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IT infrastructure as the shared technology resources that provide the platform for the firms
specific IS applications.

IT infrastructure includes in H/w, S/w, and services such as consulting, education and
training that are shared across the entire firm or across entire business.

Def :
IT IS consists of a set of physical devices and S/w applications that rare required to
operated the entire enterprise.

These services includes:

1. IT computing platform: Connect employees, customers and suppliers into a covered

digital environment including large mainframe , desktop and laptop computers and mobile
handheld devices.

2. IT in Telecommunication Service: Provide voice and video connectivity to employees

and customer.
3. IT in Data Management Service : That store and manage corporate data. Provide for
analyzing the data.

4. IT Application S/w Service: Provides enterprise wide capabilities such as ERP, SCM,

5.IT in Physical facilities mgt. Services: The physical installations required for computing,
telecommunication and data mgt. service.

6. IT Mgt. service: That plan and develop the infrastructure coordinate with business units.

7. IT in educational services: That provide training the employee, and system.

8. IT in Research: It provide the firm with research on potential future IT projects

Evaluation of IT IS:

IT in the organization today is over 50 years of evaluation in computing platform. There are
five stages in this evaluation each represents of different configuration of computing power
and infrastructure elements.
Fig Connection between the firm, IT infrastructure and Business Capabilities
1. General purpose Mainframe and Microcomputers (1959- to Present)

 The introduction of IBM 1401 and 7090 transistorized machine in 1959 is the first
commercial Mainframe computers.

 In 1965 Mainframe computer turned to IBM 360 Series. It was the first commercial
computer with powerful OS and provide Timesharing, Multitasking, and virtual memory in
more advanced model.

 This generation is highly centralized computing under control of programmers and


 In 1965 Digital Equipment corporation DEC introduced mini computer. PDP=II and
later the VAX Machines offered powerful and lower price than IBM.
2. Personal computer (1981 to Present):

The first PC appeared in 1970s. The XEROX ALTO, The MITS ALTAIR 8800 and

It used DOS OS a text based command , later Microsoft OS.

The WINTER PC (Windows OS S/w and a computer with Inter Microprocessor)

become the standard desktop computers.

Today 95% using this.

3. Client/ Server (1983 to Present):

Desktop and laptop computers called Clients and Network are powerful server.

The client is the user point of entry, whereas the server typically process and stores shared
data service, WebPages or manages N/w activities.

The simplest C/S N/w consists of a client computer N/w to server computer with
processing split between the two types of machines. This is called a TWO-TIERES C/S
Arch. It is found in Small business.

Most corporations have more complex MILTITIERED (also called N-TIER) C/S Arch.

Some of the servers :

Web Server. Application Server.

4. Enterprise computing (1992-to Present):

As the internet developed I environment after 1995 business firm begin to use IT/TCP
protocol to disparate N/W together.

Due to that Computer H/W and smaller N/W into an enterprise wide. So that information
can flow freely across the organization.

It can link different type of computers including mainframe computers, servers, Pcs.,
mobile phones.
5. Cloud and Mobile Computing(2000 to Present):

The growing bandwidth power of the Internet has pushed the C/S model one step further
towards is called the Cloud Computing model.

It refers access to a shared pool of computing resources computers, storage, applications

and services over a N/w often the internet.

This resources can be accessed as on needed basis.

Technology drivers of Infrastructure evolution:
Moors Law:

The no of component with the smallest manufacturing per component had doubled each

Moors Law interpreted multiple ways there are at least three variations:

1. The power of Microprocessor double every 18 months.

2. Computing power doubles every 18 Months.
3. Price of computing falls by half every 18 months.

The LAW of MASS Digital storage:

The amount of digital information is roughly doubling every year.

The Metcalfe's LAW of N/w Economics:

The value or power of N/w grows exponentially as a function of the Number of

N/w members.
IT infrastructure today is composed of Seven Major components:

1. Computer H/w Platforms:

 US firm will spend about 109 Billion in 2010 on computer H/w.

