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Agricultural Productivity

in India
Agricultural productivity is measured as the ratio of agricultural outputs
to agricultural inputs.
According to the survey 2015-16, in wheat, India's average yield in 2013 of
3075 kg/ha is lower than the world average of 3257 kg/ha.

The picture is starker in paddy production where all Indian states have yields
below that of China and most states have yields below that of Bangladesh.

India's best state, Punjab, has paddy yield close to 6000 kg/ha whereas
China's yield is 6709 kg/ha.

Although, India happens to be the major producer and consumer of pulses,


which is one of the major sources of protein for the population, the demand has
constantly outstripped the supply.

On an average, countries like Brazil, Nigeria, and Myanmar have higher yields
than India.
Production of Foodgrains and Other major Crops
Trend in Food grain and Horticulture Production
Productivity of Indian Agriculture

The factors classified for low productivity are

1. Demographic factors
2. General factors
3. Institutional factors and
4. Technologies factors
1. Demographic factors

 Increasing pressure of population on land.


 The rate of growth in the industrial sector has been far from
adequate.
 fragmentation and subdivision of holdings;
 the supply of improved practices and services has always
fallen short of requirements. It has created conditions of
unemployment and disguised unemployment.
2. General Factors

Excess or surplus labor in Agriculture

Overcrowding in agriculture.
Discouraging Rural climate
 The farmers of India generally are poor, ignorant,
superstitious, conservative, and illiterate and bound by
outmoded customs and institutions such as the caste
system and the joint family system.

 Superstition and belief in fact are the curses, which keep


the farmers fully satisfied with their primitive system of
cultivation.

 Except for a small group of farmers, who adopted quickly


modern techniques of production, vast majority of
farmers are not motivated by considerations of economic
progress
Inadequate non-farm services

 Indian agriculture has suffered because of the


inadequacy of non-farm services such as provision of
finance, marketing etc.
 Marketing system is defective and costly.

 Modern warehousing is inadequate and indigenous.


Storing methods are defective and costly.

 Modern credit facilities are still poorly developed for the


farmers. Farmers still depend on moneylenders for their
day-to-day requirements
3.Institutional factors
a) Size of holdings
 The average size of holdings in India is very low. About 80 percent of
the land holdings are less than 2 acres.
 Not only agriculture holdings are small but they are fragmented too.

 Since the average agricultural holdings are too small, no scientific


cultivation with improved implements, seeds etc. are possible.

 Small size of holdings lead to great waste of time, labour and cattle
power, difficulty in proper utilization of irrigation facilities, quarrels
and consequent litigation among farmers, wastage of crops in the
absence of fencing etc.
Defective land tenure structure

 The land tenure system in India has been depressing and


disincentive ridden. It has built in features to support stagnation.

 The main features have been the presence of intermediaries;


exploitative owner-tenant relationship; small and fragmented
holdings; and the heavy and ever increasing pressure of population
on land.
Technological factors

Poor inputs and techniques

 The method and techniques of cultivation have been old and


inefficient.

 It results in high cost and low productivity. These methods have not
undergone any change for centuries.

 The investment in agriculture in the form of manures and fertilizers,


improved seeds, irrigation, tools and implements and other types of
assets has been miserably low.
Inadequate irrigation facilities

 Heavy dependence upon rainfall and very few of them can avail the
facilities of artificial irrigation.
Indebtedness of the farmers

 It is said that the farmers in India are born in debt, live in debt, die in
debt and bequeath debt.

 The causes of their indebtedness are many such as hereditary debt,


litigation, want of supplementary incomes and wasteful social
expenditure.
The cultivator is poor and the vicious circle of poverty does not allow
him to improve his economic conditions.

NSSO in its 59th round of survey (January –December 2003) covered


indebtedness of farmers.
The reports say that 48.6 % percent of households were indebted.
Of the total number of indebt farmers, 61 % had operational holding
less than 1 Ha.
Of the total outstanding amount, 41.6 % was taken for purpose other
than farm related activities.
57.7 % of the outstanding amount was sourced from institutional
channels and balance 42.3 % from money lenders, traders, relatives
and friends.
The expert group estimate that in 2003 non Institutional channels
accounted for Rs 48,000 crore of farmers’ debt out of which Rs
18,000 crore was availed of at an interest rate of 30 % per annum or
more.
Inadequate Research

 Benefit of research and development has not reached all the farmers.

