential areas include the


‘horizontal garden town’ of single
houses and vertical apartment
buildings with civic center. Sports,
entertainments, shopping and
office facilities are distributed in
this district and all community
facilities are placed within ample
open space.

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH

THE CITY LANDSCAPE PLAN OF THE FIRST PHASES, SHOWING THE LEISURE VALLEY & THE
SWATHS OF GREEN SPACES THAT ALSO ACT AS FLOOD CONTROL
URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8
CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
 ROAD NETWORKS
The roads of the city were classified into seven
categories, known as the system of 7 Vs.
 V-1 Fast roads connecting Chandigarh to
other towns;
 V-2 Arterial roads;
 V-3 Fast vehicular roads;
 V-4 Free Flowing shopping streets;
 V-5 Sector circulation roads;
 V-6 Access roads to houses;
 V-7 Footpaths and cycle tracks.

View of typical Roads and Round-abouts in the city


URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8
CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
PRINCIPLES OF URBAN DESIGN • Convenient walking distance for
special services like schools and
shopping centers.

• Street system
• Major roads should not pass through
residential neighborhood.
• Internal road pattern should
encourage quite , safe, low volume
traffic movement.

• Facilities
• Orderly arrangement of facilities which
would be shared common by the
residents
• A unit having shops , school , health
centers and places of recreations and
worships.
• These sectors varies depending upon
the size and the topography of the
area.
URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8
CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
 CIRCULATION
 Le Corbusier identified four basic functions of a
city: living, working, circulation and care of the
body and spirit.

 Each sector was provided with its own shopping


and community facilities, schools and places of
worship. “Circulation” was of great importance
to Le Corbusier and determined the other three
basic functions.

 By creating a hierarchy of roads, Le Corbusier


sought to make every place in the city swiftly
and easily accessible and at the same time
ensure tranquility and safety of living spaces.

 The Periphery Control Act of 1952 created a


wide green belt around the entire union territory.
It regulated all development within 16 kilometers
of the city limit, prohibited the establishment of
any other town or village and forbade
commercial or industrial development. The idea
was to guarantee that Chandigarh would
always be surrounded by countryside.
URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8
CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
 URBAN DENSITY

Chandigarh was planned for a


finite population of half-a-million.

 In Phase I, 36 sq Km of
land was acquired by the city
administration for construction of 30
sectors.

 Land for seventeen additional


Sectors (Sector 31 to 47) was
acquired and developed during
the
second phase to cater for a
population of 350000 the
predominance of 3 to 4 storey
apartments in second phase
provide for higher population
dimension.

However,Chandigarh has now


grown beyond its planned
capacity. Hence, development in
the third
phase has started in sector 48 and
beyond.

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
 TRAFFIC

 “The more dense the population of a city is the less are the distances that have to
be covered.”

 traffic is increased by:


 the number of people in a city
 the degree to which private transportation is more appealing (clean, fast,
convenient, cheap) than public transportation
 the average distance people travel per trip
 the number of trips people must make each week

 “The moral, therefore, is that we must increase the density of the centres of our
cities, where business affairs are carried on.”

 LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Two laws defining the legal framework of Chandigarh

For City-The Capital of Punjab( Development and Regulation )Act, 1952


For Periphery – The Punjab New Capital (Periphery) Control Act, 1952

The Punjab Capital (Development and Regulation)Building Rules,1952


URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8
CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
 GROWTH

THE GROWTH OF CHANDIGARH


1966-96, STARTING WITH
SECTORS 1 & 2 IN PHASE 1, &
CURRENTLY CONSISTING OF 86
SECTORS

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
 GREEN AREAS

HIERARCHY of
GREEN AREAS
1
A Hierarchy of Green
Spaces can be observed
in both the layout ranging
from Public Greens at City
Level to Semi-Private to
2
Private Green Areas.

1. City Level Public


Green Space with
Artificial Water Body
3 2. Free- Flowing Green
Space, connecting the
4 entire site
3. Semi-Private Green
Areas for
neighborhood pockets
4. Private Green Areas for
Residential Units

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
CARE OF BODY & SPIRIT

• GARDEN CITY
• It includes
• Rose garden
• Sukhna lake
• Rock garden
• Landscaping
• Leisure valley

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
 GREEN AREAS
LEISURE VALLEY, CHANDIGARH
The Leisure Valley is a green
sprawling space extending
North-East to South-West along
a seasonal riverlet gradient and
was conceived by Le Corbusier
as the lungs of the city.

Apart from large Public Parks


and special Botanical Gardens,
it houses series of Fitness Trails,
amphitheatres and spaces for
open-air exhibitions.

Images of various sculptures and Public Green


URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR Areas
SEMin - 8
CONTEXT the Leisure Valley
BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
CLIMATIC CONSIDERATIONS

• Sun path during various seasons was


studied.
• Rise of sunbreakers(new version of
sunshades/ chajjas).
• Later honeycomb brick jalis were
introduced.
• Building orientations were made sun
freindly.
• Facades designed to keep sun out in
summer and admit it in winters.
• Compactness through close spacing of
buildings known as terrace housing.
• Light and air is drawn through front and
rear of the buildings.
• Buildings have greater depth and narrow
frontage.

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE
CASE STUDY: CHANDIGARH
 INFERENCES

 POSITIVE HIGHLIGHTS
 Each sector satisfies the necessities of human needs
 Separate roads for pedestrian, bicycle and heavy vehicles
 Shops on ground floor, Residence on upper floor
 Shop protected from rain and sun, as a covered walkway for the customers

 NEGATIVE HIGHLIGHTS
 Roads being similar to each other creates confusion
 Brutal concrete gives a rough look
 City not planned for lower income people.
 Existence of slums around the city

URABAN TERMINOLOGY DESIGN SEMINAR SEM - 8


CONTEXT BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECURE

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