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ARGUMENTATIVE

ESSAY
 Have you ever engaged in a debate with your
sibling about whether dogs are better than
cats? This simple question makes you think
about choosing between two sides. It makes
you express your stand and eventually try to
convince someone else to agree with your point
of view. To achieve this, however, you need to
provide solid support for your claims. The
same is true in writing.
DEFINITION
ARGUMENT
 a series of logical reasons with solid evidence
persuading your reader to take your side or change
his or her mind about a particular issue
 the main point that is defended using supporting evidence.

ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING
 a genre of writing that presents a position about an issue
along with its supporting and opposing ideas
 Unlike persuasive essay that you should choose your side,
an argumentative essay presents your valid arguments for
your readers to choose their side
 To achieve this, the writer needs to collect and evaluate
evidence to defend his or her side or position, which will
help persuade readers
FEATURES
Introduction and thesis statement –
 Present your topic by giving your readers a background on why
the topic is important.
 The thesis statement, on the other hand, presents the topic of
your writing or essay in just one or two sentences. It also
contains your position on the issue.
Claim
 This is a statement that you need to discuss, explain, or prove in
your writing. Keep in mind that the claims should be arguable
and debatable rather than a view that is already proven or is
generally agreed upon by the majority.
Supporting Evidence
 Support your claims with evidence. Your evidence may be
factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal.
Rebuttal
 To rebut means to point out the negatives of or to contradict an
opposing view.
Conclusion
 This is a summary or synthesis of the information presented in
your writing.
PARTS: INTRODUCTION
 establishes the purpose and tone of the essay which
moves towards the thesis statement
 start with sentences that will attract reader’s
attention and sustain their interest
 the reader must be intrigued to read further just by
reading the first few sentences.
 the thesis statement serves as the guide of the whole
essay and everything written in the essay must
support it
 background information should be presented in this
paragraph to help the readers assess the basis of the
argument
PARTS: INTRODUCTION
 the thesis statement serves as a map that guides
your whole essay and everything written in the essay
must support it
 in writing a thesis statement, you should clearly
identify the issue and your position
 make sure that your thesis statement is debatable
and not something that is already agreed upon by the
majority
Example
Wrong: Pollution is not good for the environment.
Right: “The government should allocate 25 percent more
budget on pollution control and environment
protection.”
PARTS: INTRODUCTION
 the thesis statement serves as a map that guides
your whole essay and everything written in the essay
must support it
 in writing a thesis statement, you should clearly
identify the issue and your position
 make sure that your thesis statement is debatable and
not something that is already agreed upon by the
majority
Example:
Wrong: Pollution is not good for the environment.
Right: “The government should allocate 25 percent more
budget on pollution control and environment
protection.”
CLAIMS
Claim of fact
 a statement that asserts whether something
is true or untrue.
 Defending claims of fact require evidence
such as statistical data that are current,
accurate, and come from reliable sources
Example: Global warming will destroy
Earth a billion years from now.
CLAIMS
Claim of policy
 a statement that presents a specific course of action that
needs to be undertaken in order to solve a problem.
 key words used in claims of policy are should, must, and ought
to.
 you should be able to justify why the course of action you are
proposing should be the one undertaken and why it is better
than other courses of action.
Example: Since global warming is a serious threat to the
environment, the government should implement a law that
requires every citizen to join the campaign against global
warming.
CLAIMS
Claim of value
 attempts to establish the merit or importance of
something.
 involves a judgment, evaluation, or appraisal of
something.
 state whether you think something is bad or good, right
or wrong, just or unjust, or ethical or unethical.
 make sure that you clearly state the values or principles
you are promoting.
 use examples to further prove your point, and make sure
to use credible authorities or sources.
Example: It is unfair to blame only the government for
our country’s environmental problems.
PARTS: BODY
 where the arguments are expounded and defended.
 the writer must also refute any possible
counterargument
 each point must have its own paragraph to fully develop
its idea and not to overlap with the other ideas
 every idea must be supported by examples, details,
facts, reasons, and incidents
PARTS: CONCLUSION
 completes the essay by restating the main point of the
essay in a new light as supported by the points in the
body of the essay.
 it could also include the summary of important ideas
that would prove the argument presented.
 it serves as the writer’s final word and last chance to
fully prove the argument.
PARTS: INTRODUCTION
Aggressive driving is a phenomenon, which has
only recently got the public worried. The National
Highway Traffic Safety Council (NHTSC) defines
aggressive driving as the “operation of a motor vehicle
in a manner that endangers or is likely to endanger
persons or property.” Actions such as running red
lights, improper passing, overtaking on the left,
improper lane change, failing to yield, improper turns,
running stop signs, tail gaiting, careless driving and
speeding are examples of aggressive driving. Such
actions are dangerous to other road users. Aggressive
driving should be avoided because it causes crashes,
injuries or fatalities.
PARTS: INTRODUCTION
In the not so distant past, Filipinos were envied in Asia
for their proficiency in the English language. Filipinos were
invariably chosen presiding officers or rapporteurs at
international conferences in Asia. Filipinos were considered
no. 1 on the recruitment list for overseas jobs that require
good knowledge in English.
Soon, this may no longer be true. Our Asian neighbors
have realized the value of English as an international
language in business, science and technology and
communication and are working double time to gain
proficiency in it. Thousands are enrolling in English
language schools in Shanghai, Hongkong, Singapore,
Bangkok and Tokyo – all eager to learn the language in the
shortest possible time.
And now we stand to lose our language advantage –
our superiority in the use of English.
PARTS: INTRODUCTION
Are local television newscasts a reliable source of
news? Do they provide in-depth coverage and analysis
of important local issues? Unfortunately, all too often
they do not. While local TV newscasts can provide a
valuable community resource, too often such programs
provide mere entertainment at the expense of solid
news. In their battle for high ratings, local programs
emphasize news personalities at the expense of stories.
Visual appeal has a higher priority than actual news.
And stories and reports are too brief and shallow.
 Issue:Should a student study in a foreign
country?
 Points to consider:
 Studying abroad helps one learn a new language.
 Studying abroad takes one away from family and old

friends.
 Studying abroad opens one up to educational opportunities.

 Studying abroad allows one to experience new cultures.

 Studying abroad will require one to be alone since he or she

is far from relatives and friends from his or her home


country.
 Studying abroad can be expensive.

 Studying abroad takes one far away from problems at home.

 Studying abroad gives one opportunities to make new

friends whether local or foreign.