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DRLG 5002

13th Sept 2016


9-12 AM

Drilling Practices
Introduction - Icebreaker

 Name

 First degree

 Any exposure to oilfield –why choose MSc Petroleum?

 Any skill/ achievement/experience you want to share

 Favourite ice-cream flavour.


Course Assignments/Quiz/ Final Exam

 Class Quiz # 1 20%

 Class Quiz #2 20%

 Final Exam (Must Pass) 60%


Summary Outline of course
(13th Sept – 14th Oct 2016)

 Planning a well - For completion

 Optimized drilling/ Hole problems

 Drilling fluids/ Hydraulics

 Casing point selection/ Primary cementing operations

 Deviated/Horizontal/ Multi lateral trajectories

 Well Control

 Environmental issues,

 Cost.
Detailed Course Plan
13 September 2016 – 9-12 AM

 Introduction to Drilling Practices


 Planning a well.
 Well Objectives
 Types of wells
 Types of Rigs
 Types of Muds
 Bit types
 Cost
 Cost/foot
 Spread rate
 Unit Rental rate
 Tangibles vs Intangibles cost
 Role of Drilling Engineer..
What is an offshore platform?

 A fixed structure for


collecting, controlling and
exporting oil and gas
What is a Rig?

 A fixed or mobile structure for drilling


wells
 Different types used for different
environments, locations and well types

TOI Constellation 1
Overview - Context

Where are the Hydrocarbons?

Why Drill Wells?

Where does Drilling fit?

Types of wells

Types of Rig

Drilling Hardware
What is drilling?

The Objective

 To safely design and execute the


most cost effective plan for
placement of wells in the
reservoir.

GAS
OIL
WATER
Why Drill Wells?

Collect data

Produce oil / gas ($$)

Inject water / gas


Source Rock

• preservation of organic matter


• needs burial / heat
oil 110 – 130 C 2.5 –
3.5km
gas >150 C > 4km
• common source rocks include :
mudstones, coal, limestone
• variety of environments
What makes an oil or gas field?

• Mature source rock


• Migration focus
• Reservoir
• Seal Late-moving
• Structure salt

• Relevant timing TRAP RESERVOIR


SEAL

Post
migration
MIGRATION trap

SOURCE
Typical Operator Structure

Finance
Exploration Development Operations

Petroleum Eng Engineers


Geologists
Reservoir Eng Production Finance Advisor
Geophysicists
Drilling Eng Operators/Eng Business Analysts
Petrophysicists
Completions Eng Technicians Negotiators
Surveyors
Projects OIMs

Ancillary Services:
HR, Legal, Digital Business, Communication, Commercial, HSSE
How do we explore?
The good old days - Zagros – Field mapping 1908
Seismic reflection data

C
R

S
3D Seismic – today’s primary tool
Seismic reflection data
Girassol Field, Angola

C
R

S
3D Visualization
Preliminary Development Well Planning - Angola
Drill Drill
Centre 1 Centre 2

Sea Bed

Shallow Hazards

PP1 alt

Unit 1
Unit 4
Unit 1a Unit 3

Unit 2

Level of
OWC
Types of wells
Exploration
- are sometimes called a wildcat well, probe the earth where known
hydrocarbons exist to determined whether oil or gas are present.

Appraisal
- are drilled to determine the extent of a field or the amount of area it covers.

Development wells/Production
- are drilled in a existing field to exploit the hydrocarbons.
Vertical wells

The wells are

 quick and
easy to drill
and complete,
relatively
cheaply

Rig has to be

 directly over
the target

Mostly exploration
wells that are drilled in
isolation, once.
Deviated wells

Cheaper

 Quicker
Easier

Costs more

 Harder to do
Takes more time
Why Directional Drilling?

Platform of pad Salt Dome Drilling

Drainage Multilaterals
Why Directional Drilling?

Sidetracking Inaccessible Locations

Relief wells Fault Controlling


Horizontal wells

Can have the Rig

 in one place and


the target a long
distance away.
One rig can
access many
targets

Costs a lot more

 Much harder to
drill
Takes more time
Elements of Drilling a Well

Types of Well Drilled –


designed to meet target
• Vertical/Near Vertical

• Deviated (angle >15 degrees)

• Horizontal (angle =90 degrees) – target thin and long

• Extended Reach Wells (ERD)


Execute the Drilling Program
Types of Rigs
Types of rigs

LAND JACKUP SEMISUBMERSIBLE


PLATFORM DRILLSHIP TENSION LEG
Jack-up Rig (TOI Constellation 1)
Constellation at Mango Platform
Rig Requirements

 Type of rig
 Derrick and drawworks lifting capacity
 Pump system capacity
 Electrical output from generators
 Solids control equipment types and ability
Shale shakers
 Desanders and desilters
 Mud cleaners
 Centrifuges
 BOP and other safety equipment minimum requirements
Hoisting System

Used for raising and


lowering the drilling
assembly, and for
running casing,
completion equipment
and other tools in and
out of the hole.
Rotating System

A hexagonal or square pipe is connected to


the topmost joint of the drill string. The
rotary table and kelly drive bushing impart
rotation to the drill string while allowing it
to be moved up or down.