 2010 90 Billion PCs sold in US.

 In India IT spend project at $79.8 Billion in 2012.

 $11 Billon will be spend on computer H/w with $54.7 Billion in

Telecom Market.

 Around 350 firms worldwide have invested more than 41 Billon in IT.

 In India $11.5 Billon units PCs sales in 2011 .

 This sales is increased by 14.0% in 2012.

2. Operating Systems :

2010 Microsoft windows comprises about 78% of the servers OS system in market.

25 % of the corporate servers using some form of UNIX OS or LINUX.

MS OS is capable of providing enterprise wide OS and N/W services.

UNIX and LINUX are scalable, reliable and much less expensive.

The major providers of UNIX OS are IB M, HP, and SUN.

AT the client level 90 % of PCs use some form of MS OS.

Google Chrome OS provides a light weighted OS for Cloud Computing .

Android S/w is designed around the mouse and Keyboard, it become used in touch

Technology in Mobile phones.

3. Data Management and Storage:

The leading DB S/W provider are IBM(DB2), ORACLE, MS SQL SERVER, SYBASE.
MYSQL, is a LINUX open source relational DB product.
In market for digital storage devices has been growing at more than 15% last 5 Years.
In addition to traditional disk arrays , tape libraries, large firms are turning to N/w based
storage technologies.
Storage Area Network (SAN) connect multiple storage device on a separate N/w.
4.Network and Telecommunication Platforms:
US firms spend $100 Billon a year on N/w.
Most LAN and WAN use the TCP/IP protocol.
The leading N/w and H/w Provider are CISCO, ALCATEL, LUCENT, NORTEL, and
In India $54.7 Billion spend on 2012.
In India BSNL, TCS, RCOMM, IDEA, BARTI-AIRTEL offers voice and data
5. Internet Platforms:
Us firms spend on $40 Billion annually on Internet related infrastructure.
These include S/w ,H/w.
A Web-hosting is the largest web server for providing fee-paying subscribes.

6. Enterprise S/w applications:

US firms spend $165 Billions in 2010 for Enterprise applications.
In India this application is grow 20% in 2009.
In 2010 it expanded to 18%.
The largest provider is SAP and ORACLE.

7. Consulting and system integrated services:

Implementing a new infrastructure requires significant training and education and s/w
Leading consulting firms providing this ACCENTURE,IBM GLOBAL SERVICE, HP

The exploding power of computer H/w and N/w technology has dramatically changed how
business organize their computing power, putting more of the power on N/w and mobile hand
held devices. Here we see the some important H/w trends.

1. The emerging mobile digital platform:

 Mobile digital computing platform have emerged as alternative to Pcs and large

 Cell phones and smart phones have taken many functions of handheld computers
including transmission of data, transmitting emails and instant msg., displaying
digital content , exchanging data with internal corporate systems.

 The new mobile platforms also include small low cost light weighted subnotebooks
called NETBOOKS optimized for wireless communication and internet access with
core computing functions such as word-processing.
2.Grid Computing:

Grid computing involves connecting geographically remote computers into a single N/w
to create a virtual supercomputer by combining the computational power of all computers
on the grid.

Computers use their CPU avg. only 25% of the time for the work have been assigned .

Grid computing requires S/w programs to control and allocate resources on the grid.

Grid computing involves cost savings, speed of computers.

3. Virtualization:

Virtualization is the process of presenting a set of computing resources. So that they can
all be accessed in a way that are not restricted by physical configuration of geographic

Leading virtualization S/w vender for windows and LINUX servers.

4.Cloud computing:

Firms and individuals obtain computer processing, storage , S/w and other services as a
pool of virtualization resources over a N/w. Primarily the internet.

The resource made available to users based on their needs irrespective of physical
locations .

The US national institute of standards and technology defined (NIST) having the
following characteristics:

1. On demand self service: Individuals can obtain computing capabilities such as

server time or N/w storage on their own.

