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“ Teachers...are the most responsible and


important member of society because their
professional efforts affect the fate of the
earth” – Helen Calndicott

“ No man is an Island”:”No man stands


alone..We need one another..

We don’t live in a vacuum.

Philosophy of education serves as your


window to the world and compass in
the sea of life.
In this chapter, you will realize:

 Significant role of a teacher in the society


 Demands of the society – expectations
In this chapter, you are expected to:
 Summarize the major Philosophies of
education
 Formulate your own philosophy to teaching-
learning
Existential Questions

What is life? What should I teach?


Who am I? Ho should I teach?
Why am I here? What is the nature of a learner?

What am I living for? How do we learn?


Why do I teach
What is good to do?
Why do I teach?
1.There is no substitute
for concrete
experience in learning
2.The focus of education
should be the ideas that
are as relevant today as
when they were first
conceived.
. Teachers must not force
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their students to learn


the subject matter if it
does not interest them.
4.Students’ must develop
capacity to reason by
stressing on the
humanities.
5.In the classroom, students
must be encouraged to
interact with one another to
develop social virtues such
as cooperation and respect.
6.Students should read work’s
of history’ and analyze the
Great Books, the creative
works of history’s finest
thinkers and writers.
7. Help students expand
their knowledge by helping
them apply their previous
experiences in solving
problems.
8. Our course of study
should be general, not
specialized; liberal not
vocational; humanistic, not
technical.
9. There is no universal,
inborn human nature. We
are born and exist and then
ourselves freely determine
our essence.
10. Human beings are shaped
by their environment.
11. Schools should stress on
the teaching of basic skills.
12. Change of environment
can change a person.
13. Curriculum should emphasize
on the traditional disciplines such
as math, natural science, history,
grammar, literature.
14. Something beautiful for
one, may not be beautiful for
you.
15. Schools should help
individuals accept themselves
as unique individuals and
accept responsibility for their
thoughts, feelings, and
actions.
16. A scientifically developed
code is preferred over one that
is derived from the history and
culture of particular group.
17. The learner to acquire basic
skills, s/he must go through
the rigor and discipline of
serious study.
18. The teacher and the school
head must prescribe what is
the most important for the
students to learn.
19. An individual is what s/he
chooses to become not
dictated by his/her
environment.
20. A learner must be
allowed to learn at his/her
own pace.
If you have 2 answers of 4 in numbers
1,3,5,7 ----------- progressivist
2,4,6,8----------- perennialist
9,15,19,20 ------- existentialist
10,12,14,16 –----- behaviorist
11,13,17,18 ------ essentialist
- Is a set of related beliefs that
influence what and how students are
taught.
Why teach? What to Teach? How to Teach?
Teachers observe the
Inclusion of traditional disciplines
*Acquisition of following: *Mastery of
*Rigorous
basic knowledge
Essentialist frown upon requirements
•Core
academicvocational subject
coursesmatter
programs
•Longer orschool day
the (intelligent and
*Transmission of •Longer
fundamental
Place little emphasis r’s interests
academic
on student moral
Yearmodels)
the traditional • heavily rely on textbooks
*fountain of
values and *Curriculum information
intellectual
•Drills and
features:
lecture method
*paragon of
knowledge for •Memorization& discipline virtue
students to * To ensure
become model mastery of basic
citizens skills:
(not to reshape the
society)
Why teach? What to Teach?
Furthermore, How to Teach?
• accept the impermanence of life and
*development of *Need-based *employ
intelligent and
change
and relevant experiential
• change is only
enlightened thing that does
curriculum not change
methods
• teach skills ((information
citizens gathering
students needs, *actual and
problem solving
personal life and experience is
* Not•Gives emphasis
experiences)
on natural best
and social
apreparation for sciences *Use of
adult life but to problem-solving
live life fully method
NOW * hands-on-
minds-on-
hearts-on
method
Why teach? What to Teach? How to Teach?

*Humans are *all human beings *teacher- centered


rational animals possess the same *Emphasis is on
essential nature disciplining
*Development of *A general students’ minds
rational and moral curriculum *Socratic dialogues
powers (less emphasis on *understanding most
technical and timeless concepts
Question: vocational
If students are not education)
given opportunities *Content of
to reason, what teachings is from
would be its impact the Great Books
to them? ( repository of
knowledge and
wisdom)
Why teach? What to Teach? How to Teach?

