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# Project

## Optimal control of a multilevel DC-link converter

photovoltaic system for maximum power
generation

## 3/19/2019 REVIEW PPT 1

OVERVIEW
1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Motivation
4. Literature review
5. Block diagram
6. Proposed Dc link multi level inverter
7. Switching Pattern
8. Conclusion
9. References
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ABSTRACT
• This paper proposes a new algorithm for optimal control
of a Photovoltaic power generation system under partial
• A multilevel DC-link is the essential part of the proposed
system and its control engages a voltage-hold
perturbation and observation (VHeP&O) method
combined with a PWM algorithm with permutation of PV
sources.
• The algorithm enables achieving the maximum power
generation for any number of PV and converter modules.

## 3/19/2019 REVIEW PPT 3

INTRODUCTION
• Photovoltaics allow the consumers to generate electricity
in a clean, reliable and quiet manner. Photovoltaics are
often abbreviated as PV.
• Photovoltaic cells combine to form photovoltaic systems.
Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert light energy or
solar energy into electricity. As the source of light is
usually the sun, they are often referred to as solar cells.
• Photovoltaic systems connected to the grid have several
advantages such as simplicity in installation, high
efficiency, reliability and flexibility.
• A more profound issue is the levels of illumination on
individual PV cells whichREVIEW
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INTRODUCTION cont…
• Even if a single cell in the series chain is shaded, the
current through the whole chain would be reduced
according to the shaded cell and consequently the overall
power output of the whole PV chain drops significantly.
• This paper evaluates an improved control algorithm is
presented which combines a voltage-hold perturbation
and observation method and the PWM algorithm with
permutation of PV sources for achieving the maximum
power generation for any number of converter levels.
• The proposed inverter topology is simulated by
MATLAB / Simulink software to validate the accuracy of
the theoretical analysis. REVIEW PPT
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MOTIVATION
 Renewable energy based electricity generation offers the
benefits of clean, non-polluting energy generation.
 To prevent high power dissipation on shaded cells.
 An improved control algorithm for achieving the
maximum power generation for any number of converter
levels.

## 3/19/2019 REVIEW PPT 6

LITERATURE REVIEW
 Maximum power point tracking: a cost saving necessity in solar energy
systems
Authors: J.H.R. Enslin
(16th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON '90),
1990, pp. 1073e1077)
 The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input
source under varying input and output parameters.
 Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by
maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an
optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm.

##  Maximum photovoltaic power tracking: an algorithm for rapidly changing

atmospheric conditions
Authors: K.H. Hussein, I. Muta, T. Hshino, M. Osakada
(IEE Procceedings e Generation, Transm. Distribution 142 (1) (1995) 59e64)
 In this paper, a new MPT algorithm based on the fact that the MPOP of a PV
generator can be tracked accurately by comparing the incremental and
instantaneous conductances of the PV array.
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LITERATURE REVIEW cont…
 Implementation of a DSP-controlled photovoltaic system with peak power
tracking
Authors: C. Hua, J. Lin, C. Shen
(IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 45 (1) (1998) 99e107)
 A simple method of tracking the maximum power points (MPPs) and forcing the
system to operate close to these points is presented.
 The principle of energy conservation is used to derive the large- and small-signal
model and transfer function.
 A new maximum photovoltaic power tracking control scheme based on
Authors:M. Matsui, T. Kitano, D. Xu, Z. Yang
(Conference Record of the IEEE Thirty-fourth IAS Annual Meeting, vol. 2, 1999,
pp. 804e809)
 This paper proposes a new simple MPPT (maximum power point tracking)
control scheme for A PV (photovoltaic) array based on the principle of power
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LITERATURE REVIEW cont…
 Development of a micro controller based photovoltaic maximum power
point tracking control system
Authors: E. Koutroulis, K. Kalaitzakis, N.C. Voulgaris
(IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 16 (1) (2001) 46e54)
 A new MPPT system has been developed, consisting of a buck-type DC/DC
converter, which is controlled by a microcontroller-based unit.
 The PV array output power is used to directly control the DC/DC converter, thus
reducing the complexity of the system.
 Integrated PV and Multilevel Converter System for Maximum Power
Authors: I. Abdalla
(University of Leeds, UK, 2013)
 This thesis investigates the PV partial shading problem of individual PV sources
which are connected in series. It develops a simplified generalized Integration
PWM (IPWM) algorithm which can be used to control higher level inverters.
3/19/2019 REVIEW PPT 9
BLOCK DIAGRAM

## Isolation & amplification (driver)

Pv
voltage Dspic 30f 2010 microcontroller
&
current
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CONVERTER TOPOLOGY

## 3/19/2019 REVIEW PPT 11

SWITCHING PATTERN

## 3/19/2019 REVIEW PPT 12

CONCLUSION
• The Photovoltaic (PV) fed multilevel dc-link
converter is simulated using MATLAB and the output
voltage waveforms are observed.

## • The proposed multilevel dc-link converter system

extract a maximum energy from the solar. It also
reduces the distortion of the waveform to achieve a
low THD.

## 3/19/2019 REVIEW PPT 13

HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
dsPIC 30F2010 MICROCONTROLLER
• C compiler optimized instruction set architecture
• 84 base instructions with flexible addressing modes
• 24-bit wide instructions, 16-bit wide data path
• 16 x 16-bit working register array
• Up to 30 MIPs operation
• DC to 40 MHz external clock input
• 4 MHz-10 MHz oscillator input with PLL active (4x, 8x,
16x)
• 10-bit 1 Msps Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D)
• A/D Conversion available during Sleep and Idle
• 4 Sample/Hold Channels
• Multiple Conversion Sequencing Options
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REFERENCES
[1] G.R. Walker, P.C. Sernia, Cascaded DC-DC converter connection of photovoltaic modules, IEEE
Trans. Power Electron. 19 (4) (July 2004) 1130e1139.
[2] E. Roman, R. Alonso, P. Ibanez, S. Elorduizapatarietxe, D. Goitia, Intelligent PV module for grid-
connected PV systems, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 53 (4) (June 2006) 1066e1073.
[3] B. Chong, L. Zhang, Controller design for integrated PV-converter modules under partial shading
conditions, ELSEVIER J. Int. Sol. Energy Soc. 92 (2013) 123e138.
[4] S. Busquets-Monge, J. Rocabert, P. Rodriguez, S. Alepuz, J. Bordonau, Multilevel diode-clamped
converter for photovoltaic generators with independent voltage control of each solar array, IEEE
Trans. Ind. Electron. 55 (7) (July 2008) 2713e2723.
[5] L. Gao, R.A. Dougal, S. Liu, A. Iotova, Parallel-connected solar PV system to address partial and
rapidly fluctuating shadow conditions, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron 56 (5) (May 2009) 1548e1556.
[6] G. Velasco, J.J. Negroni, F. Guinjoan, R. Pique, Energy generation in PV grid connected systems:
power extraction optimization for plant oriented PV generators, IEEE Int. Symposium Ind. Electron.
(ISIE) 3 (2005) 1025e1030.
[7] G. Velasco-Quesada, F. Guinjoan-Gispert, R. Pique-Lopez, M. Roman-Lumbreras, A. Conesa-Roca,
Electrical PV array reconfiguration strategy for energy extraction improvement in grid-connected
PV systems, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 56 (11) (Nov. 2009) 4319e4331.

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