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20th & 21st Century Medicine

Julian A. Gordon
20th and 21st Century Medicine…
What’s so different?
• 19th century saw the rise of modern medicine
• Advances in science
• Public health and nutrition advancements
• Introduction of females as professionals to
healthcare
• Deinstitutionalization of mentally ill
• 20th century medicine saw improvements on
these.
20th Century Medicine
• Improvements through Science, Technology &
War.
• Changes in pharmacological, medical and
surgical interventions
• Public Health Policy
Science, Technology & War
Science, Technology & War
• Computed Tomography: First machine created
by Sir Godfrey Houndsfield in 1972.
• Ultrasound: First use in medical practice in
1939, Sergei Y. Sokolov.
• Magnetic Resonance Imaging: 1973 first
images produced, Paul Lauterbur
• Efficient exchange of scientific data among
researchers with electronic media.
War; a Catalyst for Medicine
• 1st Non direct blood transfusion in 1914
(WWI), Albert Hustin
• Use of blood banks by Royal Army Medical
Corps in casualty clearing stations
• Use of sulphonamides to treat wound
infections (magic bullets)
• Surgical specialization in particular hand
surgery in WWII- Major general N.T. Kirk
(1939)
1900 Felix Hoffman- Discovery of
Salicylic acid
1928 Alexander Fleming- Discovery of
Penicillin
1953 Virginia Apgar- APGAR score for
babies at birth
1957 Peter Safar, James Elam- ABC
resuscitation
1967 Christian Barnard- First human
heart transplant
Pharmacological and Surgical
Interventions
• Development of Insulin- 1921 to treat
diabetes mellitus
• Contraception- 1950’s and IVF 1970’s
• Vitamin supplements eg B12 and Vit C
• Thalidomide, antibiotic resistance
• Vaccination
Vaccination
• Small pox vaccine: Paris, 1909 distributed to
French tropical colonies
• DPT: first available in U.S. in 1948
• Polio Vaccine: 1950, Jones Salk
• MMR vaccine: 1971, Maurice Hilleman
• By the 1970’s many of the communicable
diseases of that day were eradicated in 1st
world countries.
Pharmacological and Surgical Interventions

• Pain- Development of anesthesia (chloroform,


nitrous oxide).
• Shock- Lowering blood loss, blood
transfusions, studying physiology of shock.
• Infection control- Aseptic techniques, use of
antibiotics
Public Health
• Vaccination
• Fluoridation of drinking water
• Reductions in the prevalence of tobacco use
• Sanitation and hygiene
• Motor Vehicle Safety
The 21st Century… And Beyond!!!!
• Human Genome Project, 2003
• Sequencing of the entire human genome
• Multinational approach
• Has aided in genotyping of viruses, gene
mutations linked with cancers
• Design of medications
21st Century Medicine
• Gene therapy eg with cystic fibrosis,
Alzheimers, heart disease
• Stem Cell Cloning (2006): ethical issues
• HPV Vaccine-(2006) Dr. Ian Frazer
21st Century Medicine
• Abio Cor Artificial Heart- 2001
• Developed by Abiomed Inc
• Gives approximately an extra 10-17 mnths
survival
• Pts must have severe heart failure, and likely
to die within 2 weeks without transplantation
21st Century Medicine
• Bionic Limbs: Aims at providing kinaesthetic
feedback.
Economy
• Protocols for health care differ in developed
world and developing countries
• William Beveridge and the National Health
Service
• Economy of a state limits the quality of health
care given.
References
• Bibliography
• Timeline of Medical Advances in the 21st Century. (2016, September 2). Retrieved September 9, 2018, from
Prezi.com: https://prezi.com/vbnr4jdixzjf/timeline-of-medical-advances-in-the-21st-century/
• 20th century medicine. (n.d.). Retrieved September 9, 2018, from BBC:
https://www.bbc.com/bitesize/guides/zchw4j6/revision/7
• 20th Century Medicine. (n.d.). Retrieved September 9, 2018, from Highbrow: https://gohighbrow.com/20th-
century-medicine/
• 20th Century Public Health Achievements. (n.d.). Retrieved September 9, 2018, from A Brief History of Public
Health: http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Modules/PH/PublicHealthHistory/publichealthhistory9.html
• Advancements in Surgery. (n.d.). Retrieved September 9, 2018, from Medical Developments During World War II:
https://medicadevelopments.weebly.com/advancements-in-surgery.html
• Kyte, J. (2012, March 15). Medical History of the 20th and 21st Century. Retrieved September 9, 2018, from Prezi:
https://prezi.com/5vay0bmotl-l/medical-history-of-the-20th-and-21st-century/
• Richardson, R. G. (2017, September 2). Medicine in the 20th century. Retrieved September 8, 2018, from
Encyclopaedia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/science/history-of-medicine/World-War-II-and-
after#ref35704
• The History of Health and Medicine. (n.d.). Retrieved September 9, 2018, from Garforth Academy:
http://garforthacademy.org.uk/app/webroot/files/uploads/SiteFile/Medicine%20in%20the%2020th%20Century.p
df
• W., M. (n.d.). The 20th Century – Vaccinations become safer and many diseases vanish. Retrieved September 9,
2018, from Everything You Need to Know about Vaccines: https://carrington.edu/blog/medical/vaccines/the-20th-
century-vaccinations-become-safer-and-many-diseases-vanish/