 Extension is confined to a few individuals and the modern pattern of


farming is yet to take roots in the countryside.
Measures to improve agricultural productivity

1.Irrigation potential
 It has been increased through public funding & assisting
farmers to create potential on their own farms. The total
irrigation potential in the country has increased from 81.1
million hectares in 1991-92 to 102.8 million hectares in
2006-07.
 only 73.5 % irrigation potential has been created out of
which 87.2 million hectares(84.9 %) is actually utilized.
The scope of expanding irrigation through large & medium
scale project has yet to be fully exploited.
2.Diversification of agriculture
 Diversification of agriculture to horticulture & other areas is also
high on the govt agenda. Besides raising farmer's income ,this results
in better utilization of resources, creation of employment & growth.

 National Horticulture Mission & Mission for Horticulture in the


north east & other hilly areas have been set up to promote horticulture
in a mission mode.
3.Exploiting production potential :

 To achieve expected level of productivity, farmer must be guided by experts in


respect of soil & water analysis for adopting the best diversified cropping
system ,meticulous adoption of technology (when & how), judicious use of
seeds, fertilisers,pesticides,water,labour & credit.

 supply of inputs must be of standard quality, reasonable priced & timely


available. There is need to establish farm inputs & equipment regulatory &
development authority.
4.Rural infrastructure for farm growth:

Need to upgrade and develop rural infrastructure as irrigation water shed


development, rural electrification roads, markets, credit institution
rural literacy ,agriculture research & extension etc together plays key
role in determining output in India.
5.Tecnology application:

 Technology enables the branch to go where the customer


is present.
 It helps in reducing operating cost of providing banking
services in rural areas & to low income groups.
 National agriculture policy lays emphasis on the rapid
development of agriculture in India.
 DAC (dept of agricultural & cooperation )has developed
four portals & 40 websites i.e.
DACNET,AGMARKNET,DAC & AgRIS.
6. Capital formation in agriculture:

 Productivity in agriculture is also dependent on capital


formation both from public & private sectors.

 Gross capital formation in agriculture relative to GDP in


this sector has shown an improvement from 9.6% in
2000-01 to 12.5% in 2006-07.but it should be raised to 14
% to achieve a growth of 4% in this sector.
7. Crop Insurance

 Productivity in agriculture also depends on various


external factors like monsoons ,pests ,diseases ,drought &
other natural calamities .So crops need to be covered
under insurance to provide financial support to farmers.

 For this we have NATIONAL AGRICULTURE


INSURANCE SCHEME.
8. BETTER QUALITY SEEDS:
 The seed should have the characteristic like better grain
quality, resistance to pests & diseases & suitability to
the agro-climatic conditions & quality of high rate of
germination & high yielding.

 So we have National Seed Policy 2002 provides the


framework for growth of the seed sector.
New Scheme and Policies for Agriculture
development
 Rahtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY)
 The National Food Security Mission
 The Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana
 Soil health card
 Mission for Integrated Development of
Horticulture (MIDH)
 Rashtriya Fasal Bima Yojana
Rahtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY)

 Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana was launched by Govt. of India during


2007-08 to incentives states to draw up plans for their agriculture
sector more comprehensively, taking agro-climatic conditions, natural
resource and technology into account and integrating livestock, poultry
and fisheries fully.
 The RKVY aims at achieving 4% annual growth in the agriculture sector
during the XI Plan period, by ensuring a holistic development of
Agriculture and allied sectors (Fisheries Department, Horticulture,
Animal Husbandry etc).
 The main objectives of the scheme are :
 (i) To incentivise the states so as to increase public investment in
Agriculture and allied sectors. (ii) To provide flexibility and autonomy
to states in the process of planning and executing Agriculture and allied
sector schemes.
 (iii) To ensure the preparation of agriculture plans for the districts and
the states based on agro-climatic conditions, availability of technology
and natural resources.
 (iv) To ensure that the local needs/crops/priorities are better reflected
in the agricultural plans of the states.
 (v) To achieve the goal of reducing the yield gaps in important crops,
through focussed interventions.
 (vi) To maximize returns to the farmers in Agriculture and allied
sectors.
 (vii) To bring about quantifiable changes in the production and
productivity of various components of Agriculture and allied sectors by
addressing them in a holistic manner.
 Areas of Focus under the RKVY Integrated Development of Food crops,
including coarse cereals, minor millets and pulses, Agriculture
Mechanization, Soil Health and Productivity, Development of Rain fed
Farming Systems, IPM, Market Infrastructure, Horticulture, AH,
Dairying & Fisheries, Concept to Completion Projects that have definite
time-lines, Support to Institutions that promote Agriculture and
Horticulture, etc, Organic and Bio-fertilizers, Innovative Schemes
 Sponsored by: Central Government