*understanding and *A curriculum that: Methods:


acceptance of the -allows students to -Focused on
unique individuality decide individual
of man *humanities is given -Learning is self-
*existence precedes emphasis paced, self-directed
essence ( development of -Application of
*Man has free will creativity and self- values clarification
* Education of both expression) strategy
the person and the -example is in
mind teaching history
-vocational
education is focused
on self-awareness
- arts place
emphasis on
individual creativtiy&
imagination
Why teach? What to Teach? How to Teach?

-Modification and -Look at “people -“ought to arange


development of and other animals envronmental
behavior through a as complex connditions”
favorable combinations of
environment matter that reacts to -Provides incentives
stimuli” to reinforce positive
responses and
What does weakens negative
behaviorist teachers ones
do? -(Trespeces,1995)

-Behaviorist
teachers teach
students to respond
favorably in the
environment
Why teach? What to Teach? How to Teach?

*Development of *teach students how *experiential way of


communication to communicate teaching
skills—real essence of clearly
man *a classroom is an
*emphasis on the 3 interplay of minds and
*teachings aim at different ways of hearts
developing one’s skill communication
to send messages 1. Verbal
clearly and receive 2. Non-verbal
messages correctly 3. Paraverbal
- awareness on the
barriers in
communication
-learning various
language
Why teach? What to Teach? How to Teach?

*development of *how to learn -an interactive


intrinsically motivated -searching, classroom
and independent -critiquing, ( hypothesizing,
learners predicting, posing
and evaluating
questions,
information,
investigating,
-relating this pieces imagining , and
of information, inventing)
-reflecting on the
same, -teacher’s role is
-making meaning facilitate learning
out of them,
-Drawing insights, -
-Posing questions
- Contends that reality lies in our
consciousness or our intellect
IDEALIST TEACHERS, believe that:
Schools are the repositories of eternal truth
On the top of this hierarchy are the most
important subjects
In the use of Socratic Method
Teachers should lead exemplary lives and be
models
Technology should be the means rather than
the end
- Reality is outside of ourbelieve
REALIST TEACHERS minds. that:
Teachers should be equipped with a wide
repertoire of methods in teaching
Teachers primary responsibility is to bring
students’ ideas about the world into reality
Logic and scientific knowledge are reliable
means to discover knowledge
Inclusion of non-academic activities interfere
with the school’s primary purpose
Technology is an aid in learning
PRAGMATIST TEACHERS believe that:
Education is an experimental process
Children should learn how to make difficult
Evaluates the truth decisions
and meaning of ideas
Education
according should
to theirfocus on consequences
physical real life problems
and
Students
practical should learn the process of
value.
problem-solving than being passive learners
Collaborative learning is effective
Taking risk in education
Values clarification
The use of technologies as opportunity to
share ideas, insights , and experiences
Explain how you will react to
the given situation. What
advice will you give?
PROGRESSIVIST
Parents question students’
community immersion for it
poses certain risks
PERENNIALIST
Students want to become
skilled in certain field of
specialization
BEHAVIORIST
Teacher tells students from the
slum areas this: “If there’s a will,
there’s a way. Poverty is not a
hindrance to success.
ESSENTIALIST
Students are not interested
in the lesson.
 EXISTENTIALIST
A colleague asks you to decide
for her for fear that she may
make the wrong decision.
Based on the philosophies you have examined, make
a comparison and summary of the philosophies
guided by the categories provided in the matrix
below.
COMPARISON MARIX OF MAJOR PHILOSOPHIES
PHILOSOPHIES
IDEALISM REALISM PRAGMATISM
Aims of
Education

Role of
Teachers

Role of
students

Curriculum
Instructions. With which philosophy do you
associate the following quotations? Write your
answer in a one half sheet of yellow paper.
1. “ Education is life not a
preparation for life” – John Dewey
2. Man is nothing else but what he
makes of himself. - Sartre
3. “ Give me a dozen healthy infants,
well informed, and my own specified
world to bring them up in and I’ll
guarantee to take anyone at random
and train him to become any type of
specialist ...” - Watson”
4. Life is what you make it. – William
Thackeray
5. When a relationship is working, the
act of communicating seems to flow
relatively effortlessly... - Chip Rose
Instructions. Upon which philosophy/ies is
each program/practice anchored?
6. Subject- matter centered teaching
7. Mastery of the 3 r’s
8. Back-to-the Basics Movement
9. Use of rewards and incentives
10. Use of simulation and problem
solving method