Você está na página 1de 25

TURN IN FORMS TO THE

PURPLE BOX

Journal Question:

How do we think like a


scientist?
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

How do we think like a scientist?


SCIENTIFIC METHOD
 Inquiry
 The search for information and explanation of that
information
 The process of inquiry and investigation that
researchers use to gain knowledge is the
scientific method.
 We use scientific method to help us

understand the world around us better.


 Science
 The word Science is derived from
Latin and means “to know”
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
 1. Ask a testable question and do background research
 2. Suggest reasonable hypothesis for identified
problem(s).
 3. Develop procedures for solving scientific problems.

 4. Collect, organize and record appropriate data.

 5. Graphically compare and analyze data points and/or


summary statistics.
 6. Develop reasonable conclusions based on data
collected.
 7. Evaluate whether conclusions are reasonable by
reviewing the process and checking against other
available information.
STEP 2: SUGGEST REASONABLE HYPOTHESES
FOR IDENTIFIED PROBLEMS.

 First, identify the problem


 Ask yourself: What am I trying to figure out?
 Example: You and your friend can make the same
number of jump-shots in two minutes. Will your
jump-shot get better if you practice?

 Hypothesis = educated or sensible guess


 A possible explanation of observations
 A suggested solution to a problem
 A possible answer to a problem
 If….then…..
 Example: I hypothesize (or guess) that if you practice more, then
your jump-shot will get better.

 **Goal of any experiment is to prove or disprove


your hypothesis.**
STEP 3: DEVELOP PROCEDURES FOR
SOLVING SCIENTIFIC PROBLEMS.

 Procedures = Steps
 How can I figure out how to find an
answer to my question?
 Important Points for Procedure

 Conditions
 Variables
CONDITIONS
 Control Group
 The group that is not tested
 The group with a proven outcome
 Example: If I am testing to see if your jump-shot will
get better with practice, then my control group will
be not practicing.

 Experimental Group
 The group that is tested
 Where something is changed
 Example: If I am testing to see if my jump-shot will
get better with practice, then my experimental group
will be practicing the jump-shot.
!!IMPORTANT!!!
 Theonly way you will be able to tell if your
hypothesis is proven/disproven is if you
compare the experimental results to the
control results.
 Example: Is there a difference between the
shooter that practices and the one that doesn’t?
QUICK CHECK

 Jason and his twin sister Jacky have acne. They want to
see if their acne will clear up if they stop eating greasy
food. They decide that Jacky will stop eating greasy food
and Jason will continue to enjoy his french fries and
chicken fingers.
 Which group is the control group?
 Which group is the experimental (test) group?
VARIABLES
 Partsof an experiment that are
tested (independent) or measured
(dependent)
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

 The variable that you manipulate, or


change
 A.k.a. the manipulated variable
 What are you changing to get a result?
 Goes with the experimental group
Ex: Time, type of substance, a new
medicine
DEPENDENT VARIABLE(S)
 The OUTCOMES
 Responses or answers you get from the
experiment because they DEPEND on what
happens in the experiment
 What will you be measuring at the end of the
experiment?
 Example: The number of jump-shots made,
depends on practice or lack of practice
QUICK CHECK
 Which is the INDEPENDENT variable and
which is the DEPENDENT variable?

 Hypothesis: If Jamal wears sagging pants


instead of his usual style, then he will get less
numbers from girls.

 What is changing? What is he manipulating?

 What depends on the change he makes for his


experiment?
STEP 4: COLLECT, ORGANIZE AND RECORD
APPROPRIATE DATA.

 HOW am I going to collect my data?


 What units am I going to use?
 Example: Will your jump-shot get better if you
practice?
 How do we measure “better”?

 More jump-shots! A better shooter will


make more jump-shots.
 Units = Number of jump-shots made
(not how many you try to make)
 How do I physically collect data?
 Observations
OBSERVATIONS- MORE THAN JUST
SIGHT, IT’S ALL YOUR SENSES
 Using one or more of the senses to gather
information
 Two types

 Quantitative
 NUMBERS

 Example: How many jump-shots you see the


shooter make
 Qualitative
 Descriptions (cannot be easily measured or
counted)
 Example: See if the baskets “swish” in or

bounce against the backboard


OBSERVATION VS. INFERENCE
 Observation
 Something you gather with one or more of your
senses; DATA COLLECTION
 Example: Jacky still has acne. LeBron makes 90% of
his jump-shots.
 Inference
 A conclusion you make based on observations
 Example: LeBron scores a lot of points each game
 This is NOT an observation!
 Not always accurate
STEP 5: GRAPHICALLY COMPARE AND ANALYZE
DATA POINTS AND/OR SUMMARY STATISTICS.

 This means create a visual representation of your


data so that the results are easy to see.
 Independent always on x-axis, dependent always
on y-axis
Average Number of Jump-Shots
16
14
12
10
8 Average Number
6 of Jump-Shots
4
2
0
Practice No Practice
STEP 6: DEVELOP REASONABLE
CONCLUSIONS BASED ON DATA
COLLECTED.

 Remember: The groups started out


making the same number of jump-
shots. One group practiced and the
other didn’t.
STEP 7: . EVALUATE WHETHER CONCLUSIONS
ARE REASONABLE BY REVIEWING THE PROCESS
AND CHECKING AGAINST OTHER AVAILABLE
INFORMATION.

 The experiment has to be carefully constructed so


that other scientists can replicate it to test
its validity and reliability
LESSON CHECK (USE YOUR NOTES)
 Everyone needs piece of paper.

 It’s only 5 questions


1) WHAT IS A HYPOTHESIS?
A.) the longest side of a traingle

B.) a guess based on chance

C.) an educated proposition to an identified problem

D.) the problem in the experiment


2) A drug company wants to see if their pill makes
people lose weight. One group gets their weight-loss
pill and the other group gets a placebo a.k.a. sugar
pill.
WHICH GROUP IS THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP?
A.) the group that took the weight loss pill

B.) the group that took the sugar pill

C.) both groups are test groups

D.) neither group is a test group


3) Nike wants to know if the new shoes they
came out with get better traction on grass
than they normally do on the street.

WHICH GROUP IS THE CONTROL GROUP?


A.) the group that is used on the grass

B.) the group that is used on the street

C.) both groups are control groups

D.) neither group is a control group


4) AT WARMER TEMPERATURES, MOLD WILL GROW
FASTER ON BREAD. WHAT IS THE INDEPENDENT
(MANIPULATED) VARIABLE?

A.) the type of bread

B.) the amount of mold

C.) the time

D.) the temperature


5) ON BREAD, IF THE TEMPERATURE INCREASES,
THEN MOLD WILL GROW FASTER.
WHAT IS THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE?
HINT: WHAT IS MEASURED???

A.) the time

B.) the amount of mold

C.) the bread

D.) the temperature