 Funding Pattern: 100% funded by centre

 Ministry/Department: Agriculture Department


The National Food Security Mission

 The National Development Council (NDC) in its 53rd meeting held on


29th May, 2007 adopted a resolution to launch a Food Security Mission
comprising rice, wheat and pulses to increase the production of rice by
10 million tons, wheat by 8 million tons and pulses by 2 million tons by
the end of the Eleventh Plan (2011-12).
 Accordingly, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme, 'National Food Security
Mission' (NFSM), was launched in October 2007.
 The Mission is being continued during 12th Five Year Plan with new
targets of additional production of food grains of 25 million tons of food
grains comprising of 10 million tons rice, 8 million tons of wheat, 4
million tons of pulses and 3 million tons of coarse cereals by the end of
12th Five Year Plan.
The National Food Security Mission (NFSM) during the 12th Five Year
Plan will have five components (i) NFSM- Rice; (ii) NFSM-Wheat; (iii)
NFSM-Pulses, (iv) NFSM-Coarse cereals and (v) NFSM-Commercial
Crops.
 States covered under NFSM
 24 States (Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh,
Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala,
Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland,
Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West
Bengal) will be covered under NFSM-Rice.
 166 districts of 9 States (Punjab, Haryana, UP, Bihar, Rajasthan, MP, Gujarat,
Maharashtra and West Bengal) will be covered under NFSM-Wheat.
 468 districts of 16 States (AP, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana,
Jharkhand, Karnataka, MP, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil
Nadu, UP and West Bengal) will be covered under NFSM-Pulses.
 20 million hectares of rice, 13 million hectares of wheat and 4.5 million
hectares of pulses are included in these districts that roughly constitute 50% of
cropped area for wheat and rice. For pulses, an additional 20% cropped area
would be created.
The Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee
Yojana

 Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana is a national


mission to improve farm productivity and ensure better
utilization of the resources in the country.
 The budget of ₹500 billion (US$7.4 billion) in a time span
of five years has been allocated to this scheme.
 The decision was taken on 1 July 2015 at the meeting of
Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA), which in
turn was headed by the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi.
 The primary objectives of PMKSY are to attract investments in
irrigation system at field level, develop and expand cultivable land in
the country, enhance ranch water use in order to minimize wastage of
water, enhance crop per drop by implementing water-saving
technologies and precision irrigation.
 The plan additionally calls for bringing ministries, offices,
organizations, research and financial institutions occupied with
creation and recycling of water under one platform so that an
exhaustive and holistic outlook of the whole water cycle is considered.
The goal is to open the doors for optimal water budgeting in all
sectors.Tagline for PMKSY is "more crop per drop".
Soil health card

 Soil Health Card Scheme is a scheme launched by the Government


of India in February 2015.
 Under the scheme, the government plans to issue soil cards to farmers
which will carry crop-wise recommendations of nutrients and fertilisers
required for the individual farms to help farmers to improve
productivity through judicious use of inputs.
 All soil samples are to be tested in various soil testing labs across the
country. Thereafter the experts will analyse the strength and
weaknesses (micro-nutrients deficiency) of the soil and suggest
measures to deal with it.
 The result and suggestion will be displayed in the cards. The
government plans to issue the cards to 14 crore farmers.
Scheme

 The scheme aims at promoting soil test based and balanced use of
fertilisers to enable farmers realise higher yields at lower cost.
Performance

