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ADVANCED DESIGN OF

CONCRETE STRUCTURE

NISARG D. BHAVSAR

FACULTY ADVISOR: Prof. SATYEN RAMANI

DEPARTMENT OF STRUCTURE ENGINEERING

SAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH

RESEARCH PAPER I

Optimum Dimension of Post-tension

Concrete Waffle Slabs

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Basrah, Iraq

ISSN 2319-8753

INTRODUCTION

Waffle slab construction consists of rows of concrete joists at

right angles to each other with solid heads at the column

needed for shear requirements Fig (1). Waffle slab construction

allows a considerable reduction in dead load as compared to

conventional flat slab construction since the slab thickness can

be minimized due to the short span between the joists. For

design purpose, waffle slabs are considered as flat slabs with

solid head acting as drop panels.

Post-tensioning is a technique of pre-loading the concrete in a

manner which eliminates, or reduces the tension stresses that

are induced by the dead and live loads. Where concrete is

relatively expensive, spans are generous, and it is not critical to

select the smallest floor thickness, a post-tensioned waffle slab

construction is likely to be the economical alternative.

WAFFLE SLAB

EQUIVALENT FRAME METHOD

Dean Peabody, Jr. first proposed the equivalent frame method in 1948.

The equivalent frame method shares many similarities in analysis with the

direct-design method, but its more general approach allows it to be used to

analyse moments in any practical building frame. Figure shows typical

equivalent frames used in the equivalent frame method.

The slab of a building is divided into middle strips and column strips for

analysis. The width of a column strip is defined as 0.25l1 or 0.25l2, whichever

is less. The middle strip width is determined by the two column strips that

bound it.

MOMENT DISTRIBUTION & LOAD BALANCING

The moment distribution method uses relative stiffness (K), carryover factors

(COF), distribution factors (DF), and fixed end moments (FEM), to determine

the distribution of moments in a structure that can be found using the Column

Analogy Method.

The equivalent column stiffness becomes 1/𝐾𝑒𝑐=1/𝐾𝑡+1/𝐾𝑐.

T.Y. Lin’s technique of load balancing is the most widely used method for

design of prestressed concrete slabs. The load to be balanced, wb, must be

determined by the designer. It is generally taken as the dead load plus the

sustained part of the live load, but can vary considerably in partially

prestressed slabs. For this paper, the load to be balanced will vary as a

percentage of the slab self-weight.

To determine the force in the prestressed tendon, the parabolic shape of the

tendon profile provides the following equation of the force due to

equilibrium:

𝐹 =(𝑤𝑏𝑙²/bd)*𝑙²

THE DESIGN PROCESS

In post-tensioning, until calculations are carried out, it is not obvious

whether the serviceability or the ultimate strength state, or both, are

critical. Therefore, the serviceability checks for stresses and deflection are

an essential part of the design.

At the serviceability state, the stresses in the concrete are required to be

within specified limits in compression and in tension, both at the time of

prestressing with a minimum of load (initial stage) and in the long term under

full applied load (final stage).

SUMMARY OF STRENGTH

Span to depth ratio 1/23 to1/25 give an economic slab cost.

Using minimum slab thickness give you minimum cost and

weight.

Using 750*750 dome with 150mm rib giving minimum cost and

weight.

When increase balance load, slab thickness, steel weight and

total weight decrease, tendon weight increase.

The 95% balance load give minimum cost.

For span more than 14 m it is repaired to use more than

minimum slab thickness because the maximum dome depth is

500 mm which will increase total weight and cost.

For span less than 6m, total depth available is more than

required because minimum dome depth is 200mm, which will

increase total weight and cost.

RESEARCH GAP

spaced not more than 750mm clear, and for a depth not more

than 3.5 times minimum width.

Also when permanent burned clay or concrete tile fillers of

material having a compressive strength at least equal to fc in

the joists are used, the top slab thickness shall be not less than

one-twelfth the clear distance between ribs, nor less than

40mm.

The minimum value limits excessive tension and cracking,

while the maximum value limits excessive elastic shortening

and creep.