As an alternative to the kelly and rotary


table, most modern rigs employ a Top
Drive system for rotating the drill string.
A powerful electric or hydraulic motor is
suspended from the traveling block.
Circulating System

During drilling, fluid is


continuously pumped
down the drill string,
through the bit, and up
the annular space
between the hole and
the drill string. Its main
purpose is to bring up
the cuttings, cool the
bit, maintain hole
stability, and prevent
formation fluids from
entering the wellbore.
Circulating System & Solids Control
Rig Equipment

BOP Stack
Rig Equipment – Mud Pump
Solids Control
Solids Control - Shakers
Solids Control
Bits

Mango PDC Bit Roller Cone Bits


Derrick
Platform slots
Lifeboat
Accommodations
The Derrick
Rig Monitor (Taken from the Derrick)
Main Deck
Making Up Casing
Means of transport to and from the rig
Installation of platform jacket
Installation of
platform
Installation of
platform
Installation of
platform
What is Drilling Engineering?

Drilling engineering is the process of


planning and executing a well-path
from a surface location to a
subsurface target.

GAS
OIL
WATER
What Does a Drilling Engineer Do?

Target

Plan Design Execute


Trajectory Well Drilling
Program Program

Monitor
Drilling
What does a Drilling Engineer do?

 Plan and design the well program


 Rig requirements
 Well trajectory
 Drillstring Design
 Mud Design
 Casing Design
 Cementing Design
 Contingency Planning
 Monitor Drilling Parameters for
 Optimization opportunities
 Well problems
Target

KOP

TP82 (D)

TP80 (D)

TP79 (D)

TP77
Reference datum
Reference datum

Drilling Engineering - ORKB, RKB

Geologist - Mean Sea Level , TVD


Panned Wellbore Trajectory
Elements of Drilling a Well
Multiple wells from platform
Wellbore Schematic

MD Reference: RTE – 169 ft


Water Depth – 234 ft

30" Conductor
(706’ MD)

For anti-collision 26" Hole Section


surface nudging
to 5 deg

20" Shoe @ 2,270' MD


(TOC @ Surface)
TQ68 Shale: FG - 11.20ppg
FIT – 10.40ppg

17 1/2" Hole Section

KOP @
6,949' to
39.9deg

14" Shoe @ 7600' MD


(TOC Lead @ 7,152' MD)
TQ85 Shale: FG - 15.1ppg
FIT - 11.20ppg

Hold 39.9deg from


8,392’MD to 11,053’ MD 12 1/4" x 13 3/4" Hole Section

Drop Angle
@ 11,053'
to 18.8deg

Hold
TP80 Shale 18.8deg
from 12,680’ 10 3/4" Shoe @ 10,605 ft MD
to TD (TOC @ 10,620' MD)
TP79 sand
(Top – 10,600' MD)
9 1/2" Hole Section

FG – 12.8ppg EMW TD @ +/-13,616’ MD


5 1/2" OHGP
Completions
Career Path
Drillstring Design

 What is needed?
Bit
Stablizers
MWD/LWD Tools
Drill Collars (DC)
Heavy Weight Drill Pipe (HWDP)
Drill pipe
Connection types
 …And to what requirements?
 Tension
 Compression & Buckling
 Fatigue
 Metallurgy
Dumb BHA BHA

Intelligent BHA
Basic Drilling with the BHA

 Bit drills formation rock


 Mud removes rock from wellbore
Mud Design

 Type of Mud
 Mud Weight Schedule
 Rheologies
 Additives
 Clay for viscosity
 Barite for density
 Chemicals and polymers to get desired properties
 Drill solids as a contaminant
Mud Design

 Functions of drilling fluid or mud


 Remove cuttings from the hole
 Clean bottom of the hole
(below bit)
 Prevent flow of formation fluids
 Control torque (reduce friction)
 Retard corrosion
 Deposit a thin filter cake
 Transmit MWD information
 Cool the bit
Mud Types
Synthetic Oil Based Mud

 Synthetic based muds (SBM’s) are an attempt to provide the


performance of oil based muds without the toxicity and
environmental problems
 Unit cost per barrel is higher than oil based muds
 Synthetics are man made, non-aqueous liquids
 The continuous phase of an SBM is at least 99% synthetic
material
 First generation synthetics were esters, ethers,
polyalphaolefins (PAO’s), and acetals
Casing Design

 Full string or liner


 Casing setting depths
 Casing sizes
 Metallurgy
 Burst & Collapse
 Tension & Compression
 Connection Types
 Shoe Track Design
Casing Design

20” Casing shoe track


9-5/8” Casing shoe track
Casing
Cementing Design
Drilling Problems

 Well Control
 Wellbore Stability
 Stuck Pipe
 Lost Circulation
 Keyseating
 Hole Cleaning
Blowouts
Blowouts
DEFINITION of 'Intangible Drilling Costs - IDC'

Costs to develop an oil or gas well for the elements that are not a part
of the final operating well. Intangible drilling costs (IDCs) include all
expenses made by an operator incidental to and necessary in the
drilling and preparation of wells for the production of oil and gas, such
as survey work, ground clearing, drainage, wages, fuel, repairs,
supplies and so on. Broadly speaking, expenditures are classified as
IDCs if they have no salvage value.
DEFINITION of ‘Spread Cost Rate'

Spread rate includes:

The daily cost to the operator of renting the drilling rig and the associated
costs of personnel and routine supplies. This cost may or may not include
fuel, and usually does not include capital goods, such as casing and
wellheads, or special services, such as logging or cementing. In most of
the world, the day rate represents roughly half of the cost of the well.
Similarly, the total daily cost to drill a well (spread rate) is roughly double
what the rig day-rate amount is.
Definition – Tangible Cost

oil and gas drilling term meaning the cost of items that can be used
over a period of time, such as casings, tubing, Xmas Tree, well
fittings, land, and tankage, as distinguished from intangible costs
such as drilling, testing, and geologist’s expenses.