 As of July 2015, only 34 lakh Soil Health Cards (SHC) were issued to
farmers as against a target of 84 lakh for the year 2015–16. Arunachal
Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala,Mizoram, Sikkim, Tamil
Nadu, Uttarakhand and West Bengal were among the states which had
not issued a single SHC under the scheme by then.
 The number grew up to 1.12 crore by February 2016. As of February
2016, against the target of 104 lakh soil samples, States reported a
collection of 81 lakh soil samples and tested 52 lakh samples.
Plans[edit]

 The target for 2015–16 is to collect 100 lakh soil


samples and test these for issue of soil health
cards.[5] 2 crore cards are under printing and will be
distributed before March 2016.[5] The government
plans to distribute 14 crore soil health cards by 2017
Need of Soil Health Card
 The main reason is soil deterioration.
 Soil has not only deteriorated in many parts of the country but also has been tendered useless for
irrigation.
 The main reasons for soil deterioration include midless use of chemical fertilizers, low use of organic
matter and non-replacement of depleted micro and secondary nutrients in the soil.
 Due to all these, the nutrient deficiencies and decrease in soil fertility made farming unproductive.
 For example, green revolution demanded use of chemical fertilizers for increasing
production. However, mindless use of fertilizers led the soil in many regions useless for
farming. This is mainly because of unwise distortion of the ideal NPK (nitrogen,
phosphorous, potassium) proportion (4:2:1).
 For example, in 2011, the ratio was 19.2:5.5:1 and 20.6:6:1 respectively in Punjab and
Haryana. The over-use of Urea is mainly because it comes with a government subsidy.
 Excessive use of Nitrogen reduces the health of crop and productivity goes down year
after year.
 Soil Health Card Scheme To boost productivity and bring about increased prosperity, it
has become necessary to nurture the soil.
 The Soil Health Card scheme has been launched with this ideal on February 19, 2015 by
Prime Minister Narendra Modi from Suratgarh, Rajasthan.
 Under this scheme, 14 crore Soil Health Cards are envisaged to be issued over the next 3
years.
 Soil Health card is a report card that provides vital information about the quality of soil
by giving comprehensive information about type of soil, nutrient content, fertilizer
required, crop suitability to ambient temperature and rainfall condition.
 The ‘Soil Health Card’ would carry crop-wise recommendations of nutrients / fertilizers
required for farms in a particular village, so that the farmers can improve productivity by
using inputs judiciously.
soil health card portal

 The farmers need to register at the web portal


www.soilhealth.dac.gov.in along with the details of the soil
samples and test lab reports.
 Once registered, the farmer can keep a track of the following in the
portal:
Mission for Integrated Development of
Horticulture (MIDH)

 MIDH is a centrally sponsored scheme for the holistic development of horticulture in the nation
during the XIIth Plan
 The scheme has been implemented from 2014-2015
 It integrated the following 6 schemes/ scheme implementing agencies:

- National Horticulture Mission,


- Horticulture Mission for North East & Himalayan States,
- National Bamboo Mission,
- National Horticulture Board,
- Coconut Development Board and
- Central Institute for Horticulture, Nagaland
 MIDH: Objectives

• It seeks to provide technical advise and administrative support to state governments/ SHM/ state
horticultural missions for programmes such as Saffron Mission and Vegetable Initiative for Urban
Clusters

• The mission aims to promote holistic growth of horticulture including bamboo and coconut through
regionally differentiated strategies like:

- R&D promotion
- Extension
- Post harvest management
- Processing and marketing

• It also aims to encourage the aggregation of farmers into groups such as FIGs/FPOs and FPCs to
facilitate economy of scale and scope

• Aim is also to enhance horticulture production, augment the income of farmers and strengthen food
security

• Support job creation, especially in cold chain sector and boost productivity
MIDH: Features
 • The mission adopts an end to end holistic approach which covers:

- Pre-production
- Production
- Post harvest management
- Processing and marketing

• Promote R&D in the above fields with special focus on cold chain infrastructure for extension of shelf life of perishables

• Enhance productivity via diversification from traditional crops to plantations, orchards, vineyards etc

• Extending appropriate technology for high tech horticulture including cultivation and precision farming