2. Location independent resource pooling: Computing resources are pooled to server

multiple users.

3. Rapid Elasticity: Computing resources can be rapidly provisioned, increased, or

decreased meet changing users demand.

4. Measured service: Change for cloud resources are based on amount of resource
actually used.
Cloud computing consists of three different types of services:

1.Cloud infrastructure as a service:

Customers use processing, storage, N/w and other computing

resources from cloud service providers to run there is.

2. Cloud perform as a service:

Customers use infrastructure and programming tools hosted by a

service provider their own applications.
Eg. IBM Offers a smart business applications.

3. Cloud S/w as a service:

Customers use S/w hosted by the vendor on the vendor H/w and
delivered over a N/w.
Eg. Google Apps provide common business applications.

A cloud can be private or Public.

5.Green Computing :
Green computing or Green IT refers to practice and technologies of redesigning ,
manufacturing using and disposing of computers , servers and associated devices such as
monitors, printers, storage devices, and N/w an communications systems to minimize impact
on the environment.

6. Automatic computing:

AC an industry wide effort to develop systems that can configure themselves ,

optimize and tune themselves from outside intruders and self destructions.

Eg. Virus and firewalls protection S/w are able to detect virus automatically.

7. High performance and power saving operations:

A multicar processor is an integrated circuit to which two or more processor.

Cores have been attached for enhanced performance, reduced power consumption
and more efficient ,simultaneous processing of multiple task.

Open source software:

OSS is a S/w produced by a community of several thousand

programmers around the world. It is free and can be modified by users.

OSS is by definition not restricted to any specific OS or H/w technology, most OSS today
based on LINUX OR UNIX os.

The OSS movement has been evolving for more than 30 years and it commercially
acceptable high quality S/w.

Popular SS LINUS, the APACE HTTP WEB SERVER, the MOZILLA web browser .

OSS tools are being used a net books as inexpressive alternatives to MS OFFICE.
Linux application are embedded in cell phones, smart phones, net books and
consumer electronics.

Linux is available in free version downloaded from the internet or in low cost
commercial version that include tools and support from vendors such as REDHAT.

Linux is not used in many desktop systems, it is major force in WAN,

WEBSERVERS and high performance computing .

S/w for WEB JAVA and AJAX:

JAVA is OOPL that has become the leading interactive environment for the

The JAVA platform has migrated into cellular phones, smart phones, auto
mobiles , music players, game machine into cable television system serving interactive
content and pay-per-vie service.

JAVA S/w designed to run on any computer or computing device.

AJAX (Asynchronous Java script and XML) is another web development tech. for
creating interactive web application that prevents all of inconvenience in web pages.

It allows a client and server to exchange small pieces of data behind the scene.

It provide entire webpage does not have to be reloaded each time the user to change.

Eg. Google map, the server downloads just that part of the applications.

Web services and service –oriented Arch.:

Web service refer to a set of loosely coupled S/w components that exchange information
with each other using universal web communication standards and languages.

They can exchange information between two different systems regardless of OS or

programming language on which the system based.

The foundation technique for Web Services is XML which is stands for Extensible
Markup language, and HTML
HTML page description languages that specifying how text, graphics, video and sound are
placed on a webpage document.

HTML is limited to describi9ng how dat should be presented in the WebPages.

XML can perform presentation, communication and storage of data.

The collection of Web services that are used to build a firms S/w systems constitutes is
know as Service oriented Arch..

The SOA is a set of self-contained service that commutate with each other.
S/w Packages and Enterprise S/w:

A Software package is pre written commercially available set of S/w programmers, that
eliminate the need for a firm to write its won S/w programs for certain functions such as
payroll or order handling.

Enterprise application S/w vendors such as SAP and ORACLE , developed powerful S/w
package that can support the primary business processes of a firm worldwide from
warehousing, CRM, SCM and finance and HR.
S/w outsourcing:

S/w outsourcing enables a firm to contract S/w or maintance of existing

legacy programs.