RESEARCH PAPER II

Numerical and Experimental Study of a

Real Scale Waffle Slab

P. F. SCHWETZ, F. P. S. L. GASTAL AND L. C. P. SILVA F°

2009 IBRACON

INTRODUCTION

The design with the aid of computer programs is almost

essential, mainly because of the rate imposed by structural

design contractors and the request to evaluate the various

possibilities of structural systems, which must bring economic

feasibility, speed and versatility of application.

In line with this trend, the use of waffle slabs is gradually

becoming an attractive structural solution. This structural

system can be defined as a grid of ribs, distributed in one or

more directions, regularly spaced, connected by a top concrete

slab. The ribbed system is an evolution of solid slabs.

It results from the elimination of concrete below the neutral

axis, which allows an economic increase on the total thickness

of the slab with the creation of voids in a rhythmic

arrangement. Therefore, there is a reduction on the structure

self-weight and a more efficient use of materials, steel and

concrete.

METHODOLOGY

(NUMERICAL ANALYSIS)

The waffle slab under study was designed by a commercial

design company of reinforced concrete structures, in the city of

Porto Alegre, Brazil, that adopted the software CAD / TQS for

Windows for the structural analysis. The modeling of the

structure was made directly in the software´s graphic interface

and the designer was allowed to define his own design criteria.

In order to determine an adequate position and load intensity

for this localized area, the structure was submitted to several

numerical analysis.

TQS MAIN DESIGN CRITERIA

TQS system offers the possibility of adopting some specific

design criteria that allows the determination of efforts and

reinforcement drawing details according to the usual practice

of the structural designer.

Restraint :The design criteria used for restraint in columns is

called independent elastic restraint.

Plastification on internal columns of waffle slabs: In

intermediate columns, there are many ways to simulate

plastification and to allow the consideration of torsion in the

grid of the solid region around the columns. Thus, the bars

inside the solid region are separated from the other ones, so

that they could have more torsion and less flexure rigidity.

Torsion in grillage :The CAD/TQS system allows considering

torsion in grillage ribs, although this is not the default criteria

of the software. In this work, torsion was supported only by the

columns and edge-beams.

NUMERICAL RESULTS

Numerical Analysis for the localized area load, including the

structure’s self-weight.

The deformed configuration of the slab and the distribution of bending

moments for the application of the localized area load, including self-weight.

These results were obtained from a linear analysis of the waffle slab.

TQS system does not allow performing any analysis without considering the

structure’s self-weight. The experimental tests, however, measured vertical

displacements only for the application of the localized area load, after the

acting of the self weight. To compare such results, it was carried out an

additional numerical analysis, considering only the slab self-weight.

Concerning the effect of the localized area load only, could be obtained by

the difference between both analyses.

NUMERICAL RESULTS

Numerical Analysis considering only waffle slab self-weight.

The deformed configuration of the slab and the distribution of bending

moments considering only the waffle slab self-weight. These results were

obtained from a linear analysis of the slab.

Interestingly, vertical displacements from the non-linear analysis result

slightly lower then the ones obtained by linear analysis. This odd outcome

resulted from the combination of two factors. The first is that self-weight did

not cause slab cracking and, therefore, no loss of stiffness.

Experimental Program

Concrete strain gauges were placed in three cross-section of the

structure

To measure vertical displacements, the waffle slab was instrumented

with 5 deflection gauges.

The test was performed 46 days after the structure’s casting and the

load was applied in 4 steps, using cement bags, weighting 50 kg each.

At the end of each of the four loading and / or unloading steps,

vertical displacements were measured by the deflection gauges, and

specific strains obtained through a data acquisition system.

SUMMARY OF STRENGTH

The presented results showed that the waffle slab under study

behaved in a linear like fashion during the loading process,

indicating no overall cracking, but only in some localized areas,

as numerically predicted.

It was also observed that the measured vertical displacements

and strains were satisfactorily close to the numerically

predicted ones, indicating an adequate response of the

numerical model used in the analysis.

RESEARCH GAP

SOFTWARE AND NOT VERY WELL KNOWN.

FURTHER STUDIES

Comparison of manual calculation and site results are required.

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