• Enhance acreage of orchards and plantation crops

• Improve post harvest management, processing for value addition and boosting marketing infrastructure

• Use a coordinated approach to promote partnership and synergy in R&D

• Promote FPOs and tie up with market aggregators and financial institutions

• Capacity building and HRD at all levels


Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana

 In 1985, the Rajiv Gandhi government had first launched a crop insurance
scheme in India called Comprehensive Crop Insurance scheme (CCIS).
 In 1997, an Experimental Crop Scheme was launched which lasted only for a
year.
 In 1999, the NDA government launched National Agricultural Insurance
Scheme (NAIS) to protect the farmers against losses suffered by them due to
crop failures on account of natural calamities like; floods, drought, hailstorms,
cyclone, pests and diseases etc. However, insurance was available for select
crops “notified” crops only. This scheme was open to all farmers but was made
compulsory for those farmers who had taken some kind of farm loans. The
farmers had to pay flat insurance premium depending upon crop type and this
premium was subsidized by government.
 There were several problems in NAIS model.
 Firstly, this scheme operated on a so called “Area Approach” which means that the states would notify
the unit areas of insurance such as blocks, mandals, Tehsil etc. The states would notify the areas on the
basis of past yield data. Since yield data is crucial for crop insurance, success of this scheme was
dependent on the availability of the data. The reliable data was not available with most states.
 Secondly, the states needed to notify the unit areas on the basis of part yield data and Crop Cutting
Experiments (CCEs) every year well in advance. Most states did not follow these prerequisites.
 The result was that Insurance companies started crying foul because payable claims turned out to be
several fold higher than the premium charged and subsidy paid. Secondly, it was assumed that the
states would share the premium subsidy but somehow most states were reluctant to do so.
 Under UPA Government, the NAIS was modified and was called Modified NAIS or M-NAIS.
 In this scheme, the area approach was done away with and the premium would be calculated on
actuarial basis. This implies that the higher risk crops would have higher premium. The number of
crops under the scheme was increased.
 Previously, only Agriculture Insurance Company (AIC) of India was allowed to
implement the scheme but now, private insurers were also allowed to
implement the modified scheme.
 Further, the unit area was reduced to be the Gram Panchayat.
 The MNAIS tried to modify several issues with the crop insurance but still
failed to reduce the farmer distress.
 The key problems of this scheme was that – it covered risks partially, it had
higher premium rates (3.5% for Kharif Crops and 1.5% for Rabi Crops), the
coverage was capped (this implies that farmers could recover at best a fraction
of the total loss).
 In 2007, the UPA government launched another crop insurance scheme was
Weather-based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS). This was another scheme to
protect farmers against vagaries of nature such as deficit and excess rainfall,
high or low temperature, humidity, etc.
 This scheme was launched to settle claims in shortest possible time. Both these
schemes (MNAIS and WBCIS) were made compulsory for loanee farmers.
While former indemnified the cultivators against shortfall in crop yield; later
protected against adverse weather conditions.
Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana

 Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) is the new crop damage
insurance scheme that has been approved by the Union Cabinet in
January 2016.
 It will replace the existing two crop insurance schemes National
Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) and Modified NAIS.
 The new scheme will come into force from the Kharif season starting in
June this year.
 Crops covered The scheme covers kharif, rabi crops as well as annual
commercial and horticultural crops.
 For Kharif crops, the premium charged would be up to 2% of the sum
insured.
 For Rabi crops, the premium would be up to 1.5% of the sum assured.
For annual commercial and horticultural crops, premium would be 5
per cent. The remaining share of premium will be borne equally by the
central and respective state governments.
 Insurance : There will be one insurance company for the whole
state. Private insurance companies will be roped along with
Agriculture Insurance Company of India Limited (AIC) to
implement the scheme.
 Losses covered Apart from yield loss, the new scheme will cover
post-harvest losses also. It will also provide farm level
assessment for localised calamities including hailstorms,
unseasonal rains, landslides and inundation.
 Use of technology The scheme proposes mandatory use of
remote sensing, smart phones and drones for quick estimation of
crop loss. This will speed up the claim process.
National Mission For Sustainable Agriculture

 The National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture is being launched


during the Twelfth Five Year Plan.

