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Data Collection in Survey

Research:
Psychological Measurements

Coursera (Marketing Strategy Specialization) –


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Shameek Sinha
Psychometrics
What are attitudes?
Mental states used by individuals to structure the way
they perceive their environment and guides the way they
e.g.,respond to it of attitudes towards an ad
Measurement
Three components:
Cognitive (knowledge) Brand awareness / Recall
Affective (liking) Liking of ad, liking of product
Intentions (expectation of behavior)
Intentions to buy a product

Coursera (Marketing Strategy Specialization) –


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Shameek Sinha
Types of Attitude Measurement Scales
Multiple questions to construct variabl
One question to construct variable

Single-Item Measures Multi-Item Scales

Itemized Category Scale Likert Scale


Rank-Ordered
Constant Sum Scales
Paired Comparison
Graphical Scales
Coursera (Marketing Strategy Specialization) –
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Shameek Sinha
Single Item Measures
 Itemized Category Scale: Respondent selects from a
limited number of categories which do not have any
ordering
 Rank-Order Scales: Ordinal data and limited number of
items which are rank-ordered
 Constant Sum Scales:
 Score needs to add up to a number
 Limited number of items
 Relative, but can be used to measure interval or
ratio scale

Coursera (Marketing Strategy Specialization) –


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Shameek Sinha
Single Item Measures

 Paired Comparison:
 Often used to compare brands two at a time
 Limited number of brands since otherwise the
number of comparisons increase rapidly
 Graphical Scale: Measured using a graphical slider
mechanism

Coursera (Marketing Strategy Specialization) –


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Shameek Sinha
Multi Item Measures: Likert Scale
Example for measurement of “Optimum Stimulation
Level” Item 1 I continue doing the same old thing
X1
rather
Psychological than
I like trying new andnovelty
to experience difference
and
Item 2 X2
things
change(*) in my daily routine
Construct
Item 3 I like continually changing activity X3
I prefer a routine way of life to an
Item 4 unpredictable one full of change X4
* (*)
reversely coded

OSL = X1 + X2 + X3or:
+ OSL
X4 = w1X1 + w2X2 + w3X3 + w4X4

Coursera (Marketing Strategy Specialization) –


6
Shameek Sinha