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DEVELOPMEN

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Development
What is development ?

What are developed and developing countries ?

What are some core values of development ?

What are some objectives of development ?


1. The systematic use of scientific and technical
knowledge to meet specific objectives or
requirements.
2. An extension of the theoretical or practical
aspects of a concept, design, discovery, or invention.
3. The process of economic and social
transformation that is based on complex cultural and
environmental factors and their interactions.
4. The process of adding improvements to a parcel of
land, such as grading, subdivisions, drainage, access,
roads, utilities.
• Development is the act of expansion and
growth.
• For a country,
– development is classified as growth of the economy
(GDP)
– growth of the people’s quality of life (HDI)
Defining development from different
standpoints
• Modernization: Development is state-led
economic growth – industrial modernity.
• Dependency: Development is dependence on
developed countries who exploit the
developing countries.
• Neo-liberalism : Development is Market-led
economic growth.
Alternative standpoint
• A society led development should be
equitable, participatory and sustainable.
– Local level participation
Some developed countries(IMF,2018)

Austria Greece
Belgium Netherlands
Czech Spain
Denmark Hongkong, Macau
Finland Japan, SK
France, Germany Taiwan
US, Aus,Canada,NZ S_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Some Developing Countries(IMF 2018)

Albania, Egypt Maldives,Malaysia


Antigua and Barbuda Nepal, Namibia
Argentina Pakistan, India
Brazil,Bhutan Sudan, South Africa
China Srilanka, Indonesia
Phillipines, Colombia Tunisia, Turkey
Costarica, Russia Zimbabwe, Thailand
IMF adds HK, SK, Singapore, Taiwan
but drops Malta, ,Mexico, South Africa, Turkey
(compared to World Factbook)
Goulet ‘Core values of development’

Sustenance: The ability to meet basic needs

Self-esteem: A sense of worth and self respect

Freedom from Servitude: To be able to choose ;


free from slavery or domination
An expert’s definition
• Development must therefore be conceived of as a
multidimensional process involving major changes in
social structures, popular attitudes, and national
institutions, as well as the acceleration of economic
growth, the reduction of inequality, and the
eradication of poverty. -
Michael P. Todaro (2008)
Three broad objectives of development
1.To increase the availability and widen the
distribution of basic needs
2. To raise levels/standard of living:
Well being self esteem

3. To expand the range of economic and social


choices
– Free from servitude and dependence