National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) seeks to


transform Indian agriculture into a climate resilient production system
through suitable adaptation and mitigation measures in domains of
both crops and animal husbandry.
 NMSA as a programmatic intervention focuses on promotion of
location specific integrated/composite farming systems; resource
conservation technologies; comprehensive soil health management;
efficient on-farm water management and mainstreaming rainfed
technologies.
 NMSA identifies 10 key dimensions namely seed & culture water, pest,
nutrient, farming practices, credit, insurance, market, information and
livelihood diversification for promoting suitable agricultural practices
that covers both adaption and mitigation measures through four
functional areas, namely, Research and Development, Technologies,
Products and Practices, Infrastructure and Capacity building.
 During XII Five Year Plan, these dimensions have been embedded and
mainstreamed into Missions/Programmes/Schemes of Ministry of
Agriculture including NMSA through a process of restructuring of
various schemes/missions implemented during XI Five Year Plan and
convergence with other related programmes of Central/State
Governments.
Mrida Parikshak

 ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal has developed a mini lab


named Mridaparikshak’.
 It is a digital mobile quantitative mini lab to provide soil testing service
at farmers’ doorsteps.
 It determines all the important soil parameters i.e. soil pH (Soil pH is
a measure of the acidity and alkalinity in soils) , EC, organic carbon,
available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur and micronutrients
like zinc, boron and iron.
 It also provides crop and soil specific fertilizer recommendations
directly to farmers on his mobile through SMS.
Farmer FIRST

 It is an ICAR initiative to enhance farmers-scientists contact with multi


stake holders-participation.
 FIRST refers to Farm, Innovations, Resources, Science and
Technology.
 The project focuses on enabling interaction of scientists with farm
conditions and problems; exchange of knowledge between farmers and
other stakeholders; integration of technology with different agro-
systems; development of rural based institutions; and using the
platform of the project having commodity institutions as partners to
develop commodity specific contents for e-enabled knowledge sharing.
Attracting and Retaining Youth in Agriculture
(ARYA) Scheme

 ICAR has initiated a programme on “Attracting and Retaining Youth in


Agriculture” to empower youth in rural areas to take up agriculture,
allied and service sector enterprises for sustainable income and gainful
employment in selected districts.
 It enables youth to establish network groups to take up resource and
capital intensive activities like processing, value addition and
marketing. ARYA project is implemented in 25 States through KVKs,
(Krishi Vigyan Kendras)one district from each State.
Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana Paramparagat Krishi Vikas
Yojana (Traditional Farming Improvement Programme)

 Launched by Government of India to support and promote organic


farming and thereby improving soil health.
 This will encourage farmers to adopt eco-friendly concept of cultivation
and reduce their dependence on fertilizers and agricultural chemicals to
improve yields.
 Government has made budgetary allocation of Rs. 300 Crores for the
same in the Union Budget 2015-16.
 “Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana” is an elaborated component of Soil
Health Management (SHM) of major project National Mission of
Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA).
 Under PKVY Organic farming is promoted through adoption of organic
village by cluster approach and PGS certification.
The Scheme envisages

 Promotion of commercial organic production through


certified organic farming.
 The produce will be pesticide residue free and will
contribute to improve the health of consumer.
 It will raise farmer's income and create potential market for
traders.
 It will motivate the farmers for natural resource
mobilization for input production.
Rashtriya Gokul Mission

 The Rashtriya Gokul Mission has been launched for conservation and
development of indigenous breeds in a focused and scientific manner. The
mission also envisages establishment of integrated cattle development centres
“Gokul Grams” to develop indigenous breeds including upto 40% nondescript
breeds. The mission is a focused project under National Programme for Bovine
Breeding and Dairy Development, with an outlay of Rs. 500 crore during the
last three years of Twelfth Five Year Plan.
Krishi Dak

 Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) has


initiated a novel scheme – Krishi Dak in 20 districts
in which postmen supplies seeds of improved
varieties of crops to the farmers in remote areas. Due
to its success and popularity, this scheme is being
extended in 100 districts of 14 states with the
association of Krishi Vigyan Kendras. This will
provide improved seed to farmers at their doorsteps.